Ethnic communities in Kolkata
Kolkata, India, is inhabited by the ethnic community of the native Bengali people respectively. However this has changed in recent years. According to a report by the Indian Statistical Institute owned by the Government of India, the population of Bengalis in Kolkata has reduced from 64% in 1991 to 55% in 2011 and now as for 2014 concerned it is 47% only which states that Bengali people form plurality not majority of the city population; this is evident from the changing social and local customs in the city and it is becoming more multicultural and multi religious than before. Various communities of Kolkata include as far concerned -: Pathan people, Marathi people, Odia people, Gujarati people, Kashmiri people, Punjabi people, Chinese, Telugus, Malayali, Anglo-Indian, Jewish, Tibetan, Greek Parsi, Iraqi people and Assamese people. Chinatown in the eastern part of the city of Kolkata is the only Chinatown in India. Once home to 20,000 ethnic Chinese, its population dropped to around 2,000 as of 2009 as a result of multiple factors including repatriation and denial of Indian citizenship following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, immigration to foreign countries for better economic opportunities.
The Chinese community traditionally worked in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants. Iraqis first arrived in Kolkata during late 19th century from Eastern Uttar Pradesh state of India. Today majority are in the leather work of the city. Most of them live in areas of Park Topsia; the present Iraqi population in Kolkata is estimated to be 10,000. Kolkata's Jews are Baghdadi Jews who came to Kolkata to trade. At one point as strong as 6000, the community has dwindled to about 60 after the formation of Israel. Today there are only about 30 Jews left in Kolkata; the first recorded Jewish immigrant to Kolkata was Shalon Cohen in 1798 from Aleppo in present-day Syria. The most influential Jewish family in Kolkata was the father-son real estate magnates David Joseph Ezra and Elia David Ezra, they were behind such buildings as the Chowringhee Mansions, Esplanade Mansions and the synagogue Neveh Shalom.the family were instrumental in the founding of the Jewish Girls School. Ezra Street in Kolkata is named after them.
The community has five independent synagogues in Kolkata, including one in Chinatown, some of which are still active today. The Jewish confectioner Nahoum's in the New Market holds a special place in Kolkata confectionery. Founded in 1902, Nahoum's moved to its present location in the New Market in 1916, it is run today by David Nahoum. A Jewish wedding in Kolkata after a gap of 50 years in the 1990s received a lot of media attention. After the establishment of Israel, many Kolkatan Jews left to live in Israel and the size of the Jewish community had a severe decrease; the Armenians followed the land route through Bactria to trade with India from ancient times. They were known as the "Merchant Princes of India", some settled in Emperor Akbar's court; some settled in Serampore and Kolkata under the invitation of Job Charnock. Among notable Armenians, Sir Apcar Alexander Apcar, a prominent businessman, was the head of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; the size of the Armenian community can be testified by the five Armenian cemeteries in Kolkata, including the one adjunct to the Chapel of Holy Trinity in Tangra and an Armenian church.
A gift of Rs. 8000 by Asvatoor Mooradkhan helped found the Armenian College in 1821. Armenian College has been instrumental in pioneering the game of rugby on the Maidan turf; the Armenians settled in a block close to Free School Street, which to this day is called Armani-para. They have assimilated into the Indian population, the community has now been reduced to a handful of houses; the Tibetans were annual winter visitors to Kolkata who, along with the Bhutias, vended woollens, while Afghans vended spices and fruits. Post 1951, Kolkata became home to quite a few Tibetans who used the porous Sikkim-Tibet border to get to Kolkata. Winter sees large numbers of Tibetans set up winter garment streetside shops in the area around Wellington Square; the Tibetan community has contributed to a large number of Tibetan restaurants serving ethnic Tibetan cuisine. Tibetan medicine is well accepted in Kolkata as alternative therapy to terminal illnesses; the Greeks emigrated to India after Turkish invasions in the 16th century.
Kolkata had a sizeable Greek community a close-knit clan of noble families from the Greek island of Chios, pursuing trade with the British. The firm of Ralli Brothers is the most common Greek name in Kolkata; the firm is now known under the Tata Group of companies. The Greek community was centred on Amratollah Street around the Greek Church of the Transfiguration; the most famous Greek to hail from Kolkata was the gifted violinist Marie Nicachi who embarked on a European tour in 1910 and played at the courts of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. She settled in her familial home of Corfu after World War I; the Greek contribution to the city will be remembered by the pioneering social work at the Greek Orthodox Church and the Panioty Fountain in the Maidan—named after Demetrius Panioty, personal secretary to the "friend of India," Lord Ripon. Chinese of Calcutta Greek Cemetery Kolkata Chinese New Year 2015 in Kolkata Chinese in Kolkata https://web.archive.org/web/20100121071143/http://calcutta-armenians.b
Black Hole of Calcutta
The Black Hole of Calcutta was a small prison or dungeon in Fort William where troops of Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, held British prisoners of war for three days on 20 June 1756. John Zephaniah Holwell, one of the British prisoners and an employee of the East India Company, said that, after the fall of Fort William, the surviving British soldiers, Anglo-Indian soldiers, Indian civilians were imprisoned overnight in conditions so cramped that many people died from suffocation and heat exhaustion, that 143 of 164 prisoners of war imprisoned there died. Fort William was established to protect the East India Company's trade in the city of Calcutta, the principal city of the Bengal Presidency. In 1756 India, there existed the possibility of imperial confrontation with military forces of the Kingdom of France, so the British reinforced the fort. Meanwhile, Siraj ud-Daulah, the ruler of Bengal, was unhappy with the Company's political interference in the internal affairs of his province.
As the Nawab, Siraj perceived a threat to himself. He ordered the immediate cessation of the reinforcement of Fort William, but the Company paid no heed to the ruler's orders. In consequence to that British indifference to his authority, Siraj ud-Daulah organised his army and laid siege to Fort William. In an effort to survive the losing battle, the British commander ordered the surviving soldiers of the garrison to escape, yet left behind 146 soldiers under the civilian command of John Zephaniah Holwell, a senior bureaucrat of the East India Company, a military surgeon in earlier life. Moreover, the desertions of allied Indian troops made ineffective the British defence of Fort William, which fell to the siege of Bengali forces on 20 June 1756; the surviving defenders who were captured and made prisoners of war numbered between 64 and 69, along with an unknown number of Anglo-Indian soldiers and civilians who earlier had been sheltered in Fort William. Holwell wrote about the events, he met with Siraj-ud-Daulah.
After seeking a place in the fort to confine the prisoners, at 8.00 p.m. the jailers locked the prisoners in the fort’s prison — “the black hole” in soldiers' slang — a small room that measured 4.30m. × 5.50 m. The next morning, when the black hole was opened, at 6.00 a.m. only about 23 of the prisoners remained alive. Historians offer different numbers of casualties of war. D. L. Prior reported that 43 men of the Fort-William garrison were either missing or dead, for reasons other than suffocation and shock. Busteed reports that the many non-combatants present in the fort when it was captured makes infeasible a precise number of people killed. Regarding responsibility for the maltreatment and the deaths in the Black Hole of Calcutta, Holwell said, “it was the result of revenge and resentment, in the breasts of the lower Jemmaatdaars, to whose custody we were delivered, for the number of their order killed during the siege.”Concurring with Holwell, Wolpert said that Siraj-ud-Daulah did not order the imprisonment and was not informed of it.
The physical description of the Black Hole of Calcutta corresponds with Holwell’s point of view: The dungeon was a barred room, was not intended for the confinement of more than two or three men at a time. There were only two windows, a projecting veranda outside, thick iron bars within impeded the ventilation, while fires, raging in different parts of the fort, suggested an atmosphere of further oppressiveness; the prisoners were packed so that the door was difficult to close. One of the soldiers stationed in the veranda was offered 1,000 rupees to have them removed to a larger room, he returned saying it was impossible. The bribe was doubled, he made a second attempt with a like result. By nine o'clock several had died, many more were delirious. A frantic cry for water now became general, one of the guards, more compassionate than his fellows, caused some to be brought to the bars, where Mr. Holwell and two or three others received it in their hats, passed it on to the men behind. In their impatience to secure it nearly all was spilt, the little they drank seemed only to increase their thirst.
Self-control was soon lost. They raved, prayed and many fell exhausted on the floor, where suffocation put an end to their torments. About 11 o'clock the prisoners began to drop off, fast. At length, at six in the morning, Siraj-ud-Daulah awoke, ordered the door to be opened. Of the 146 only 23, including Mr. Holwell, remained alive, they were either stupefied or raving. Fresh air soon revived them, the commander was taken before the nawab, who expressed no regret for what had occurred, gave no other sign of sympathy than ordering the Englishman a chair and a glass of water. Notwithstanding this indifference, Mr. Holwell and some others acquit him of any intention of causing the catastrophe, ascribe it to the malice of certain inferior officers, but many think this opinion unfounded. Afterwards, when the prison of Fort William was opened, the corpses of the dead men were thrown into a ditch. Moreover, as prisoners and three other men were transferred to
The Calcutta Quran Petition
The Calcutta Quran Petition is a book by Sita Ram Goel and Chandmal Chopra published by Goel under his Voice of India imprint. The first edition was published in 1986, the second in 1987 and the third in 1999; the subject matter of this book is the banning of books and the Quran. On July 20, 1984, H. K. Chakraborty wrote to the Secretary, Department of Home Government of West Bengal, demanding the ban of the Quran, he received no response. Chakraborty lived in Bangladesh before moving to Kolkata, witnessed the behaviour of the Muslims towards the Hindu minority in Bangladesh during and after Partition of India. Chakraborty thereafter met Chandmal Chopra, who wrote to the Department of Home Government of West Bengal on March 16, 1985, but Chopra's letter, went unanswered. Chopra therefore filed a writ Petition in the High Court. Chandmal Chopra tried to obtain an order banning the Koran, by filing a Writ Petition at the Calcutta High Court on 29 March 1985; the petition claimed that Sections 153A and 295A of the Indian Penal Code, Section 95 of the Criminal Procedure Code were used by Muslims to ban or proscribe publications critical of Islam, stated that "so far it had been the privilege of the Peoples of the Book to ban and burn the sacred literature of the Pagans."
Chandmal Chopra thought that the Koran "on grounds of religion promotes disharmony, feeling of enmity and ill-will between different religious communities and incite people to commit violence and disturb public tranquility..." Chandmal Chopra included a list of several dozens of Quran verses that "promote disharmony" in his petition. The book claims that these Quran verses embody one of the main themes of the book: "Nor have these passages been culled at random from different chapters of the Quran with a view to making the book sound sinister. On the contrary, they provide an exhaustive list of Allah’s sayings on a subject of great significance, what the believers should believe about and do to the unbelievers..." The Telegraph of May 9, 1985 reported that the Union Government would make itself a party in the case, the Union law minister Ashoke Sen and the attorney-general of the Government of India were going to take action against the case. Muslim lawyers after a meeting condemned the case.
According to The Telegraph of May 10, the Chief Minister of West Bengal called the petition "a despicable act". Other politicians in the Lok Sabha at New Delhi, the Minister of State for Law condemned the Petition. Pakistan’s minister of state for religious and minority affairs claimed that the petition was the ‘worst example of religious intolerance’, he urged the Indian government to ‘follow the example of Pakistan’ in ensuring freedom of religion; the petition was however dismissed in May 1985. The text of the judgment is included in the book; the Attorney-General of the Government of India and the Advocate-General of West Bengal appeared in the case and argued against Chopra's petition. On June 18, 1985 Chandmal Chopra filed a review petition, dismissed on June 21; the petition by Chandmal Chopra led to many riots in Bangladesh. The Statesman reported that "at least 12 people were killed and 100 wounded all are poor Hindus" in a border town of Bangladesh during a demonstration of 1000 people.
In Dhaka, at least 20,000 Jamaat-i-Islami supporters demonstrated against the petition. The demonstrators were trying to storm the office of India's High Commission. Other riots followed in Bihar. After the case was closed, the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, during a mass rally in Srinagar, demanded action against Justice Padma Khastgir who permitted the petition to be filed. During this mass rally, one person was killed and others injured. A "hartal" against the interference in Muslim personal law was observed during which all shops and colleges were closed. On August 31, 1987 Chandmal Chopra was arrested by the police and kept in police custody until September 8 for publishing with Goel this book on the petition. Sita Ram Goel had to abscond to avoid getting arrested; the authors write in this book. We take this opportunity to state unambiguously that we regard banning of books, religious or otherwise, as counterproductive. In the case of the Quran, we believe and advocate that more and more non-Muslims should read it so that they know first hand the quality of its teachings."The book was received with great interest in India and abroad, according to Goel.
Goel read primary Islamic sources like the Urdu translations of six Hadis during his research for this book. In one chapter, Goel compares Genghis Khan, the Mongols and Tengiri with Islam; the Times of India published three articles. Goel claims. Goel claims that the chief editor, Girilal Jain, regretted his inability to do so for reasons he could not reveal; the book gives an account of the banning of a poster that contained 24 citations from the Koran. In 1986, after the first edition of the "Calcutta Quran Petition" was published, a Hindi poster by Indra Sain Sharma and Rajkumar Arya was published by the Hindu Raksha Dal, Delhi. Indra Sain Sharma was the president of the Hindu Raksha Dal and the Vice-President of the All India Hindu Mahasabha; the poster cited 24 ayats from the Quran in Hindi. The poster with the 24 Ayats stated that: "Some Ayats of the Quran Majid command the believers to fight against followers of other faiths.... There are numerous Ayats of the same sort. Here we have cited only twenty-four Ayats.
These Ayats carry commandments
Lal Dighi is a body of water in the middle of B. B. D. Bagh, earlier known as Tank Square or Dalhousie Square, in the heart of Kolkata, earlier known as Calcutta, in the Indian state of West Bengal. Lal Dighi in Dihi Kalikata was there before the arrival of Job Charnock. Sabarna Roy Choudhury had a temple of its family deity Shyam Rai, near Lal Dighi, it was so named because of the red colour the water acquired during dol, the festival of colours. The court-house was first taken on rent and purchased by the British East India Company. There are other stories about Lal Dighi; some say that the reflection of the red colour of the old fort used to sparkle in the water of the tank and so it acquired its name. According to another school of belief, Lalchand Basak, had dug the immense pond and it came to be known as Lal Dighi after his name. Prankrishna Dutta had given yet another history in Nabyabharat. According to him, the tank was dug by either Mukundaram Seth of his son, he had a court house there.
The tank became crimson with the colours used and hence the name. Whatever may have been its beginning, it was deepened and lengthened in 1709 and converted from a dirty pond full of weeds and noxious matter into a much needed reservoir of sweet water. In the 18th century Tank Square was, ‘in the middle of the city’, it covers upwards of 25 acres of ground. ‘It was dug” says the Dutch admiral Stavorinus who visited the settlement in 1770, ‘by order of Government, to provide the inhabitants of Calcutta with water, sweet and pleasant. The number of springs which it contains makes the water in it on the same level, it is railed around, no one may wash in it.’ The tank was more extensive, but was cleansed and embanked in Warren Hastings’ time. It has always been esteemed the sweetest water in Calcutta, until the introduction of municipal water supply, was the chief source of supply of drinking water to the European community. On 18 June 1756, the Battle of Lal Dighi was fought between Siraj ud-Daulah and the forces of British East India Company, leading to withdrawal of the British from Kalikata, till their victory in the Battle of Plassey,Behrampore on 23 June 1757.
Government of West Bengal has planned for a 115,000 square feet underground car park at the northern end of Lal Dighi at a cost of Rs. 35 crore. It will accommodate about 700 cars, it will be the biggest car parking plaza in Kolkata. It will be a two-storey structure and it would not cause any harm to the existing Lal Dighi. Earlier, three construction firms – Simplex Projects Limited, Tantia Construction Company and Samar and Samar, a joint venture with Rajpath Contractors Engineers Limited, had submitted bids on the original tender, but the Public Works Department cancelled that and revised the plan; the state government asked private players for free parking zone for 350 VIP cars. When it failed to find a build-operate-transfer partner, it assign PWD the job of constructing the underground car park from the state government’s budget; the plan has faced various hurdles. The urban development department and PWD have been at loggerheads. PWD and Calcutta Tramways Company could not agree on shifting tram tracks on the north-east of Lal Dighi, along the Netaji Subhas Road.
When the PWD sought permission to pump out Lal Dighi water, the fire services categorically said no. The pond acts as the reservoir for water pumps in the BBD Bag complex; the fire department has stipulated that a minimum water level of 2.5 metre must be maintained during the two-year construction of the parking plaza. Lal Dighi’s current water level is 6 metre; the project is expected to be completed around October 2010. B. B. D. Bagh is to undergo a regeneration drive with financial aid from US-based World Monuments Fund and some city based chambers of commerce. Set up to further accessorise the centre of the city without losing the old world charm emanating from colonial architecture, Kolkata Regeneration Society has been formed with the Governor, Gopalkrishna Gandhi as chairman; the other functionaries of the society include Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya, Barun De, historian and Dilip Chakraborty, principal secretary, state information and cultural affairs department. It would function in an advisory capacity.
With about 8 feet of the twenty feet structure to be above ground, engineers and town planners fear that it would be an eyesore in a heritage zone. After a presentation was made to the Kolkata Regeneration Society in June 2007, the Governor has advised a reconsideration of the design. Kolkata/Esplanade travel guide from Wikivoyage
Maharaja Nabakrishna Deb, founder of the Shovabazar Raj family, was a prominent Raja and close confidante/ally of Robert Clive. He was the key figure in the plot against Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula although some believed him to be a traitor of India, who sold his motherland to the British and enabling them to rule India. Raja Nabakrishna Deb lost his father, Ramcharan Deb, early in life but his mother took care to ensure that he learnt Urdu and Persian and Arabic and English. Deb was appointed Persian teacher of Warren Hastings in 1750. At one point of time he was munshi of Governor Drake, advised the British on foreign relations and was a great supporter for the establishment of British power in India, he had carried out confidential work for the British East India Company, prior to and during the Battle of Palashi. After the death of Siraj ud-Daulah, Deb along with Mir Jafar, Amir Beg and Ramchand Roy earned eight crore rupees worth of treasures from the secret treasury, he is famous for the Durga Puja he organised in his newly constructed grand Shobhabazar Rajbari in Kolkata in 1757, as a patron of numerous performing artistes, his philanthropy.
The puja in the magnificent palace continues today. After his victory in the Battle of Palashi, in 1757, which laid the foundation for British rule in India, Lord Clive wanted a grand thanksgiving ceremony but the only church in Kolkata had been razed to the ground by Siraj ud-Daulah, during his attack a year earlier; when Deb came to know of Clive's desire, he advised, "Offer your thanks at the goddesses' feet at my Durga Puja.” “But I am a Christian," protested Clive. “That can be managed," smiled the wily Deb. Lord Clive drove in his carriage all the way from his residence in what was known as New Town of Kolkata to Shovabazar in the Old Town, for the Durga Puja. Thereafter, it came to be known as the "Company Puja". Raja Nabakrisna Deb set a pattern for the puja which became a fashion and a status symbol among the upcoming merchant class of Kolkata; the number of Englishmen attending the family Durga Puja became an index of prestige. Religious scruples fell by the wayside; the Englishmen attending the dance-parties, dined on beef and ham from Wilson's Hotel, drank to their heart's contentment.
While barowari pujas subsequently took over in a big way, the Durga Pujas of the old zemindar and Royal families in and around Kolkata still attract crowds. Shovabazar Rajbari organised the 250th Durga Puja in 2006. With Lord Clive backing him, Deb earned the title of Maharaja Bahadur in 1766; the position offered him some administrative powers also. He became a political banyan of the British East India Company; when Warren Hastings took over as governor in 1772, he became more powerful. In 1776, he earned the talukdari of Sutanati, it is beyond reasonable doubt that along with Mir Jafar, Jagat Sheth and Krishna Chandra Roy, Ram Chandra Roy, Ali Beg. He created a sensation in those days by spending Rs. 1 million for the sraddha of his mother, feeding the poor, honouring the learned, doing everything on a grand scale. He constructed the 50 km road from Behala to Kulpi in what was jungle territory, he organised a conference of learned men in his Rajbari and patronised many musicians. Harekrishna Dirghangi, Nitai Baisnab and other kabials enjoyed his hospitality.
He donated to different causes irrespective of religious denominations. He gave money to start the Calcutta Madrasa, donated land for St. John's Church and earned a reputation as a philanthropist, he left behind one adopted and the other his own begetting. His adopted son, Gopi Mohun Deb was famous for his musical taste, his natural born son was Rajkrishna Deb. He had one grandson on the adopted side – Radhakanta Deb, his natural born son was father of eight distinguished sons, prominent among whom were Kali Krishna Deb, Kamal Krishna Deb and Narendra Krishna Deb. All of them, some others belonging to subsequent generations in the family, have roads named after them in Kolkata. Raja Nabakrishna Deb founder of the Shobhabazar Rajbari, started life modestly but soon amassed considerable wealth in his service to the British, in particular by his role in assisting to topple Siraj ud-Daulah. During his lifetime Raja Nabakrishna Deb built two palaces; the palace at 33 Raja Nabakrishna Street, on the northern side of the road, was the one first constructed by him, subsequently given over by him to his adopted son Gopimohan.
He built the palace at 36 Raja Nabakrishna Street when a son was born to him in life and left it to his natural son, Raja Rajkrishna and his descendants. Shobhabazar Shobhabazar Rajbari
University of Calcutta
The University of Calcutta is a collegiate public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857. It was the first institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" And Accredited "A" Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council and declared as a "University With Potential For Excellence" & a "Centre with Potential for Excellence In Particular Area" by the University Grants Commission, its alumni and faculty include four Nobel laureates, namely Ronald Ross, Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, Amartya Sen; the university has the highest number of students who have cleared the doctoral entrance eligibility exam in Natural Science & Arts conducted by Government of India's National Eligibility Test to become eligible to pursue research with a full scholarship awarded by the Government of India. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university.
The land for the establishment of this university was given by Maharaja Maheshwar Singh Bahadur, a Maharaja of Darbhanga. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon, Ceylon, the largest of any Indian university. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms and a fifth two-year term. Four Nobel laureates were associated with this university: Ronald Ross. Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen; the current university seal is the modified version of the sixth seal. The motto Advancement of Learning has remained the same through the seal's transitions; the university has a total of 14 campuses spread over the city of its suburbs. The major campuses are the Central Campus in College Street, Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan in Rajabazar, Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan in Ballygunge and Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan in Alipore. Other campuses include the Hazra Road Campus, the University Press and Book Depot, the B. T.
Road Campus, the Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, the University Health Service, the Haringhata Campus, the Dhakuria Lakes and the University Ground and Tent at Maidan. Asutosh Siksha Prangan is the main campus of the university. Located on College Street, is spread over a small area of 2.7 acres. Rashbihari Siksha Prangan, located on Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road in Rajabazar, established in 1914, houses several scientific and technological departments, including pure and applied chemistry and applied physics, applied mathematics, physiology and molecular biology, others. Taraknath Siksha Prangan on Ballygunge Circular Road in the southern part of the city, houses the departments of agriculture, biochemistry, botany, statistics, neuroscience, marine science and most notably geology, among others, and Department of Jute and Fibre Technology. Known as Institute of Jute Technology. Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan known as Alipore Campus,located at Alipore is the Humanities campus of the University.
Departments of History, Ancient Indian History & Culture, Islamic History & Culture, South & South East Asian Studies, Political Science, Business Management are situated in this campus. Department of Museology, houses in this campus is a valuable department of the University as well as any universities in India; the university is building a campus, known as "Technology Campus" or "Tech Campus", to bring together the three engineering and technical departments, in Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake. As of December 2016, most of these departments have been moved to this campus and regular classes are held here; the main building houses most of these departments while the Nanotechnology. Undergraduates enroll for a three-year program. Students choose a major when they enter the university, cannot change it unless they opt for the university's professional or self-financed postgraduate programs later. Science and business disciplines are in high demand in the anticipation of better employment prospects.
Most programs are organized on an annual basis. Most departments offer masters programs of a few years' duration. Research is conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments, many of which have doctoral programs. University of Calcutta has the biggest research center which started from the 100th Science Congress of India in January, 2013; this is the Center for Research in Nanosience and Nanotechnology in the Technology Campus of CU at Salt Lake, West Bengal. The university has 18 research centres, 710 teachers, 3000 non-teaching staff and 11,000 post-graduate students. Internationally, the University of Calcutta was ranked 751-780 in the QS World University Rankings of 2018; the same rankings ranked it 125 in Asia and 64 among BRICS nations. It was ranked 801-1000 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, 201-250 in ASIA an
West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –