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Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi

Indian Institute of Technology Varanasi is a public technical and research university located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Founded in 1919 as the Banaras Engineering College, it became the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University in 1968, it was designated an Indian Institute of Technology in 2012. IIT Varanasi has 3 inter-disciplinary schools. Indian Institute of Technology celebrated its centenary year in 2019-2020, it other cultural events during the celebration. The 80-year-old BENCO chimney was re-erected to commemorate the institute's completion of a century. IIT Varanasi has been known as the Banaras Engineering College, the College of Mining and Metallurgy, the College of Technology and the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, its establishment is intimately linked with that of the Banaras Hindu University. The first convocation ceremony at BHU was held on 19 January 1919; the Chancellor of the University, Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar of Mysore who had come to preside over and address the convocation, performed the opening ceremony of the Banaras Engineering College Workshop buildings.

An Artisan Course was started on 11 February 1919. BHU has the credit of first starting degree classes in Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, thanks to the foresight of its founder, Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya; the Department of Geology was started under BENCO in 1920. Courses in Mining and Metallurgy were introduced by the Geology Department; the Department of Industrial Chemistry was started in July, 1921. In 1923, Mining and Metallurgy were established as separate departments and in 1944, they were raised to the status of a college forming the College of Mining and Metallurgy. BHU was the first Indian university to introduce the study of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; this initiative was taken in 1932 when a new group of subjects for the B. Sc. Examination consisting of Chemistry, Botany with Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Studies was started in 1934 and in 1935 a new three-year program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Pharmacy was introduced; the science departments of the University were under the Central Hindu College.

In September 1935, a new College of Science was constituted comprising the departments of Physics, Botany, Geology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry and Ceramics. In 1937, the Department of Glass Technology came into existence under this college; the year 1939 witnessed the establishment of a separate College of Technology comprising the departments of Industrial Chemistry, Pharmaceutics and Glass Technology. In 1968, BENCO, TECHNO and MINMET were merged into one and the Institute of Technology was established integrating the departments of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Municipal Engineering, Mining Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Technology, Silicate Technology and Pharmaceutics; the Department of Silicate Technology subsequently became the Department of Ceramic Engineering. A separate Department of Electronics Engineering was established; the departments of Applied Physics, Applied Mathematics and Applied Chemistry were established in 1985.

The earlier system of regional admission based on merit lists was replaced in 1972 by admission through Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination for undergraduate courses and Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering for postgraduate courses. In the tenth meeting of IIT Council in 1972, it was proposed to convert the IT-BHU into an IIT and a committee was appointed by IIT Council for the same but because of political reasons, the desired conversion could not be achieved then. In 2003, Committees constituted by MHRD had recommended for the conversion of the Institute into an Indian Institute of Technology. On 17 July 2008, the government of India issued a press release granting "In principle approval for taking over the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University – a constituent unit of the Banaras Hindu University, a Central University, its conversion into an Indian Institute of Technology and integrating it with the IIT system in the country." The BHU Executive Council approved the proposal of the HRD ministry to convert IT-BHU to IIT Varanasi, retaining academic and administrative ties to BHU.

On 4 August 2010 a bill seeking to amend the Institutes of Technology Act 1961 to declare IT-BHU an IIT was introduced in the Lok Sabha by Minister of State for HRD, D. Purandeswari; the Lok Sabha passed The Institutes of Technology Act, 2011 on 24 March 2011 and the Rajya Sabha on 30 April 2012, thereby formalizing the IIT status of the Institute. The Bill was signed by the President of India on 20 June 2012 and notified in the gazette on 21 June; the Department of Architecture and Design was set up in the Institute in collaboration with IIT Roorkee, beginning its academic activities from the session 2019-2020. The first cohort of students consisted of 20 students admitted into the five-year programme through the JEE Advanced exam. IIT Varanasi offers four-year instructional programs for the degree of Bachelor of Technology and five-year programs for Integrated Dual Degree; the IDD program offers both B. Tech. and M. Tech. Degrees. Admission to all programs is expressly through the Joint Entrance Examination conducted by the Indian Institutes of Technology.

Earlier half of the intake for Pharmaceutical sciences was through J

South Fork Burnt River

The South Fork Burnt River is a tributary of the Burnt River in Baker County in the U. S. state of Oregon. Its headwaters lie in the Monument Rock Wilderness and the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest of the Blue Mountains, it flows northeast for about to meet the main stem at Unity Reservoir, north of Unity. The river, about 12 miles long, crosses under U. S. Route 26 about 3 miles northwest of Unity; the spring-fed river, with steady flow and cool temperatures, supports a healthy population of rainbow trout. Trout fishing is good along the main stem of the South Fork as well as on Elk Creek, a tributary, Last Chance Creek, a tributary of Elk Creek; the South Fork Campground, along the creek 7 miles from Unity, has 12 sites for tents or trailers and 2 sites for tents only. The campground is along Forest Road 6005 near the confluence of the South Fork. Amenities include vault toilets and picnic tables. Further upstream is Stevens Campground, along Forest Road 6005 about 8 miles from Unity, with seven sites for tents.

Amenities include picnic toilets. Along the South Fork is the Elk Creek Campground, about 9 miles from Unity, it has 10 campsites along Forest Road 6005 near the confluence of Elk Creek with the South Fork. Amenities include vault toilets and picnic sites; the Blue Mountain/South Fork OHV trails are a 56-mile complex of trails for hikers and horse riders, as well as OHVs up to 50 inches wide. The south end of the South Fork OHV trail is near South Fork Campground; the trail system extends north toward Sumpter. Listed from source to mouth, the named tributaries of the South Fork Burnt River are Lookout Creek, which enters from the left. List of rivers of Oregon

Nicholas Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian

Brigadier Nicholas Crespigny Laurence Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian was a British peer and soldier from the Vivian family. He was one of the hereditary peers elected to remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, sitting as a Conservative; the son of the 5th Baron Vivian and Victoria Ruth Mary Rosamund, Nicholas was educated at Ludgrove School at Eton College in Berkshire and the Madrid University, where he received a diploma in Spanish Literature and Culture. In 1955, Vivian was commissioned to the 3rd Carabiniers, which merged with the Royal Scots Greys into the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. In 1957 he transferred to a Regular Army commission. From 1976, he commanded the 16th/5th The Queen's Royal Lancers. Having worked for defence intelligence staff at the UK Ministry of Defence, Vivian became deputy commander of the land forces in Cyprus in 1984. Elevated to the rank of Brigadier in 1987, he commanded the British Communication Zone until 1990, when he stepped down.

Shortly after this, he was promoted Honorary Colonel of Territorial Army. In 1991, Vivian succeeded to his father's titles and joined the House of Lords, where he was Shadow Minister for Defence. Between 1994 and 2000, he was Commissioner for the Royal Chelsea. Vivian married firstly Catherine Joyce Hope, daughter of James Kenneth Hope, on 13 December 1960. Being divorced in 1972, he married secondly Carol Martineau, daughter of Frederick Alan Martineau, in 1972, he had one son and one daughter, Henrietta, by his first wife, two daughters by his second wife and Camilla. "Nicholas Crespigny Laurance Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian". The Peerage. Retrieved 15 February 2007. "Obituary: Brigadier Lord Vivian". The Guardian. 24 March 2004. Retrieved 15 February 2007. "Obituary: Brigadier Lord Vivian". The Daily Telegraph. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 15 February 2007

Diocles of Carystus

Diocles of Carystus was a well regarded Greek physician, born in Carystus, a city on Euboea, Greece. His significance was as a major thinker and writer of the fourth century. Diocles lived not long after the time of Hippocrates, to whom Pliny says he was next in age and fame. Not much is known of his life, other that he lived and worked in Athens, where he wrote what may be the first medical treatise in Attic, his most important work was in practical medicine diet and nutrition, but he wrote the first systematic textbook on animal anatomy. According to a number of sources, he was the first to use the word "anatomy" to describe the study, he belonged to the medical sect of the Dogmatici, wrote several medical works, of which only the titles and some fragments remain, preserved by Galen, Caelius Aurelianus, Oribasius and other ancient writers. \ There is a letter in his name addressed to king Antigonus, entitled A Letter on Preserving Health, inserted by Paul of Aegina at the end of the first book of his own medical compendium, which, if genuine, was addressed to Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedon, who died in 239 BC, at the age of eighty, after a reign of forty-four years.

It resembles in its subject matter several other similar letters ascribed to Hippocrates, treats of the diet fitted for the different seasons of the year. It used to be said that Diocles was the first to explain the difference between the veins and arteries, his fragments have been collected and translated in English by Philip van der Eijk, with a commentary in a separate volume. Diocles insisted that health requires an understanding of the nature of the universe and its relationship to man. Diocles emphasised that nerves are the channels of sensations and that interference with them is directly involved in the pathology of disease. Diocles was the inventor of a surgical instrument for the extraction of weapons or missiles such as barbed arrowheads that were embedded into the body, called Dioclean cyathiscus. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "Diocles Carystius", Boston. Van der Eijk, Philip J.. Diocles of Carystus: a collection of the fragments with translation and commentary.

Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-10265-5. Magill, Frank Northen. Dictionary of World Biography. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781579580407. Retrieved 1 September 2013. Jaeger, Werner. Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of His Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jaeger, Werner. Diokles von Karystos. Berlin: W. de Gruyter & Co. Jaeger, Werner. Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture: The Conflict of Cultural Ideals in the Age of Plato. Gilbert Highet, trans.. New York: Oxford University Press. Phillips, E. D.. Greek medicine. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-40021-0. Sigerist, Henry. A History of Medicine: Early Greek and Persian Medicine. 2. New York: Oxford University Press. Von Staden, Heinrich. "Jaeger's'Skandalon der historischen Vernunft': Diocles and Theophrastus". In Calder III, William M. Werner Jaeger reconsidered. Atlanta: Scholars Press. "Diocles of Carystus Facts, pictures". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 26 June 2015. "Diocles of Carystus". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 26 June 2015

Chola conquest of Anuradhapura

The Chola conquest and occupation of Anuradhapura was a military invasion of the Anuradhapura Kingdom by the Chola Empire. It began with the invasion of the Anuradhapura Kingdom in 993 AD by Rajaraja I when he sent a large Chola army to conquer the kingdom and absorb it into the Chola Empire. Most of the island was subsequently conquered by 1017 and incorporated as a province of the vast Chola empire during the reign of his son Rajendra Chola I; the Chola occupation would be overthrown in 1070 through a campaign of Sinhalese Resistance led by Prince Kitti, a Sinhalese royal. The Cholas fought many subsequent wars and attempted to reconquer the Sinhalese kingdom as the Sinhalese were allies of their arch-enemies, the Pandyas; the period of Chola entrenchment in northern Sri Lanka lasted in total about three-quarters of a century, from 993 to 1070, when Vijayabahu I recaptured the north and expelled the Chola forces restoring Sinhalese sovereignty. Military expeditions from South Indian forces into Anuradhapura had been brief ad hoc up until the mid-tenth century.

These were designed to facilitate short-term gains with minimal involvement followed by a withdrawal to the mainland. However, with the ascension of more ambitious and aggressive imperial Chola kings, Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra I, a new strategy of ruthless plunder and destruction of major political and religious centers on the island occurred, followed by the establishment of semi-permanent and fortified encampments, from where wide-ranging raids could be carried out in other parts of the island; the tirumagal inscription of Rajaraja I dated to 993 AD first mentions Anuradhapura among the king's conquests. Mahinda V distracted by a revolt of his own Indian mercenary troops fled to the south-eastern province of Rohana. Taking advantage of this internal strife Rajaraja I invaded Anuradhapura sometime in 993 AD and conquered the northern part of the country and incorporated it into his kingdom as a province named "Mummudi-sola-mandalam" after himself; the Culavamsa says that the capital at Anuradhapura was "utterly destroyed in every way by the Chola army.

The capital was at Polonnaruwa, renamed "Jananathamangalam". A partial consolidation of Chola power in Rajarata had followed the initial season of plunder. With the intention to transform Chola encampments into more permanent military enclaves, Saivite temples were constructed in Polonnaruva and in the emporium of Mahatittha. Taxation was instituted on merchants and artisans by the Cholas. In 1014 Rajaraja I died and was succeeded by his son the Rajendra Chola I the most aggressive king of his line. Chola raids were launched southward from Rajarata into Rohana. By his fifth year, Rajendra claimed to have conquered the island; the whole of Anuradhapura including the south-eastern province of Rohana were incorporated into the Chola Empire. As per the Sinhalese chronicle Mahavamsa, the conquest of Anuradhapura was completed in the 36th year of the reign of the Sinhalese monarch Mahinda V, i.e. about 1017–18. But the south of the island, which lacked large and prosperous settlements to tempt long-term Chola occupation, was never consolidated by the Chola.

Thus, under Rajendra, Chola predatory expansion in Ceylon began to reach a point of diminishing returns. According to the Culavamsa and Karandai plates, Rajendra Chola led a large army into Anuradhapura and captured Mahinda's crown, daughter, vast amount of wealth and the king himself whom he took as a prisoner to India, where he died in exile in 1029. Eleven years after the conquest of Rohana, Prince Kassapa, son of Mahinda, hid in Rohana, where Chola forces vainly searched for him. Soon after the death of his father Kassapa assumed the monarchy as Kassapa VI and "ruled" in Rohana for several years while attempting to organize a campaign of liberation and unification. Taking advantage of uprisings in the Pandya kingdom and Kerala, Kassapa VI massacred the Chola garrisons in Rohana and drove the 95,000 strong Chola army to Pulatthinagara, but he died before he could consolidate his power, a series of ephemeral aspirants to the throne subsequently appeared and disappeared in Rohana without dislodging the Cholas from the north.

Kassapa VI's mysterious death in 1040, brought an end to the war. His successor Mahalana-Kitti tried to drive the Cholas out of Anuradhapura but failed and hence, took his own life in disgrace; some time in the middle of the eleventh century an ambition Sinhalese prince named. The future Vijayabahu I, descended from, or at least claimed to be descended from the Sinhalese royal house, he had defeated his most powerful rivals in Rohana and was anxious to take on the Cholas, by the age of seventeen. The crisis in the country left a scattering of turbulent chiefs and intractable rebels whose allegiance, if any, was at best opportunistic which proved a problem to both sides in the conflict, frustrating both the Sinhalese kings and the Cholas. Vijayabahu, from his base in Rohana, faced a similar difficulty. For that reason, the Cholas succeeded in recruiting nominal support from rebel chiefs in Rohana, as a result Vijayabahu had difficulty consolidating a firm territorial base from which to launch a decisive campaign against the Tamils.

On the other hand, the Cholas were unable to eliminate similar opposition to themselves in the north. The wider conflict developed into a prolonged and forth struggle of raids and counter-raids, with the forces of Vijayabahu advancing upon Polonnaruva and falling b

Alfredo Morabia

Alfredo Morabia is a Swiss American doctor and historian. He is professor of epidemiology at the Barry Commoner Center for Health and the Environment at Queens College, City University of New York.. He is the Principal Investigator of the World Trade Center-Heart cohort study, he lectures and teaches on the history of epidemiology internationally in English, Spanish and Italian. Alfredo Morabia serves as the Editor in Chief of the American Journal of Public Health. Morabia is editor of "Epidemiology in History" in the American Journal of Epidemiology and was supported by the National Library of Medicine to write about the history of epidemiology. Morabia completed his undergraduate studies at Collège Calvin in Geneva in 1971, majoring in Greek and Latin. After receiving his M. D. from the School of Medicine at the University of Geneva in 1978, Morabia trained in internal medicine at the University Hospital of Geneva and in occupational medicine in Italy. He is board certified in occupational medicine.

In 2009, he was appointed Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. In 1986, Morabia received a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation to study at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, where he obtained M. P. H. and Ph. D. degrees in epidemiology, the first such PhD awarded to a Swiss citizen, an M. H. S. in biostatistics. In August 1990, he became chair of the Clinical Epidemiology Unit at the University Hospital of Geneva, the first epidemiology group created in a Swiss hospital. Under his leadership, the unit grew into a division, he was subsequently appointed professor of clinical epidemiology at the University of Geneva. "What is Epidemiology?" on YouTube, video of a lecture at Columbia University in September 2001 "Epidemiology: Past and Future" on YouTube, video of a lecture at Johns Hopkins University, 29 May 2012 "Cutter Symposium: Celebrating 100 Years of Epidemiology at Harvard", video of a keynote lecture at Harvard School of Public Health, 8 November 2013 "Epi Seminar Series: How Epidemiology has become infatuated with methods?"