The Holiness movement involves a set of beliefs and practices which emerged within 19th-century Methodism. A number of Evangelical Christian denominations, parachurch organizations, movements emphasize those beliefs as central doctrine; the movement is Wesleyan-Arminian in theology, is defined by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of a second work of grace leading to Christian perfection. As of 2015 Holiness-movement churches had an estimated 12 million adherents. Holiness adherents believe that the "second work of grace" refers to a personal experience subsequent to regeneration called "salvation," in which the believer is cleansed of the tendency to commit sin; this experience of "entire sanctification" enables the believer to live a holy life, ideally, to live without willful sin. Reflecting this inward holiness, Holiness Christians have emphasized the Wesleyan doctrine outward holiness, which includes practices such as the wearing of modest clothing and not using profanity in speech.
Holiness groups believe the moral aspects of the law of God are pertinent for today, so expect their adherents to obey behavioral rules—for example, many groups have statements prohibiting the consumption of alcohol, participation in any form of gambling, entertainments such as dancing and movie-going. This position does attract opposition from certain evangelicals, who charge that such an attitude refutes or slights Reformation teachings that the effects of original sin remain in the most faithful of souls. Though it became a multi-denominational movement over time and was furthered by the Second Great Awakening which energized churches of all stripes, the Holiness movement has its roots in Wesleyanism; the Methodists of the 19th century continued the interest in Christian holiness, started by their founder, John Wesley in England. They continued to publish Wesley's works and tracts, including his famous A Plain Account of Christian Perfection. From 1788 to 1808, the entire text of A Plain Account was placed in the Discipline manual of the Methodist Episcopal Church, numerous persons in early American Methodism professed the experience of entire sanctification, including Bishop Francis Asbury.
By the 1840s, a new emphasis on Holiness and Christian perfection began within American Methodism, brought about in large part by the revivalism and camp meetings of the Second Great Awakening. Two major Holiness leaders during this period were her husband, Dr. Walter Palmer. In 1835, Palmer's sister, Sarah A. Lankford, started holding Tuesday Meetings for the Promotion of Holiness in her New York City home. In 1837, Palmer experienced what she called entire sanctification and had become the leader of the Tuesday Meetings by 1839. At first only women attended these meetings, but Methodist bishops and hundreds of clergy and laymen began to attend as well. At the same time, Methodist minister Timothy Merritt of Boston founded a journal called the Guide to Christian Perfection renamed The Guide to Holiness; this was the first American periodical dedicated to promoting the Wesleyan message of Christian holiness. In 1865, the Palmers purchased The Guide which at its peak had a circulation of 30,000.
At the Tuesday Meetings, Methodists soon enjoyed fellowship with Christians of different denominations, including the Congregationalist Thomas Upham. Upham was the first man to attend the meetings, his participation in them led him to study mystical experiences, looking to find precursors of Holiness teaching in the writings of persons like German Pietist Johann Arndt and the Roman Catholic mystic Madame Guyon. Other non-Methodists contributed to the Holiness movement in the U. S. and in England. "New School" Calvinists such as Asa Mahan, the president of Oberlin College, Charles Grandison Finney, an evangelist associated with the college, promoted the idea of Christian holiness and slavery abolition. In 1836, Mahan experienced. Mahan believed that this experience had cleansed him from the inclination to sin. Finney believed that this experience might provide a solution to a problem he observed during his evangelistic revivals; some people claimed to experience conversion but slipped back into their old ways of living.
Finney believed that the filling with the Holy Spirit could help these converts to continue steadfast in their Christian life. This phase of the Holiness movement is referred to as the Oberlin-Holiness revival. Presbyterian William Boardman promoted the idea of Holiness through his evangelistic campaigns and through his book The Higher Christian Life, published in 1858, a zenith point in Holiness activity prior to a lull brought on by the American Civil War. Hannah Whitall Smith, an English Quaker, experienced a profound personal conversion. Sometime in the 1860s, she found what she called the "secret" of the Christian life—devoting one's life wholly to God and God's simultaneous transformation of one's soul, her husband, Robert Pearsall Smith, had a similar experience at the camp meeting in 1867. The couple became figureheads in the now-famous Keswick Convention that gave rise to what is called the Keswick-Holiness revival, which became distinct from the holiness movement. Representative was the revivalism of Rev. James Caughey, an American missionary sent by the Wesleyan Methodist Church to work in Ontario, Canada from the 1840s through 1864.
He brought in the converts by the score, most notably in the revivals in Canada West 1851–53. His technique combined restrained emotionalism with a clear call for personal commitment, thus bridging the rural style of camp meetings and the expectations of
Church of God in Christ
The Church of God in Christ is a Pentecostal-Holiness Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. The denomination reports having more than 12,000 churches and over 6.5 million members in the United States making it the largest Pentecostal church in the country. The National Council of Churches ranks it as the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U. S. COGIC can be found in more than 90 nations with an international membership estimated between one and three million adherents in more than 13,000 churches and outreaches, its worldwide membership is estimated to be between seven and eight million composing more than 25,000 congregations throughout the world. The current presiding Bishop is Bishop Charles Edward Blake Sr., the Senior Pastor of West Angeles Church of God In Christ. The Church of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshipped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones and Charles Harrison Mason. In the 1890s, C. P. Jones and C. H. Mason were licensed Baptist ministers in Mississippi who taught a Wesleyan doctrine of Christian perfection or Entire Sanctification as a second work of grace to their Baptist congregations.
Mason was influenced by the testimony of the African-American Methodist evangelist Amanda Berry Smith, one of the most respected African-American holiness evangelists of the nineteenth century. Her life story led many African-Americans including Mason, he testified to receiving Entire Sanctification after reading her autobiography. In June 1898, Jones held a Holiness convention at Mt. Helm Baptist Church in Jackson, attended by Mason and others from several states. Protestant doctrinal debates about Calvinism and Wesleyan Perfectionism affected how local African-American Baptist pastors responded to new Christian movements at the time; some of these African-American Baptist pastors in local Southern areas such as Mississippi and Arkansas considered Jones and Mason to be controversial. The leadership of the Mississippi State Convention of the National Baptist Convention intervened and expelled Jones and others who embraced the Wesleyan teaching of Entire Sanctification. In 1897, after being expelled from preaching in local Baptist churches under the Mississippi State Convention, Elder Mason founded the St. Paul Church in Lexington, Mississippi, as the first church of the new movement.
At its first convocation held in 1897, the group identified as the "Church of God." Many Holiness Christian groups and fellowships forming at the time wanted biblical names for their local churches and fellowships, such as "Church of God, Church of Christ, or Church of the Living God". They rejected denominational names such as Methodist, or Episcopal. Since so many new holiness groups and fellowships were forming that used the name "Church of God," C. H. Mason sought a name to distinguish his Holiness group from others. In 1897, while in Little Rock, Arkansas, C. H. Mason believed that God had given him such a name for the group, the "Church of God in Christ", he believed that the name, taken from 1 Thessalonians 2:14, was divinely revealed and biblically inspired. This Holiness group/fellowship adopted the name Church of God in Christ, COGIC began to develop congregations throughout the South. C. P. Jones was elected the General Overseer, C. H. Mason was selected as Overseer of Tennessee, J. A. Jeter was selected as Overseer of Arkansas.
After testifying to being sanctified, members of the church referred to themselves as "Saints," believing that they were set apart to live a daily life of Christian Holiness in words and deeds. In 1906, C. H. Mason, J. A Jeter and D. J. Young were appointed as a committee by C. P. Jones to investigate reports of a revival in Los Angeles, California, being led by an itinerant preacher named William J. Seymour. Jones was acquainted with Seymour between 1895 and 1905, as Seymour's travels led him to many Holiness preachers such as John G. Lake and Martin Wells Knapp. Mason's visit to the Azusa Street Revival changed the direction of the newly formed holiness church. During his visit, Mason received the baptism of the Holy Ghost. Upon his return to Jackson, Mason faced opposition when he recounted his experience. Not all of his congregation were willing to accept "speaking in tongues" as evidence of baptism of the Holy Ghost. At the 1907 COGIC Convocation held in Jackson, a separation occurred among Jones and other leaders in the church because of such disagreements.
After being rejected for accepting these new teachings, Mason called a meeting in Memphis and reorganized the Church of God in Christ as a Holiness-Pentecostal body. The early pioneers of this newly formed Holiness-Pentecostal body in 1907 were E. R. Driver, J. Bowe, R. R. Booker, R. E. Hart, W. Welsh, A. A. Blackwell, E. M. Blackwell, E. M. Page, R. H. I. Clark, D. J. Young, James Brewer, Daniel Spearman, J. H. Boone; these elders became the first Pentecostal General Assembly of the Church of God in Christ. They unanimously chose C. H. Mason as General Overseer and Chief Apostle. Mason was given authority to lead the new denomination; the Church of God in Christ became the first chartered Pentecostal body incorporated in the United States. C. P. Jones and those Holiness leaders who did not embrace the Azusa Revival experience continued as Holiness churches. In 1915, they organized a chartered Holiness body called the Church of Christ U. S. A. Bishop Charles Harrison Mason 1897–1961 – Founder and Senior Bishop Bishop Ozro Thurston Jones, Sr. 1961–1968 – Second Senior Bishop Bishop James Oglethorpe Patterson, S
William J. Seymour
William Joseph Seymour was an African American, holiness preacher who initiated the Azusa Street Revival, an influential event in the rise of the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. He was the second of eight children born to emancipated slaves and was raised in extreme poverty in Louisiana. Seymour was a student of early Pentecostal minister Charles Parham, he adopted Parham's belief that speaking in tongues was the sign of receiving the baptism in the Holy Spirit. In 1906, Seymour moved to Los Angeles, where he preached the Pentecostal message and sparked the Azusa Street Revival; the revival drew large crowds of believers as well as media coverage that focused on the controversial religious practices as well as the racially integrated worship services, which violated the racial norms of the time. Seymour's leadership of the revival and publication of The Apostolic Faith newspaper launched him into prominence within the young Pentecostal movement. Seymour broke with Parham in 1906 over theological differences as well as Parham's unhappiness with interracial revival meetings.
As the revival's influence extended beyond Los Angeles through evangelism and missionary work, Seymour was in the process of developing the revival into a larger organization called the Apostolic Faith Movement. This process was defeated by power struggles with other ministers, such as Florence Crawford and William Howard Durham, which damaged the unity of the early Pentecostal movement and led to a decrease in Seymour's influence. By 1914, the revival was past its peak, but Seymour continued to pastor the Apostolic Faith Mission he founded until his death; the revival acted as a catalyst for the spread of Pentecostal practices, such as speaking in tongues and integrated worship, throughout the world. It played an important role in the history of most major Pentecostal denominations. William Joseph Seymour was the second of eight children born to emancipated slaves Simon and Phyllis Salabar Seymour in Centerville, Louisiana, he was baptized as a child at the Roman Catholic Church of the Assumption in Franklin.
In 1884, when Seymour was fourteen, his parents built a house about a mile and a half from his birthplace adjacent to the New Providence Baptist Church in Centerville that the family attended while remaining Catholics. While serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, Seymour's father contracted an illness from which he died in November 1891; the twenty-one year old William became the primary provider for his family, growing subsistence crops with limited income from other sources. The family lived at the poverty level. Seymour grew up during a period of heightened racism that led to his decision to move north, away from the persecution endured by southern blacks around the turn of the century. In 1895, Seymour moved to Indianapolis, where he attended the Simpson Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church and became a born-again Christian. In Indianapolis, Seymour was introduced to the Holiness movement through Daniel S. Warner's "Evening Light Saints", a group whose distinctive beliefs included non-sectarianism, faith healing, foot washing, the imminent Second Coming of Christ, separation from "the world" in actions and lifestyle, including not wearing jewelry or neckties.
In the summer of 1900, Seymour returned to Louisiana and worked as a farm hand. In 1901, Seymour moved to Cincinnati, where he worked as a waiter and attended God's Bible School and Training Home, a school founded by holiness preacher Martin Wells Knapp. At Knapp's school and whites studied side by side. Knapp taught Premillennialism—that Jesus would return prior to a literal millennium—and took "special revelation" such as dreams and visions. While in Cincinnati, Seymour was blinded in his left eye. Seymour blamed his disability on his reluctance to answer God's call to the ministry. Seymour moved to Houston in 1903. During the winter of 1904-1905, he was directed by a "special revelation to Jackson, Mississippi, to receive spiritual advice from a well-known colored clergyman", he met Charles Price Jones and Charles Harrison Mason, founders of what would become the Church of God in Christ. Between 1895 and 1905, Seymour met other holiness leaders, including John Graham Lake and Charles Parham, leading a growing movement in the Midwest.
Parham's Apostolic Faith Movement emphasized speaking in tongues. Although speaking in tongues had occurred in some isolated religious circles as early as 1897, Parham began to practice it in 1900 and made the doctrine central to his theological system, believing it to be a sign that a Christian had received the baptism with the Holy Spirit. On January 1, 1901, Parham and some of his students were praying over Agnes Ozman when she began to speak in what was interpreted to be Chinese, a language Ozman never learned. Pentecostals identify Ozman as the first person in modern times to receive the gift of speaking in tongues as an answer to prayer for the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Parham spoke in tongues and went on to open a Bible school in Houston as his base of operations in 1905; when Houston African American holiness leader Lucy F. Farrow took a position with Charles Parham's evangelistic team as his children's nanny, Farrow asked Seymour to pastor her church. In 1906, with Farrow's encouragement, Seymour joined Parham's newly founded Bible school.
Though Seymour's attendance at Parham's school violated Texas Jim Crow laws, with Parham's permission, Seymour took a seat just outside the classroom door. Parham and Seymour shared pulpits and street corners on several occasions during the early weeks of 1906, with Par
Smith Wigglesworth, was a British evangelist, influential in the early history of Pentecostalism. Smith Wigglesworth was born on 10 June 1859 in Menston, England, to an impoverished family; as a small child, he worked in the fields pulling turnips alongside his mother. He was illiterate as a child because of his labors. Nominally a Methodist, he became, his grandmother was a devout Methodist. He was confirmed by a Bishop in the Church of England, baptized by immersion in the Baptist Church and had the grounding in Bible teaching in the Plymouth Brethren while learning the plumbing trade as an apprentice from a man in the Brethren movement. Wigglesworth married Polly Featherstone on 2 May 1882. At the time of their marriage, she was a preacher with the Salvation Army and had come to the attention of General William Booth, they had one daughter and four sons, Harold and George. Polly died in 1913, his grandson, Leslie Wigglesworth, after more than 20 years as a missionary in the Congo, served as the president of the Elim Pentecostal Church.
Wigglesworth learned to read. He stated that it was the only book he read, did not permit newspapers in his home, preferring the Bible to be their only reading material. Wigglesworth worked as a plumber, but he abandoned this trade because he was too busy for it after he started preaching. In 1907, Wigglesworth visited Alexander Boddy during the Sunderland Revival, following a laying-on of hands from Alexander's wife, Mary Boddy, he experienced speaking in tongues, he spoke at some of the Assemblies of God events in Great Britain. He received ministerial credentials with the Assemblies of God in the United States, where he evangelized during the 1920s and later. Wigglesworth believed that healing came through faith, he was flexible in his approach; when he was forbidden to lay hands on audience members by the authorities in Sweden, he preached for a "corporate healing", by which people laid hands on themselves. He practiced anointing with oil, the distribution of "prayer handkerchiefs". Wigglesworth sometimes attributed ill-health to demons.
Smith believed his ministerial success was due to his speaking in tongues. He said: “I want you to see that he that speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself or builds himself up. We must be edified. I cannot estimate what I owe to the Holy Ghost method of spiritual edification. I am here before you as one of the biggest conundrums in the world. There never was a weaker man on the platform. Language? None. Inability–full of it. All natural things in my life point opposite to my being able to stand on the platform and preach the gospel; the secret is that the Holy Ghost brought this wonderful edification of the Spirit. I had been reading this Word continuallv as well as I could, but the Holy Ghost came and took hold of it, for the Holy Ghost is the breath of it, He illuminated it to me.” Ministering at many churches throughout Yorkshire at Bethesda Church at Swallownest, Wigglesworth claimed to have had many prophecies. He had an international ministry, he ministered in the U. S. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Pacific Islands, India and several countries in Europe.
Some of his sermons were transcribed for Pentecostal magazines, these were collected into two books: Ever Increasing Faith and Faith that Prevails. He continued to minister until the time of his death on 12 March 1947. There were numerous claims of divine healing during Wigglesworth's ministry; these include a woman healed of a tumor, a woman healed of tuberculosis, a wheelchair-confined woman walking, many more. There were reports. Many people said. Wigglesworth, whose only training was as a plumber, described cancer as "a living evil spirit", insisted that many diseases were "satanic in origin", his methods involved hitting, slapping or punching the afflicted part of the body. On a number of occasions his approach to persons suffering from stomach complaints was to punch them in the stomach, sometimes with such force that it propelled them across the room; when challenged on this, his response was "I don't hit them, I hit the devil". Responding to criticism over his method of praying for the sick, Wigglesworth stated: "You might think by the way I went about praying for the sick that I was sometimes unloving and rough, but oh, you have no idea what I see behind the sickness and the one, afflicted.
I am not dealing with the person. On one occasion Wigglesworth declared to the sick "I'll only pray for you once, to pray twice is unbelief"; the second night, a man approached the altar to receive prayer again and Wigglesworth, recognizing him, said "Didn't I pray for you last night? You are full of unbelief, get off this platform!" Bickle, Michael. "Smith Wigglesworth Biography". Archived from the original on 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2006-05-18. Wigglesworth, Smith. Increasing Faith. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House. Retrieved 2006-12-13. Hibbert, Albert. Smith Wigglesworth: The Secret of His Power. Harrison House: Tulsa, Oklahoma. Smith Wigglesworth. "The Revival Legacy of Smith Wigglesworth." Assemblies of G
Toufik Benedictus "Benny" Hinn is an Israeli televangelist, best known for his regular "Miracle Crusades"—revival meeting or faith healing summits that are held in stadiums in major cities, which are broadcast worldwide on his television program, This Is Your Day. Hinn was born in Jaffa, in 1952, in the newly established state of Israel to parents born in Palestine with Greek and Armenian heritage, he was raised within the Eastern Orthodox tradition. Soon after the 1967 Arab–Israeli War, Hinn's family emigrated to Toronto, Canada, where he attended the Georges Vanier Secondary School, he did not graduate. In his books, Hinn states that his father was the mayor of Jaffa at the time of his birth and that he was isolated as a child and was handicapped by a severe stutter, but that he was nonetheless a first-class student; these claims, have been disputed by critics of Hinn. As a teenager in Toronto, Hinn converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Pentecostalism joining a singing troupe made up of young evangelicals.
According to a 2004 CBC report on Hinn, his newfound religious devotion during this period became so intense that his family became concerned that he was turning into a religious fanatic. Hinn was taught the Bible and was mentored by Dr. Winston I. Nunes of Broadview Faith Temple in Toronto. Hinn has written that on 21 December 1973, he traveled by charter bus from Toronto to Pittsburgh to attend a "miracle service" conducted by evangelist Kathryn Kuhlman. Although he never met her he attended her "healing services" and has cited her as an influence in his life. On moving to the United States, Hinn traveled to Orlando, where he founded the Orlando Christian Center in 1983, he began claiming that God was using him as a conduit for healings, began holding healing services in his church. These new "Miracle Crusades" were soon held at large stadiums and auditoriums across the United States and the world, the first nationally televised service being held in Flint, Michigan, in 1989. During the early 1990s, he launched a new daily talk show called This Is Your Day, which to this day airs clips of supposed miracles from Hinn's Miracle Crusades.
The program premiered on the Trinity Broadcasting Network of Paul Crouch, who would become one of Hinn's most outspoken defenders and allies. Hinn's ministry began to grow from there, winning praise as well as criticism from fellow Christian leaders. In 1999, he stepped down as pastor of the Orlando Christian Center, moving his ministry's administrative headquarters to Grapevine, Texas, a suburb of Fort Worth, while hosting This Is Your Day from a television studio in Orange County, where he now lives with his family, his former church was renamed Faith World Church under the leadership of Clint Brown, who merged his Orlando church with Hinn's. Benny Hinn is the author of a number of Christian books, his thirty-minute TV program This Is Your Day is among the world's most-watched Christian programs, seen on various Christian television networks, including Trinity Broadcasting Network, Daystar Television Network, Revelation TV, Grace TV, Vision TV, INSP Networks, The God Channel. Hinn conducts regular "Miracle Crusades"—revival meeting / faith healing events held in sports stadiums in major cities throughout the world.
Tens of millions attend his Holy Spirit Miracle Crusades each year. Hinn claims to have spoken to one billion people through his crusades, including memorable crusades with attendance of 7.3 million people in India, the largest healing service in recorded history. Evander Holyfield, diagnosed with a non-compliant left ventricle, has credited his healing to Benny Hinn, stating that through God working through Hinn, he was healed as he had "a warm feeling" go through his chest as Hinn touched him. Hinn's teachings are Evangelical and charismatic, accepting the validity of spiritual gifts, Word of Faith in origin, with a focus on financial prosperity; some doctrine and practices that Hinn teaches would be thought unusual in mainstream Christianity. The charismatic Christian community, is diverse, Hinn's ideas are not universally accepted. Benny Hinn Ministries claims to support 60 mission organizations across the world and several orphanages around the world, claims to house and feed over 100,000 children a year and support 45,000 children daily because of his donors.
Benny Hinn Ministries donated $100,000 for relief supplies for Hurricane Katrina victims in 2005, $250,000 to the tsunami relief effort in 2007. In March 1993 Inside Edition reported on Hinn's $685,000 Orlando home and Mercedes-Benz, despite Hinn having claimed a "modest lifestyle". An employee of Inside Edition faked a healing from cerebral palsy, shown on Hinn's regular broadcast. A controversial aspect of Hinn's ministry is his teaching on, demonstration of, a phenomenon he dubs "The Anointing"—the power purportedly given by God and transmitted through Hinn to carry out supernatural acts. At his Miracle Crusades, he has healed attendees of blindness, cancer, AIDS, severe physical injuries. However, investigative reports by the Los Angeles Times, NBC's Dateline, the CBC's The Fifth Estate, the Nine Network's 60 Minutes have called these claims into question. Hinn has caused controversy for theological remarks and claims he has made during TV appearances. In 1999, Hinn appeared on the Trinity Broadcasting Network, claiming that God had given him a vision predicting the resurrection of thousands of dead people after watching the network—laying out a scenario of people p
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Kumbanad is a town located in the Pathanamthitta district in the state of Kerala. Remittance from NRIs is the primary source of income; the large number of ATMs and high bank density are attributed to large bank deposits. As of 2009, the bank deposits for the Kumbanad-Pullad-Thiruvalla belt are estimated to be 5,400 Crore. There are services that depend on the foreign remittance. Since most of the emigrants are young and middle aged, most of the settled population is old-aged. There are services and health care units. 90 % of the emigrants are from Middle East. The major hospital is the Fellowship Mission Hospital. Kumbanad is part of Pathanamthitta District. In Lok sabha, Kumbanad is represented by the sitting MP from Mr. Anto Antony. Aranmula assembly segment and Veena George is the current MLA. Moncy Kizhakedethu of Kizhakedethu Family is the current Koipuram panchayat president. Tiruvalla Koipuram Aerial view of Kumbanad Constituencies Census Koipuram Census India