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Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the Government of India and has its headquarters in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research & planetary exploration"; the Indian National Committee for Space Research was established in the tenure of Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy in 1962, with the urging of scientist Vikram Sarabhai recognizing the need in space research. INCOSPAR grew and became ISRO in 1969 under the DAE. In 1972, Government of India had setup a Space Commission and the Department of Space, bringing ISRO under the DOS; the establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space research activities in India. It is managed by the DOS. ISRO built India's first satellite, launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975, it was named after the mathematician Aryabhata. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3.

ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and Earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14. ISRO sent a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008, which discovered lunar water in the form of ice, the Mars Orbiter Mission, on 5 November 2013, which entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its maiden attempt to Mars, as well as the first space agency in Asia to reach Mars orbit. On 18 June 2016, ISRO launched twenty satellites in a single vehicle, on 15 February 2017, ISRO launched one hundred and four satellites in a single rocket, a world record. ISRO launched its heaviest rocket, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III, on 5 June 2017 and placed a communications satellite GSAT-19 in orbit.

With this launch, ISRO became capable of launching 4-ton heavy satellites into GTO. On 22 July 2019, ISRO launched its second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 to study the lunar geology and the distribution of lunar water. Future plans include development of the Unified Launch Vehicle, Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, development of a reusable launch vehicle, human spaceflight, a space station, interplanetary probes, a solar spacecraft mission. Modern space research in India is traced to the 1920s, when scientist S. K. Mitra conducted a series of experiments leading to the sounding of the ionosphere by applying ground-based radio methods in Kolkata. Indian scientists like C. V. Raman and Meghnad Saha contributed to scientific principles applicable in space sciences. However, it was the period after 1945 that saw important developments being made in coordinated space research in India. Organised space research in India was spearheaded by two scientists: Vikram Sarabhai—founder of the Physical Research Laboratory at Ahmedabad—and Homi Bhabha, who established the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1945.

Engineers were drawn from the Indian Ordnance Factories on deputation to harness their knowledge of propellants and advanced metallurgy as the Ordnance factories were the only organisation specialising in these technologies at that time. Initial experiments in space sciences included the study of cosmic radiation, high altitude and airborne testing, deep underground experimentation at the Kolar mines—one of the deepest mining sites in the world—and studies of the upper atmosphere. Studies were carried out at research laboratories and independent locations. In 1950, the Department of Atomic Energy was founded with Bhabha as its secretary; the department provided funding for space research throughout India. During this time, tests continued on aspects of meteorology and the Earth's magnetic field, a topic, being studied in India since the establishment of the observatory at Colaba in 1823. In 1954, the Uttar Pradesh state observatory was established at the foothills of the Himalayas; the Rangpur Observatory was set up in 1957 at Hyderabad.

Space research was further encouraged by the government of India. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 and opened up possibilities for the rest of the world to conduct a space launch; the Indian National Committee for Space Research was set up in 1962. The prime objective of ISRO is to use space technology and its application to various national tasks; the Indian space programme was driven by the vision of Vikram Sarabhai, considered the father of the Indian space programme. As he said in 1969: There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the Moon or the planets or manned space-flight, but we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally, in the community of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society, which we find in our country.

And we should note that the application of sophisticated technologies and methods of analysis to our problems is not to be confused with embarking on grandiose schemes, whose primary impact is for show rather than for progress measured in hard economic and social terms. Former president of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, said: Very many individuals with myopic vi

Wycliffe Gordon

Professor Wycliffe A. Gordon is an American jazz trombonist, composer, band leader, music educator at the collegiate-conservatory level. Gordon sings and plays didgeridoo, trumpet and piano, his nickname is "Pinecone". Gordon was born in Waynesboro, Georgia into a religious and musical background that influenced the early direction of his music, his father, Lucius Gordon, was a church organist at several churches in Burke County, Georgia and a classical pianist and teacher. Gordon took an interest in jazz in 1980 when he was thirteen, while listening to jazz records inherited from his great-aunt; the collection included a five-LP anthology produced by Sony-Columbia. In particular, he was drawn to musicians like Louis Armstrong and the Hot Fives and Hot SevensAt age 13, he was attending Sego Junior High School in Augusta, where his band director was trombonist Don Milford. Gordon graduated in 1985 from Butler High School in Augusta, he performed in New York City as part of the McDonald's High School All-American Band.

He studied music at Florida A&M, where he played in the marching band. His early works as a professional were with Wynton Marsalis, but in 2010 he has expanded beyond swing and has experimented with new instruments; the strongest example of this might be The Search where he plays didgeridoo and covers Thelonious Monk songs. He has played Gospel music. In 1995, Gordon orchestrated the theme song for NPR's All Things Considered. Gordon's arrangement and orchestration is the third version of the melody composed in 1971 by Donald Joseph Voegeli, he has gained more worldwide popularity, being featured in South Australia's Generations In Jazz 2016 and 2017, playing alongside artists such as James Morrison, Jazzmeia Horn, Gordon Goodwin and Ross Irwin among others. For over a decade, he has worked with visual artist and educator Ligel Lambert on numerous collaborative projects. Blues Back Records was an American independent jazz label founded by Gordon in 2006, coinciding with the release of his album Rhythm on My Mind, a collaboration with bassist Jay Leonhart.

His desire for artistic control was the impetus for creating Blues Back. During a meeting with Leonhart, with Gordon's "I Want My Blues Back" playing in the background, the two laughed and decided on the name for the company. Blues Back produced other artists; the company became inactive in 2011. Bone Structure Slidin' Home Blues of Summer The Search The Gospel Truth What You Dealin' With We United Soul Experience The Joyride Dig This!! In the Cross Cone's Coup Standards Only This Rhythm on My Mind A Tribute to Storyville We, Vol. 2 BloozBluzeBlues, Vol. One Boss Bones You and I I'm Glad There is You Cone and T-Staff Word Dreams of New Orleans The Intimate Ellington: Ballads & Blues Signature Series Somebody New Within These Gates of Mine Hello Pops!: Tribute to Louis Armstrong "The Co-Op" With John Allred John Allred & Wycliffe Gordon: Head to Head With Maurice Hines Maurice Hines: To Nat King Cole With Love With Bob Kindred Bob Kindred Trio Live at Cafe Loup With Wynton Marsalis Big Train With Ted Nash Sidewalk Meeting With Marcus Roberts Deep in the Shed With Randy Sandke The Music of Bob Haggart Featuring His Porgy and Bess Arrangements With Ron Westray Wycliffe Gordon & Ron Westray: Bone Structure With Chip White Double Dedication More Dedications Personal Dedications & Percussive Tributes Official site Mnozil Brass, feat.

Wycliffe Gordon

Bob Kerr (reporter)

Bob Kerr is an American journalist. For more than forty years, he was a reporter and columnist for The Providence Journal, a Pulitzer Prize-winning publication and the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper. Robert Kerr was born in New York to his parents, who were both teachers, he lived in New York until his late teens when his family moved to Michigan. Kerr graduated from Grosse Pointe University School, he served for two years in the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War as a war correspondent. He worked for The Detroit Free Press and The Charlotte Observer. Kerr graduated from Hamilton College as an English major. Bob Kerr was the Journal's metro columnist for the last 20 years of his career of four decades, he covered community stories, public interest stories, as well as profiles of individuals that were overlooked by Providence society in everyday life. Kerr was unceremoniously forced to retire as Belo Corporation was in the process of being purchased by GateHouse Media in 2014 during a slew of lay-offs as the paper transferred ownership and Dave Butler became the Journal's Executive Editor.

From 2002 until 2011, Kerr reported on the efforts of Nicholas Alahverdian, a Rhode Island government state employee, in the care of the state's troubled Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth & Families and its night-to-night program. Kerr detailed Alahverdian's efforts as an insider who informed lawmakers of the abuse and negligence, ensuing in Rhode Island group homes. In 2011, Kerr exposed how Alahverdian was sent out of state to Nebraska and Florida where he was allowed no contact with anyone shortly after the early media coverage, was left there until his 18th birthday. Of Alahverdian's time in the night-to-night program, Kerr wrote that "He was put in night-to-night placement by the Department of Children and Families, a practice so hideously abusive and stifling that it would seem better fit to a Charles Dickens novel than to 21st century Rhode Island." Kerr wrote that " has always suspected that he was sent out of state because he was so outspoken about the horrors of night-to-night placement.

He had been a page and an aide at the Rhode Island State House before his exile, he was not reluctant to point out the hard lessons learned from his DCYF experience."In Kerr's final article on Alahverdian, Kerr wrote that "through intelligence and sheer will, he is now at Harvard. He knows. Regardless of what happens in federal court or at the State House, Alahverdian has left his mark. Night-to-night placement has been ended forever, and Manatee Palms, the Florida facility where Alahverdian experienced so much abuse, is no longer used by DCYF. Alahverdian, I have to believe, had something to do with those changes."

Repulse Bay

Repulse Bay is a bay in the southern part of Hong Kong Island, located in the Southern District, Hong Kong. It is one of the most expensive residential areas in the world. Repulse Bay is located in the southern part of Hong Kong Island, to the east of Deep Water Bay and to the west of Middle Bay and South Bay. Middle Island is located off Hong Kong Island, between Deep Water Bay; the origins of the bay's English name have become obscure. There are, many stories — none resting on any solid evidence that has so far been established. A typical example is that in 1841, the bay was used as a base by pirates and caused serious concern to foreign merchant ships trading with China; the pirates were subsequently repulsed by the Royal Navy, hence the name. There is no evidence of any such origin in the extensive British naval log books of the period. Another story holds that the bay was named after HMS Repulse, stationed at the bay at one point. No HMS Repulse visited Hong Kong, let alone Repulse Bay and the 1868 Repulse served only on the west coast of the Americas and thereafter in British waters.

It is known that the name appeared on the earliest British official map of Hong Kong by Lt TB Collinson RE in 1845. However, British Admiralty charts never used the name until the 20th century, instead sticking to the quite erroneous name given by Commander Edward Belcher RN in his 1841 survey, Chonghom Bay; the source of the name remains unknown. In 1898 the Hong Kong Golf Club opened in the valley behind the Deep Water Bay and became a social hub. Roads were developed between the South and the North parts of Hong Kong Island and in the 1910s, Repulse Bay was developed into a beach; the Repulse Bay Hotel was built by the Kadoorie family in 1920. To attract swimmers, a bus route from Central to Repulse Bay was created, now stands as one of Hong Kong's oldest bus routes; the writer Ernest Hemingway and the American actor Marlon Brando stayed at the Repulse Bay Hotel. During the Battle of Hong Kong in World War II, Repulse Bay was an important strategic location; the Repulse Bay Hotel was used by the Japanese as a military hospital during the war.

The beach was extended artificially, thus the sand closer to the shore is coarser in texture than the sand further away. It is one of the longest beaches in Hong Kong with a length of 292 metres. American actors William Holden and Jennifer Jones stayed at the Repulse Bay Hotel in 1955 when they acted there in the film "Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing."Until the early 1960s, residential buildings were quite restricted. Three blocks of six storey apartments were developed by Dr. P. P. Chiu and his brother P. W. Chiu, part way up the mountain overlooking Repulse Bay; these were luxury apartments with servants' quarters, with only two apartments per floor in Blocks A and B. Apartments in Block C are smaller. For a long time, these were the only apartments allowed on the mountain; these included properties on Repulse Bay Road and South Bay Road, according to a record of projects by architect Luke Him Sau — the earliest of which dates back to 1952. Occupying the whole of the west side cliff above the beach was a large castle with a swimming pool and tennis court called Eucliffe, one of three castles owned by the millionaire Eu Tong Sween.

The Eucliffe structure and historical site was demolished to make way for a row of low apartments. The Repulse Bay area is one of the most expensive housing areas in Hong Kong. Tencent's CEO Pony Ma bought a house there for US$57 million in 2014. In 2018 twin townhouses were sold for HK$1 billion or about HK$90,000 per square foot. In 2018 Li Ka-shing, the richest man in Hong Kong, was living near Repulse Bay; the former Repulse Bay Hotel was demolished in 2 stages during the 1980s. A boutique shopping mall was constructed on part of the old hotel site to mimic some of the lost colonial architecture. Emperor International Holdings Limited bought Lido Mall at Repulse Bay and renamed it The Pulse, but due to its expansion to five storeys and 143,000 sq ft, it was in negotiations with the government over the land premium. On 15 May 2012, Emperor announced an agreement with the government with the land premium at HK$798 million. Emperor would put The Pulse up for lease after receiving the occupation permit.

The 143,000-square-foot, five-storey shopping mall would be rented out at HK$50 to HK$60 per square foot. The Pulse was opened in 2016. Repulse Bay Beach Kwun Yam Shrine The Repulse Bay Repulse Bay is served by Repulse Bay Road, which connects Wong Nai Chung Gap Road and Tai Tam Road, it is convenient for people to travel to Repulse Bay as there are many bus routes reaching the bay. Visitors can take bus no. 6, 6A, 6X, 66 or 260 from Central, 63, 65 from Causeway Bay and North Point, or 73 from Cyberport and Aberdeen. Minibus 40, 52 are available for visitors travelling from Causeway Bay and Aberdeen respectively. Transportation either passes through the Aberdeen Tunnel, or travels along the longer scenic route. Beach-goers may opt to drive there; the beach provides some parking space, the nearby Repulse Bay Hotel has parking facilities. There are no MTR stations in Repulse Bay, nor commenced there. Author Eileen Chang's novel, Love in a Fallen City is set at the Repulse Bay Hotel. List of areas of Hong Kong Tourism in Hong Kong Media related to Repulse Bay, Hong Kong at Wikimedia Commons

Operation Haylift

Operation Haylift is a 1950 American aviation film by William Berke starring Bill Williams, Ann Rutherford, Tom Brown. The film documents the United States Air Force mission in 1948–49 to save thousands of cattle caught in the snowdrifts of a sudden winter storm in northern Nevada. "Operation Haylift" involved scores of cargo aircraft delivering hay to the stranded animals. With their 10-year-old son Roy and Clara Masters live in a ranch near Ely, Nevada. Bill's brother Tom returned from serving as a pilot in the United States Air Force, is home to work on the ranch; when Bill and Tom capture rustlers, they earn a $5,000 reward from George Swallow of the Stockman's Association. Bill wants to use the money to buy more ranch land but he senses Tom does not have his heart in working at the ranch; when Bill sends for Tom's girlfriend Pat Rogers, they leave for their honeymoon in Tahoe. On the way, the married couple meet Tom's old service buddy his wife. Max has rejoined the Air Force and is about based on true story, He and his dog had to leave for Germany to take part in the Berlin Airlift.

Tom rejoins and leaves with Pat for Germany. When his tour finishes in 1948, he's back home, where the United States is experiencing first a drought a massive series of 18 blizzards in 27 days, which cripples Nevada. A state of emergency is declared and the U. S. Army and National Guard units from Nevada and neighboring states are called out. In the winter, many sheep and cattle die of starvation. George Swallow calls ranchers proposing to seek the Air Force's help in dropping hay to the stranded animals. Bill is skeptical. A fleet of 18 Fairchild C-82 Packets arrive at Fallon Airport, with Tom scheduled to fly the first mission; the first flight is a great success and, while President Harry S. Truman requests emergency funds for the ranchers, the 62nd Troop Carrier Group continues its haylift operation; when Bill gets stuck in a snowdrift, he has to ride on horseback into Ely for help. Tom flies a mission to drop hay to Bill's animals and with the successful conclusion of Operation Haylift, thousands of tons of hay dropped over an area of 85,000 square miles saved a million head of cattle and two million sheep.

Production of Operation Haylift took place in the center of the actual operation. The opening credits include the following written prologue: "This production was photographed in Ely and was made possible through the cooperation of the Department of Defense, U. S. Air Force and the Department of Agriculture." In the months prior to production, producer Joe Sawyer and cameraman Benjamin Kline made six trips to Ely to arrange filming locations. Filming began on January 11, 1950, was expected to last at least eight days. Primary filming locations included Ely's main street, the office of United Stockmen, various ranches, Ely Airport. Ely's Hotel Nevada and Gambling Hall was used as a filming location, served as headquarters for the cast and crew. For filming, the United States Air Force provided C-82s from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. More than 200 local residents appeared in the film in crowd scenes; the film premiere took place in Ely on April 10, 1950. George N. Swallow, involved in the actual operation and served as a technical advisor for the film, was largely responsible for getting the film to shoot in Ely.

Swallow was primarily responsible for the film's premiere taking place in Ely. Operation Haylift was a modest B movie whose "... most interesting moments come during sequences of the Flying Boxcars, lent by the Air Force for the film." Aviation film historians Jack Hardwick and Ed Schnepf cynically dismissed Operation Haylift as "... good if you like to watch C-82s dropping hay." Operation Haylift at the TCM Movie Database Operation Haylift at the American Film Institute Catalog Operation Haylift on IMDb

Tunnel and Reservoir Plan

The Tunnel and Reservoir Plan is a large civil engineering project that aims to reduce flooding in the metropolitan Chicago area, to reduce the harmful effects of flushing raw sewage into Lake Michigan by diverting storm water and sewage into temporary holding reservoirs. The megaproject is one of the largest civil engineering projects undertaken in terms of scope and timeframe. Commissioned in the mid-1970s, the project is managed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. Completion of the system is not anticipated until 2029, but substantial portions of the system have opened and are operational. Across 30 years of construction, over $3 billion has been spent on the project; the Deep Tunnel Project is the latest in a series of civil engineering projects dating back to 1834. Many of the problems experienced by the city of Chicago are directly related to its low level topography and the fact that the city is built upon marsh or wet prairie; this combined with a temperate wet climate and the human development of open land, leads to substantial water runoff.

Lake Michigan was ineffective in carrying sewage away from the city, in the event of a rainstorm, the water pumps that provided drinking water to Chicagoans became contaminated with sewage. Though no epidemics were caused by this system, it soon became clear that the sewage system needed to be diverted to flow away from Lake Michigan in order to handle an increasing population's sanitation needs; the Illinois and Michigan Canal was built from 1836 to 1848 to divert some sewage water from the Chicago River. In 1900, to improve general health standards, the flow of the main branch of the Chicago River was reversed to drain water from Lake Michigan, as opposed to having the river flow into Lake Michigan; this further improved the sanitation of Lake Michigan, helped to prevent further waterborne epidemic scares. Between 1864 and 1867, under the leadership of Ellis S. Chesbrough, the city built the two-mile Chicago lake tunnel to a new water intake location further from the shore. Crews began from the shore, tunneling in two shifts a day.

Clay and earth were drawn away by mule-drawn railcars. Masons lined the five-foot-diameter tunnel with two layers of brick; the lake and shore crews met in November 1866, less than seven inches out of alignment. A second tunnel was added in 1874; the construction of the Sanitary and Ship Canal, enlargements to the North Shore Channel, the construction of the Cal-Sag Channel, the construction of locks at the mouth of the Chicago River brought further improvements to the sanitary issues of the time. These projects blocked further amounts of sewage from draining into Lake Michigan; the projects brought fresh lake water to inland waterways to further dilute sewage, in the waterways. Surrounding farmland engaged in flood control projects; the Illinois Farm Drainage Act of 1879 established drainage districts. These districts were named for the basin they drained—for example, the Fox River Drainage District. After World War II, suburban communities began to realize the benefits of separating stormwater from sewage water and began to construct separate sewer and storm drainage lines.

The primary benefit of wastestream separation is that storm water requires less treatment than sewage before being returned to the environment. Flood damage grew markedly after 1938, when surrounding natural drainage areas were lost to development and human activity. Serious flooding has occurred in the Chicago metropolitan area in 1849, 1855, 1885, 1938, 1952, 1954, 1957, 1961, 1973, 1979, 1986, 1987, 1996, 2007, 2008—but most record-setting crests occurred after 1948. In the 1960s, the concept of Deep Tunnel was studied and recommended as a solution to continuing flooding issues. Phase 1, the creation of 109.4 miles of drainage tunnels ranging from 9 to 33 feet in diameter, up to 350 feet underground, was adopted in 1972, commenced in 1975, completed and operational by 2006. Phase 2, creation of reservoirs intended for flood control, remains underway with an expected completion date of 2029. Up to 2.3 billion US gallons of sewage can be stored and held in the tunnels themselves while awaiting processing at sewage treatment plants, which release treated water into the Calumet and Des Plaines rivers.

Additional sewage is stored at the 7.9-billion-US-gallon Thornton Composite Reservoir, the 350-million-US-gallon Gloria Alitto Majewski Reservoir near O'Hare International Airport. The 3.5-billion-US-gallon McCook Reservoir was completed in 2017 and will be expanded to 10 billion US gallons by 2029. Because the reservoirs are decommissioned quarries, construction has been delayed by decreased demand for the quarried gravel. Upon completion, the TARP system will have a storage capacity of 17.5 billion US gallons. Severe weather events have forced water management agencies to pump excess wastewater into the lake and river in order to prevent flooding; these incidents have decreased in frequency as more of the Deep Tunnel system has become operational. Long considered an open sewer, the Chicago River now hosts more than 50 species of fish and increased wildlife along its shores. Substantial development is occurring along many portions of the riverfront. Canoeing is once again allowed on the waterway, but swimming is still prohibited due to high pollution levels.

On October 3, 1986, a heavy thunderstorm drenched the southern portion of the Deep Tunnel area with several inches of rain