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Indian Reorganization Act

The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, or the Wheeler-Howard Act, was U. S. federal legislation that dealt with the status of American Indians. It was the centerpiece of what has been called the "Indian New Deal"; the major goal was to reverse the traditional goal of assimilation of Indians into American society and to strengthen and perpetuate the tribes and their historic traditions and culture. The Act restored to Indians the management of their assets—land and mineral rights—and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations; the law did not apply to Hawaii. The census counted 332,000 Indians in 1930 and 334,000 in 1940, including those on and off reservations in the 48 states. US total spending on Indians averaged $38 million a year in the late 1920s, dropping to an all time low of $23 million in 1933, reaching $38 million in 1940; the IRA was the most significant initiative of John Collier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs from 1933 to 1945.

He had long studied Indian issues and worked for change since the 1920s with the American Indian Defense Association. He intended to reverse the assimilationist policies that had resulted in considerable damage to American Indian cultures, to provide a means for American Indians to re-establish sovereignty and self-government, to reduce the losses of reservation lands, to build economic self-sufficiency, he believed that Indian traditional culture was superior to that of modern America, thought it worthy of emulation. His proposals were considered controversial, as numerous powerful interests had profited from the sale and management of Native lands. Congress revised Collier's proposals and preserved oversight of tribes and reservations by the Bureau of Indian Affairs within the Department of Interior; the self-government provisions would automatically go into effect for a tribe unless a clear majority of the eligible Indians voted it down. When approved, a tribe would adopt a variation of the model constitution drafted by BIA lawyers.

At the time the Act passed, it was United States policy to eliminate Indian reservations, dividing the communal territory and allotting 160-acre plots to individual heads of households, to be owned in severalty. Before allotment, reservation territory was not owned in the usual European-American sense, but was reserved for the benefit of entire Indian tribes; the communal benefits were apportioned to tribe members according to tribal custom. Indians held the land in a communal fashion. Non-Indians were not allowed to own land on reservations, a fact which limited the value of the land, since there was a smaller market capable of buying it; the process of allotment started with the General Allotment Act of 1887. By 1934, two thirds of Indian land had converted to traditional private ownership. Most of, sold by Indian allottees because they had no means to pay local taxes on the lands, for which they were newly responsible; the IRA provided a mechanism for the recovery of land, sold—including land, sold to tribal Indians.

They would lose individual property under the law. John Collier was appointed Commissioner of the Indian Bureau in April 1933 by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, he had the full support of his boss, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, an expert on Indian issues; the federal government held land in trust for many tribes. Numerous claims cases had been presented to Congress because of failures in the government's management of such lands. There were particular grievances and claims due to the government's failure to provide for sustainable forestry; the Indian Claims Act included a requirement that the Interior Department manage Indian forest resources "on the principle of sustained-yield management." Representative Edgar Howard of Nebraska, co-sponsor of the Act and Chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs, explained that the purpose of the provision was "to assure a proper and permanent management of the Indian Forest" under modern sustained-yield methods so as to "assure that the Indian forests will be permanently productive and will yield continuous revenues to the tribes."

The act slowed the practice of allotting communal tribal lands to individual tribal members. It did not restore to Indians land, patented to individuals, but much land at the time was still unallotted or was allotted to an individual but still held in trust for that individual by the U. S. government. Because the Act did not disturb existing private ownership of Indian reservation lands, it left reservations as a checkerboard of tribal or individual trust and fee land, which remains the case today. However, the Act allowed the U. S. to restore it to tribal trust status. Due to the Act and other actions of federal courts and the government, more than two million acres of land were returned to various tribes in the first 20 years after passage. In 1954, the United States Department of the Interior began implementing the termination and relocation phases of the Act, added by Congress; these provisions were the result of the continuing interest by some members of Congress in having American Indians assimilate to the majority society.

Among other effects, termination resulted in the legal dismantling of 61 tribal nations within the United States and ending their recognized relationshi

Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7

Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 or SMAD7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD7 gene. SMAD7 is a protein that, as its name describes, is a homolog of the Drosophila gene: "Mothers against decapentaplegic", it belongs to the SMAD family of proteins. Like many other TGFβ family members, SMAD7 is involved in cell signalling, it is a TGFβ type 1 receptor antagonist. It blocks TGFβ1 and activin associating with the receptor, blocking access to SMAD2, it is an inhibitory SMAD and is enhanced by SMURF2. Smad7 enhances muscle differentiation. Smad proteins contain two conserved domains; the Mad Homology domain 1 is at the N-terminal and the Mad Homology domain 2 is at the C-terminal. Between them there is a linker region, full of regulatory sites; the MH1 domain has DNA binding activity. The linker region contains important regulatory peptide motifs including potential phosphorylation sites for mitogen-activated protein kinases, Erk-family MAP kinases, the Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C.

Smad7 does not have the MH1 domain. A proline-tyrosine motif presents at its linker region enables its interaction with the WW domains of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, the Smad ubiquitination-related factors, it resides predominantly in the nucleus at basal state and translocates to the cytoplasm upon TGF-β stimulation. SMAD7 inhibits TGF-β signaling by preventing formation of Smad2/Smad4 complexes which initiate the TGF-β signaling, it interacts with activated TGF-β type I receptor therefore block the association and activation of Smad2. By occupying type I receptors for Activin and bone morphogenetic protein, it plays a role in negative feedback of these pathways. Upon TGF- β treatment, Smad7 binds to discrete regions of Pellino-1 via distinct regions of the Smad MH2 domains; the interaction blocks the formation of the IRAK1-mediated IL-1R/TLR signaling complex therefore abrogates NF-κB activity, which subsequently causes reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. While Smad7 is induced by TGF-β, it is induced by other stimuli, such as epidermal growth factor, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor -α.

Therefore, it provides a cross-talk between other cellular signaling pathways. A mutation located in SMAD7 gene is a cause of susceptibility to colorectal cancer type 3. Perturbation of Smad7 and suppression of TGF-β signaling was found to be evolved in CRC. Case control studies and meta-analysis in Asian and European populations provided evidence that this mutation is associated with colorectal cancer risk. TGF-β is one of the important growth factors in pancreatic cancer. By controlling the TGF-β pathway, smad7 is believed to be related to this disease; some previous study showed over-expression of Smad7 in pancreatic cells but there was a recent study showed a low Smad7 expression. The role of Smad7 in pancreatic cancer is still controversial. Over-expression or constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor can promote tumor processes. EGF-induced MMP-9 expression enhances tumor invasion and metastasis in some kinds of tumor cells such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Smad7 exerts an inhibitory effect on the EGF signaling pathway.

Therefore, it may play a role in prevention of cancer metastasis. SMAD7 signaling has been studied in a recent Celgene Phase III trial, NCT ID number 94, which interacts with the SMAD7 pathway; this drug was studied in patients with Crohn's disease. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 has been shown to interact with: CTNNB1, EP300, MAP3K7IP1, PIAS4, RNF111, SMAD3. SMAD6, SMURF2, STRAP, TGFBR1, YAP1

Yuichiro Nagashima

Yuichiro "Jienotsu" Nagashima is a Japanese welterweight kickboxer, a cosplayer, fighting out of Nishinomiya, Hyogo competing at K-1. His rank is 2nd dan black belt in Nippon Kempo. Yuichiro Nagashima was born in 1984 in the city of Hyogo, he started learning judo. He continued training Judo until the graduation of junior high school, he decided to be a professional fighter when he was at the 3rd year of junior high school because he watched Andy Hug on television. Moreover, Nagashima swore to entertain the audience. During his high school life, he practiced full contact karate, but he attended training only once or twice a week. Nagashima joined the team of Nippon Kempo and started training when he was matriculated in University of Marketing and Distribution Sciences. In addition, Nagashima started participating professional mixed martial arts bouts, he started cosplaying anime characters during his entrance to the ring. Since 2007, Nagashima shifted his workplace to kickboxing, he became known as "Otaku kickboxer" because of his entrance show before the bouts.

He won ten consecutive victories, won the vacant title of NJKF at Super welterweight on December 9, 2008. This was the first time for NJKF that the kickboxer, not the member of NJKF wins the title of NJKF. On January 25, 2009, he was chosen and awarded 2008 Outstanding Performance Award by NJKF, given 3 more awards certified combat sports medias. After winning the title, Nagashima was offered by K-1, he participated K-1 World MAX 2009 Japan Tournament on February 23, 2009, he knocked out Hayato at 2R at the quarterfinal, but he was beaten by Yuya Yamamoto and lost by TKO because of being cut at the semifinal. After the Japanese tournament, Nagashima was offered to fight against Albert Kraus from Netherlands on April 21, they engaged in a heated war of words before the bout where Kraus said "he seems to be a gay". The fight ended in Nagashima losing by knockout in round one. On October 26, Nagashima was offered to fight against Xu Yan from China. Although he trained at Masato's gym, he was knocked out at round one.

In December, he was awarded the 2009 Walkout of the Year by Inside MMA of HDNet. On March 27, 2010, Nagashima participated to K-1 World Max 2010 Japan tournament, he won the tournament with 3 consecutive knock outs. Although he wanted to defend his NJKF title after this tournament, he returned his title as on 1 April because he was going to participate the world tournament and it was hard to arrange his schedule for defending title. On December 31, 2010, Nagashima took part in a "mixed rules" bout against judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu expert Shinya Aoki at Dynamite!! 2010, the annual New Year's Eve fight festival. One round was to be held under the other under mixed martial arts rules. A coin toss decided. Aoki took advantage of the fact that he only had to survive through a single three-minute round of kickboxing and thus threw pointless attacks like flying dropkicks and rolling heel kicks while holding onto the ring ropes in order to run the clock down; as the second round began, Aoki now in his element under MMA rules, he dropped for a double leg takedown, while Nagashima launched a flying knee square into Aoki's jaw.

The blow knocked out Aoki, after which Nagashima followed up with a number of hammerfists on the supine Aoki. The referee stopped the fight four seconds into the period, he faced Henri van Opstal at REBELS 13 in Tokyo on October 28, 2012 with a place at the Shoot Boxing World Tournament 2012 on the line. He lost via unanimous decision, he lost a one-sided unanimous decision to Robin van Roosmalen at Glory 4: Tokyo - 2012 Heavyweight Grand Slam in Saitama, Japan on December 31, 2012 after being dropped in round one. He lost to Yoshihiro Sato by unanimous decision at Hoost Cup: Kings in Nagoya, Japan on June 16, 2013. Nagashima stopped a three-fight skid when he beat Hiroki Shishido by unanimous decision at Shoot Boxing Battle Summit Ground Zero Tokyo 2013 in Tokyo, Japan on November 15, 2013. On March 6, 2011, Nagashima appeared in the puroresu promotion Pro Wrestling ZERO1 to challenge fellow rookie Daichi Hashimoto, scheduled to face Masahiro Chono, said that he had made his debut in wrestling and soon would be Daichi's rival.

Nagashima began training in the ZERO1 dojo under Shinjiro Otani, Hashimoto's trainer. Although Daichi was the original target to Yuichiro, veteran wrestler Kohei Sato offered to wrestle Nagashima first, so Yuichiro had his debut on May 5 at the Korakuen Hall against him, with th Otaku Kickboxer winning the bout; the match was praised and some said that Yuichiro's skill was such that he seemed to have years of experience. On June 14, Yuichiro had his first match against Daichi, teaming with former yokozuna and K-1 fighter Akebono to defeat Hashimoto & Otani. Two months after, Nagashima teamed up with Hashimoto and Otani to defeat Ryoji Sai, KAMIKAZE & Munenori Sawa. After their last meeting, Nagashima announced his intention to face Masahiro Chono, who had wrestled against Hashimoto. Chono agreed and the match was held in Inoki Genome Federation, with Nagashima in the losing side. Thereafter, Yuichiro began competing for IGF, achieving significant victories over Munenori Sawa and Bob Sapp. Upon his return to ZERO1, Nagashima came in a feud with Fujita Hayato, being defeated by Fujita in a singles match.

This was his final match of the year. In 2013, Nagashima made a return to pro wrestling in IGF, beating Black Tiger in two consecutive matches. Professiona

Feelings Gone

"Feelings Gone" is a song by British electronic music duo Basement Jaxx. It was released on 8 September 2009 as Scars, it was digitally released on 8 September in the United States and was released in the United Kingdom on 21 September 2009. The song features vocals from the Australian-born singer-songwriter Sam Sparro; the music video for the song was directed by Andy Soup and released on 28 August 2009. It has a futuristic theme. Digital Spy gave the song three stars, describing it as "a slice of unremarkable dance-pop" and commented on Sam Sparro's vocals as "quirky enough to keep things interesting as he soars and squalls his way through this track." Official music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Washington's at-large congressional district

At different times in its history, Washington elected one or more U. S. Representatives at-large statewide. From statehood in 1889 until 1909, Washington elected all of its U. S. representatives statewide. In 1909, Washington was divided into congressional districts for purposes of electing representatives. Following the 1950 Census, Washington was granted a seventh seat in the U. S. House of Representatives, but the state legislature was unable to agree on a plan to create a geographic district for the seat until 1957, so the seat was filled by a representative elected statewide. From statehood in 1889 to 1893, Washington elected one representative at-large statewide. From 1893 to 1903, Washington elected two representatives at-large statewide added a third seat in 1903; the third seat at large continued until 1909. From 1913 to 1915, Washington elected two representatives at-large statewide, with the remaining three representatives elected from districts. From 1953 to 1959, Washington elected one representative at-large statewide, with the remaining six representatives elected from districts.

After 1959, all representatives were elected from districts. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present

Appetite (art gallery)

Appetite was a gallery and artist-run space, founded by Daniela Luna, in the neighborhood of San Telmo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Its mission was to promote new artists, it sometimes courted controversy, before closing in mid-2011. APPETITE was created in 2005 by Daniela Luna, it generated considerable interest in the neighborhood of San Telmo, transforming its area into a prominent contemporary art district of Buenos Aires. APPETITE inspired young artists to open their own spaces, it became known for its new artists and its openings and parties. As described by New York Times, “Appetite, an irreverent, punk-inflected gallery in San Telmo started by Daniela Luna, a feisty 30-year-old known for her shrewd eye and cool parties.” In mid-2010 APPETITE closed the doors of its three Buenos Aires spaces, as Daniela Luna moved to Beijing, China. In 2008 and 2009 APPETITE had a branch in Bushwick, where it organized exhibitions and events, it had appearances in New York art fairs, like Pinta Art Show, where The New York Times pointed: “For once, a fair looks like an art exhibition, not a job-lot display.

And when a booth is crowded, the pieces can be blamed, as is the case at Appetite, a gallery with branches in Buenos Aires and Brooklyn that shows young artists working in an accumulative mode.” APPETITE was the first argentinian gallery to be accepted at Frieze Art Fair, where it was one of the stands that received more attention from the press and public, generated controversies by their approach to the global economic crisis as subject for the stand. While The New York Times pointed: "With first-time exhibitors from China, Turkey and Argentina, Frieze still managed to provide a random snapshot of an global and youthful art world in transition. APPETITE was invited to participate in the fair Art Vilnius 09, that year Vilnius was named European Capital of Culture, this was one of the main events organized; the APPETITE stand was nominated for best stand. While being in that city, Daniela Luna made a performance at the Vilnius Graphic Art Center and a video screening from argentinian artists.

In April 2008 it was part of the group of galleries presented to the fair MiArt by the name of FOCUS BUENOS AIRES. Local newspaper La Nacion announced: "With consortium format and cooperative spirit, a group of Buenos Aires galleries with the support of the minister of culture, Hernan Lombardi, the curatorship of Adriana Forconi and Florencia Braga Menéndez, celebrated the opening of MiArt edition 13th." APPETITE participance at this fair was pointed by New York Times as well: "Appetite gallery will get additional exposure in Milan when the contemporary art fair, MiArt 2008, spotlights emerging Buenos Aires artists in April. Adriana Forconi, a jet-settling consultant to the art fair, was in town to scout for worthy galleries, was struck by what she calls the city’s “frenetic and blissfully chaotic” pace." In March of 2011 Daniela Luna opened an APPETITE space in Beijing, China, at 798 Art Zone, in November moved to Caochangdi, the two main art zones of that city, where she organized and curated exhibitions and performance projects by artists from different nationalities.

She worked between Beijing and Hong Kong on research and writing about Chinese art. Part of this research can be seen as a four pages spread published by Argentinian magazine DMag. It’s an underground party that started in 2008, in a secret warehouse that guests could access with a password, it mixed underground Djs and bands, with site specific art interventions and performance; as described at Time Out, "Arty meets party at Daniela Luna's WarClub. Surrounded by cutting edge wall art and club kids and collectors, the young and the old make up an eclectic smiling crowd. WarClub is the brainchild of enfant terrible art gallerist Daniela Luna, it has taken place, up until now, in this raw, multi-room space whose only modifications, in the punk spirit Luna most prizes, are an accumulation of graffiti and installations." Concept store and exhibition space for erotic art and objects that functioned in the area of San Telmo since 2006. Many media celebrated this initiative, Les Inrockuptibles published an issue about sex, Tanto Deseo was the cover story and was spread all over the magazine.

"Without any doubt, one of the present oasis is Tanto Deseo, an erotic-artistic branch from APPETITE gallery, mothership of young art commanded by Daniela Luna. Tanto Deseo is an experimental essay, where pulsions are expressed under different topics.” It won the "Revelation Award" at the fair Puro Diseño in 2008. A cultural site talks about it: "Appetite and Tanto Deseo, two galleries with young spirit, that intent to give a space of creation without the market's demands interfering, born from a personal necessity mixed with the feeling that things like these were missing in this city. Participants and winners of the Revelation Award at the fair'Puro Diseño' some days ago. APPETITE was censured or fined in different occasions due to their usual content of sex, violence, or critics to political and economical issues. One such controversies took place in 2008 when 10 of the artists abruptly decided to leave the gallery; as told by Clarin, one of the main Argentinian newspapers: "Personality cult or misunderstanding?

For Luna and for the virtuose scene of young artists that she leads, there is an inflection point post-Frieze. By the end of last year, ten of them disassociated themselves from Appetite. While many local media celebrated the gallery's arrival to Frieze, they talked about her curves, her history