A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Technically a walnut thus not a true botanical nut, it is used for food after being processed, while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the eastern black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available, as are butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea; the walnut is nutrient-dense with protein and essential fatty acids. Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree used for the meat after ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, commercially found in two segments. During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard; the shell encloses the kernel or meat, made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants; the antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing; because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them. The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut; the English walnut originated in Persia, the black walnut is native to eastern North America. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut. Other species include J. californica, the California black walnut, J. cinerea, J. major, the Arizona walnut. Other sources list J. californica californica as native to southern California, Juglans californica hindsii, or just J. hindsii, as native to northern California. In 2016, worldwide production of walnuts was 3.7 million tonnes, with China contributing 48% of the world total.
Other major producers were: United States, Turkey, Mexico and Chile. The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3.5 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Eastern European countries had the highest yield, with Slovenia and Romania each harvesting about 19 tonnes per hectare. In 2014, the United States was the world's largest exporter of walnuts, followed by Turkey; the Central Valley of California produces 99 percent of total United States commerce in English walnuts. It has been been found naturalized in England. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations. A mold-infested walnut batch should be discarded; the ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the −3 to 0 °C and low humidity – for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities. Temperatures above 30 °C, humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses.
Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form. Walnut meats are available in two forms; the meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. Walnuts are candied, may be used as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be purchased in both raw and roasted forms. All walnuts can be eaten on their own or as part of a mix such as muesli, or as an ingredient of a dish. For example, walnut soup and walnut pie are prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient. Walnut Whip and walnut cake, pickled walnuts are more examples. Walnut is the main ingredient of a khoresh in Iranian cuisine. Walnuts are popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods. Nocino is a liqueur made from unripe green walnuts steeped in alcohol with syrup added. Walnut oil is available commercially and is chiefly used as a food ingredient in salad dressings.
It has a low smoke point. Walnuts without shells are 4% water, 15% protein, 65% fat, 14% carbohydrates, including 7% dietary fiber. In a 100-gram serving, walnuts provide 2,740 kilojoules and rich content of several dietary minerals manganese at 163% DV, B vitamins. While English walnuts are the most consumed, their nutrient density and profile are similar to those of black walnuts. Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, although it does contain oleic acid as 13% of total fats. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration provided a Qualified Health Claim allowing products containing walnuts to state
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. The soils consist of levees and sands deposited during floods. Levees are the heaviest materials and they are deposited first. Floodplains are formed; when a river breaks its banks, it leaves behind layers of alluvium. These build up to create the floor of the plain. Floodplains contain unconsolidated sediments extending below the bed of the stream; these are accumulations of sand, loam, and/or clay, are important aquifers, the water drawn from them being pre-filtered compared to the water in the river. Geologically ancient floodplains are represented in the landscape by fluvial terraces; these are old floodplains that remain high above the present floodplain and indicate former courses of a stream. Sections of the Missouri River floodplain taken by the United States Geological Survey show a great variety of material of varying coarseness, the stream bed having been scoured at one place and filled at another by currents and floods of varying swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel, sometimes of fine sand or of fine silt.
It is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character. The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, is completely covered with water; when the drainage system has ceased to act or is diverted for any reason, the floodplain may become a level area of great fertility, similar in appearance to the floor of an old lake. The floodplain differs, because it is not altogether flat, it has a gentle slope downstream, for a distance, from the side towards the center. The floodplain is the natural place for a river to dissipate its energy. Meanders form over the floodplain to slow down the flow of water and when the channel is at capacity the water spills over the floodplain where it is temporarily stored. In terms of flood management the upper part of the floodplain is crucial as this is where the flood water control starts. Artificial canalisation of the river here will have a major impact on wider flooding.
This is the basis of sustainable flood management. Floodplains can support rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity. Tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains in Central Asia, they are a category of riparian systems. A floodplain can contain 100 or 1,000 times as many species as a river. Wetting of the floodplain soil releases an immediate surge of nutrients: those left over from the last flood, those that result from the rapid decomposition of organic matter that has accumulated since then. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle. Opportunistic feeders move in to take advantage; the production of nutrients falls away quickly. This makes floodplains valuable for agriculture. River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change; this change is a threat to other floodplain forests. These forests have over time synced their seedling deposits after the spring peaks in flow to best take advantage of the nutrient rich soil generated by peak flow.
Many towns have been built on floodplains, where they are susceptible to flooding, for a number of reasons: access to fresh water. The worst of these, the worst natural disaster were the 1931 China floods, estimated to have killed millions; this had been preceded by the 1887 Yellow River flood, which killed around one million people, is the second-worst natural disaster in history. The extent of floodplain inundation depends in part on the flood magnitude, defined by the return period. In the United States the Federal Emergency Management Agency manages the National Flood Insurance Program; the NFIP offers insurance to properties located within a flood prone area, as defined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map, which depicts various flood risks for a community. The FIRM focuses on delineation of the 100-year flood inundation area known within the NFIP as the Special Flood Hazard Area. Where a detailed study of a waterway has been done, the 100-year floodplain will include the floodway, the critical portion of the floodplain which includes the stream channel and any adjacent areas that must be kept free of encroachments that might block flood flows or restrict storage of flood waters.
Another encountered term is the Special Flood Hazard Area, any area subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. A problem is that any alteration of the watershed upstream of the point in question can affect the ability of the watershed to handle water, thus affects the levels of the periodic floods. A large shopping center and parking lot, for example, may raise the levels of the 5-year, 100-year, other floods, but the maps are adjusted, are rendered
Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, is the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, the third largest freshwater lake by volume. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U. S. state of Minnesota to the west, Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. The farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River; the Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami, meaning "great sea." Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song, "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". According to other sources, the actual Ojibwe name is Anishinaabe Gichigami; the 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami. The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur.
Properly translated, the expression means "Upper Lake,". The lake was called Lac Tracy by 17th century Jesuit missionaries; the British, upon taking control of the region from the French in the 1760s following the French and Indian War, anglicized the lake's name to Superior, "on account of its being superior in magnitude to any of the lakes on that vast continent." Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the Soo Locks. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area, the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa; the Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface volume, is brackish. Lake Superior has a surface area of 31,700 square miles, the size of South Carolina or Austria, it has maximum breadth of 160 statute miles. Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms. Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles of water. There is enough water in Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South America to a depth of 30 centimetres.
The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles. American limnologist J. Val Klump was the first person to reach the lowest depth of Lake Superior on July 30, 1985, as part of a scientific expedition, which at 122 fathoms 1 foot below sea level is the second-lowest spot in the continental interior of the United States and the third-lowest spot in the interior of the North American continent after Iliamna Lake in Alaska and Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada at. While the temperature of the surface of Lake Superior varies seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms is an constant 39 °F; this variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic. Twice per year, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F from top to bottom, the lake waters mix; this feature makes the lake dimictic. Because of its volume, Lake Superior has a retention time of 191 years. Annual storms on Lake Superior feature wave heights of over 20 feet. Waves well over 30 feet have been recorded.
The lake is fed by over 200 rivers. The largest include the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River. There are rapids at the river's upper end where the river bed has a steep gradient; the Soo Locks were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the 25-foot height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron. The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet above sea level; until 1887, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined the outflow from Lake Superior. By 1921, development in support of transportation and hydroelectric power resulted in gates, power canals and other control structures spanning St. Marys rapids; the regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Water levels, including diversions of water from the Hudson Bay watershed, are regulated by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission.
Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007 less than the previous record low in 1926. However, the water levels returned within a few days. Historic high water The lake's water level fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels in October and November; the normal high-water mark is 1.17 feet above datum (601.1 ft
A midden is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation. These features, provide a useful resource for archaeologists who wish to study the diet and habits of past societies. Middens with damp, anaerobic conditions can preserve organic remains in deposits as the debris of daily life are tossed on the pile; each individual toss will contribute a different mix of materials depending upon the activity associated with that particular toss. During the course of deposition sedimentary material is deposited as well. Different mechanisms, from wind and water to animal digs, create a matrix which can be analyzed to provide seasonal and climatic information. In some middens individual dumps of material can be analysed. A shell midden or shell mound is an archaeological feature consisting of mollusk shells; the Danish term køkkenmøddinger was first used by Japetus Steenstrup to describe shell heaps and continues to be used by some researchers.
A midden, by definition, contains the debris of human activity, should not be confused with wind or tide created beach mounds. Some shell middens are processing remains: areas where aquatic resources were processed directly after harvest and prior to use or storage in a distant location; some shell middens are directly associated as a designated village dump site. In other middens, the material is directly associated with a house in the village; each household would dump its garbage directly outside the house. In all cases, shell middens are complex and difficult to excavate and exactly; the fact that they contain a detailed record of what food was eaten or processed and many fragments of stone tools and household goods makes them invaluable objects of archaeological study. Shells have a high calcium carbonate content; this slows the normal rate of decay caused by soil acidity, leaving a high proportion of organic material available for archaeologists to find. Edward Sylvester Morse conducted one of the first archaeological excavations of shellmounds in Omori, Japan in 1877, which led to the discovery of a style of pottery described as "cord-marked", translated as "Jōmon", which came to be used to refer to the early period of Japanese history when this style of pottery was produced.
Shell middens were studied in Denmark in the latter half of the 19th century. The Danish word køkkenmødding is now used internationally; the English word "midden" derives from the same Old Norse word. Shell middens are found in lakeshore zones all over the world. Consisting of mollusc shells, they are interpreted as being the waste products of meals eaten by nomadic groups or hunting parties; some are small examples relating to meals had by a handful of individuals, others are many metres in length and width and represent centuries of shell deposition. In Brazil, they are known as sambaquis, having been created over a long period between the 6th millennium BC and the beginning of European colonisation. European shell middens are found along the Atlantic seaboard and in Denmark and date to the 5th millennium BC, containing the remains of the earliest Neolithisation process. Younger shell middens are found in Latvia, the Netherlands and Schleswig Holstein. All these are examples where communities practiced hunting/gathering economy.
On Canada's west coast, there are shell middens that run for more than a kilometer along the coast and are several meters deep. The midden in Namu, British Columbia is over 9 meters deep and spans over 10,000 years of continuous occupation. Shell middens created in coastal regions of Australia by indigenous Australians exist in Australia today. Middens provide evidence of prior occupation and are protected from mining and other developments. One must exercise caution in deciding whether one is examining a beach mound. There are good examples on the Freycinet Peninsula in Tasmania where wave action is combining charcoal from forest fire debris with a mix of shells into masses that storms deposit above high-water mark. Shell mounds near Weipa in far north Queensland that are less than 2 meters high and a few tens of meters long are claimed to be middens, but are in fact shell cheniers re-worked by nest mound-building birds. Shell mounds are credited with the creation of tropical hardwood hammocks, one example being the Otter mound preserve in Florida, where shell deposits from Calusa natives provided flood free high areas in otherwise large watered areas.
There are instances in which shell middens may have doubled as areas of ceremonial construction or ritual significance. The Woodland period Crystal River site provides an example of this phenomenon; some shell mounds, known as shell rings, are open arcs with a clear central area. Many are known from Japan and the southeastern United States, at least one from South America; the word is of Scandinavian via Middle English derivation.
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
The gastropod shell is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, a kind of mollusc. The shell is an exoskeleton, which protects from predators, mechanical damage, dehydration, but serves for muscle attachment and calcium storage; some gastropods appear shell-less but may have a remnant within the mantle, or the shell is reduced such that the body cannot be retracted within. Some snails possess an operculum that seals the opening of the shell, known as the aperture, which provides further protection; the study of mollusc shells is known as conchology. The biological study of gastropods, other molluscs in general, is malacology. Shell morphology terms vary by species group. An excellent source for terminology of the gastropod shell is "How to Know the Eastern Land Snails" by John B. Burch now available at the Hathi Trust Digital Library; the gastropod shell has three major layers secreted by the mantle. The calcareous central layer, tracum, is made of calcium carbonate precipitated into an organic matrix known as conchiolin.
The outermost layer is the periostracum, resistant to abrasion and provides most shell coloration. The body of the snail contacts the innermost smooth layer that may be composed of mother-of-pearl or shell nacre, a dense horizontally packed form of conchiolin, layered upon the periostracum as the snail grows. Gastropod shell morphology is quite constant among individuals of a species. Controlling variables are: The rate of growth per revolution around the coiling axis. High rates give wide-mouthed forms such as the abalone, low rates give coiled forms such as Turritella or some of the Planorbidae; the shape of the generating curve equivalent to the shape of the aperture. It may be round, for instance in the turban shell, elongate as in the cone shell or have an irregular shape with a siphonal canal extension, as in the Murex; the rate of translation of the generating curve along the axis of coiling, controlling how high-spired the resulting shell becomes. This may range from a flat planispiral shell, to nearly the diameter of the aperture.
Irregularities or "sculpturing" such as ribs, spines and varices made by the snail changing the shape of the generating curve during the course of growth, for instance in the many species of Murex. Ontologic growth changes as the animal reaches adulthood. Good examples are the inward-coiled lip of the cowry; some of these factors can be modelled mathematically and programs exist to generate realistic images. Early work by David Raup on the analog computer revealed many possible combinations that were never adopted by any actual gastropod; some shell shapes are found more in certain environments, though there are many exceptions. Wave-washed high-energy environments, such as the rocky intertidal zone, are inhabited by snails whose shells have a wide aperture, a low surface area, a high growth rate per revolution. High-spired and sculptured forms become more common in quiet water environments; the shell of burrowing forms, such as the olive and Terebra, are smooth and lack elaborate sculpture, in order to decrease resistance when moving through sand.
On land, high-spired forms are associated with vertical surfaces, whereas flat-shelled snails tend to live on the ground. A few gastropods, for instance the Vermetidae, cement the shell to, grow along, solid surfaces such as rocks, or other shells. Most gastropod shells are spirally coiled; the majority of gastropod species have dextral shells, but a small minority of species and genera are always sinistral, a few species show a mixture of dextral and sinistral individuals. There occur aberrantly sinistral forms of dextral species and some of these are sought by shell collectors. If a coiled gastropod shell is held with the spire pointing upwards and the aperture more or less facing the observer, a dextral shell will have the aperture on the right-hand side, a sinistral shell will have the aperture on the left-hand side; this chirality of gastropods is sometimes overlooked when photographs of coiled gastropods are "flipped" by a non-expert prior to being used in a publication. This image "flipping" results in a normal dextral gastropod appearing to be a rare or abnormal sinistral one.
Sinistrality arose independently 19 times among marine gastropods since the start of the Cenozoic. This left-handedness seems to be more common in land pulmonates, but still the dextral living species in gastropods seem to account for 99% of the total number. The chirality in gastropods appears in the gene NODAL is involved. A more recent study correlates the asymmetric coiling of the shell by the left-right asymmetric expression of the decapentaplegic gene in the mantle. In a few cases, both left- and right-handed coiling are found in the same population. Sinistral mutants of dextral species and dextral mutants of sinistral species are rare but well documented occurrences among land snails in general. Populations or species with mixed coiling are much rarer, and, so far as is known, are confined, with one exception, to a few genera of arboreal tropical snails. Besides Amphidromus, the Cuban Liguus vittatus, Haitian Liguus virgineus, some Hawaiian Partulina and many Hawaiian Achatinella, as well as several species of Pacific islands Partula, are known to have mixed dextral-sinistral populations.
A possible exception may concern some of the European clausiliids of the subfamily Alopiinae. They are ob
Dismemberment is the act of cutting, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing the limbs of a living thing. It has been practised upon human beings as a form of capital punishment in connection with regicide, but can occur as a result of a traumatic accident, or in connection with murder, suicide, or cannibalism; as opposed to surgical amputation of the limbs, dismemberment is fatal to all but the simplest of creatures. In criminology, a distinction is made between offensive, where dismemberment is the primary objective of the dismemberer, defensive dismemberment, where it's done to destroy evidence. Intentional, criminal dismemberment is known as mayhem. In South-Eastern Asia, execution by trained elephants was a form of capital punishment practiced for several centuries; the techniques by which the convicted person was executed varied but did, on occasion, include the elephant dismembering the victim by means of sharp blades attached to its feet. The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, visiting Delhi in the 1330s, has left the following eyewitness account of this particular type of execution by elephants: Upon a certain day, when I myself was present, some men were brought out, accused of having attempted the life of the Vizier.
They were ordered, accordingly, to be thrown to the elephants, taught to cut their victims to pieces. Their hoofs were cased with sharp iron instruments, the extremities of these were like knives. On such occasions the elephant-driver rode upon them: and, when a man was thrown to them, they would wrap the trunk about him and toss him up take him with the teeth and throw him between their fore feet upon the breast, do just as the driver should bid them, according to the orders of the Emperor. If the order was to cut him to pieces, the elephant would do so with his irons, throw the pieces among the assembled multitude: but if the order was to leave him, he would be left lying before the Emperor, until the skin should be taken off, stuffed with hay, the flesh given to the dogs. In the Holy Roman Empire emperor Charles V's 1532 Constitutio Criminalis Carolina specifies how every dismemberment should ideally occur: Concerning quartering: To cut and hack apart his entire body into four pieces, thus be punished unto death, such four parts are to be hanged on stakes publicly on four common thorough-fares.
Thus, the imperially approved way to dismember the convict within the Holy Roman Empire was by means of cutting, rather than dismemberment through ripping the individual apart. In paragraph 124 of the same code, beheading prior to quartering is mentioned as allowable when extenuating circumstances are present, whereas aggravating circumstances may allow pinching/ripping the criminal with glowing pincers, prior to quartering; the fate of Wilhelm von Grumbach in 1567, a maverick knight in the Holy Roman Empire, fond of making his own private wars and was thus condemned for treason, is worthy of note. Gout-ridden, he was bound fast to a table; the executioner ripped out his heart, stuck it in von Grumbach's face with the words: "von Grumbach! Behold your false heart!" Afterwards, the executioner quartered von Grumbach's body. His principal associate was given the same treatment, an eyewitness avers that after his heart had been ripped out, Chancellor Brück screamed horribly for "quite some time".
One example of a aggravated execution is illustrated by the fate of Bastian Karnhars on 16 July 1600. Karnhars was found guilty of 52 separate acts of murder, including the rape and murder of 8 women, the murder of a child, whose heart he had eaten for rituals of black magic. To begin, Karnhars had three strips of flesh torn from his back, before being pinched 18 times with glowing pincers, having his fingers clipped off one by one, his arms and legs broken on the wheel, while still alive, quartered. In the seventeenth century, a number of travel reports speak of an exotic "Turkish" execution method, where first, the waist of a man was constricted by ropes and cords, a swift bisection of the trunk was performed. William Lithgow presents a comparatively prosaic description of the method: If a Turke should happen to kill another Turke he is brought forth to the market place, a blocke being brought hither of foure foote high. George Sandys, during the same period, tells of a method as no longer in use, in a rather more mythologized way:...they twitch the offender about the waist with a towell, enforcing him to draw up his breath by pricking him in the body, until they have drawn him within the compasse of a span.
In 1850s Persia, a particular dismemberment technique called. Travelling as an official for the East India Company Robert Binning describes it as follows: the criminal is hung up by the heels, head downwards, from a ladder or between two posts, the executioner hacks away with a sword, until the body is bisected lengthways, terminating at the hea