A cottage is a small house. It may carry the connotation of being an old-fashioned building. In modern usage, a cottage is a modest cosy dwelling in a rural or semi-rural location; the word comes from the architecture of England, where it referred to a house with ground floor living space and an upper floor of one or more bedrooms fitting under the eaves. In British English the term now denotes a small dwelling of traditional build, although it can be applied to modern construction designed to resemble traditional houses. Cottages may be detached houses, or terraced, such as those built to house workers in mining villages; the tied accommodation provided to farm workers was a cottage, see cottage garden. Peasant farmers were once known as cotters; the holiday cottage exists in many cultures under different names. In American English, "cottage" is one term for such holiday homes, although they may be called a "cabin", "chalet", or "camp". In certain countries the term "cottage" has local synonyms: In Finnish mökki, in Estonian suvila, in Swedish stuga, in Norwegian hytte, in Slovak chalupa, in Russian дача.
There are cottage-style dwellings in American cities that were built for the purpose of housing slaves. In places such as Canada, "cottage" carries no connotations of size. In the Middle Ages, cottages housed agricultural workers and their families; the term cottage denoted the dwelling of a cotter. Thus, cottages were smaller peasant units. In that early period, a documentary reference to a cottage would most mean, not a small stand-alone dwelling as today, but a complete farmhouse and yard. Thus, in the Middle Ages, the word cottage denoted not just a dwelling, but included at least a dwelling and a barn, as well as a fenced yard or piece of land enclosed by a gate; the word is a blend of Old English cot, cote "hut" and Old French cot "hut, cottage", from Old Norse kot "hut" and related to Middle Low German kotten. Examples of this may be found in 15th century manor court rolls; the house of the cottage bore the Latin name: "domus", while the barn of the cottage was termed "grangia". On, "cottage" might have denoted a smallholding comprising houses and supporting farmland or woods.
A cottage, in this sense, would include just a few acres of tilled land. Examples of this type included the Welsh Tŷ unnos or "house in a night", built by squatters on a plot of land defined by the throw of an axe from each corner of the property. Much from around the 18th century onwards, the development of industry led to the development of weavers' cottages and miners' cottages. In England and Wales the legal definition of a cottage is a small habitation without land; however under an Elizabethan statute, the cottage had to be built with at least 4 acres of land. Traditionally the owner of the cottage and small holding would be known as a cottager. In the Domesday Book they were referred to as Coterelli. In Welsh a cottage is known as its inhabitant preswlydd. In Scotland and parts of Northern England the equivalent to cottager would be the crofter and the term for the building and its land would be croft. Over the years various Acts of Parliament removed the right of the cottager to hold land.
According to John and Barbara Hammond in their book The Village Labourer, before the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer with land, after the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer without land. In popular modern culture the term cottage is used in a more general and romantic context and can date from any era but the term is applied to pre-modern dwellings. Older, pre-Victorian cottages tend to have restricted height, have construction timber exposed, sometimes intruding into the living space. Modern renovations of such dwellings seek to re-expose timber purlins, posts etc. which have been covered, in an attempt to establish perceived historical authenticity. Older cottages are modest semi-detached or terraced, with only four basic rooms, although subsequent modifications can create more spacious accommodation. A labourer's or fisherman's one-roomed house attached to a larger property, is a particular type of cottage and is called a penty; the term cottage has been used for a larger house, practical rather than pretentious: see Chawton Cottage.
Irish cottages were the homes of farm workers and labourers, but in recent years the term has assumed a romantic connotation when referring to cottages with thatched roofs. These thatched cottages were once to be seen all over Ireland, but most have become dilapidated due to newer and modern developments. However, there has been a recent revival of restoring these old cottages, with people wanting a more traditional home. Today, thatched cottages are now built for the tourist industry and many can be rented out as accommodation. Although the Oxford English Dictionary states that the term cottage is used in North America to represent "a summer residence at a watering-place or a health or pleasure resort," most Americans expect a cottage a summer cottage, to be a small unfinished house. Various editions of the quintessentially American Webster's Dictionary define it a
Flovilla is a city in Butts County, United States. The population was 653 at the 2010 census. Indian Springs State Park is nearby. Flovilla incorporated in 1885. Flovilla is a coined name meaning "village of flowers". Flovilla is located in southeastern Butts County at 33°15′20″N 83°53′54″W. U. S. Route 23 passes through the center of the city, leading northwest 5 miles to Jackson, the county seat, southeast 34 miles to Macon. Indian Springs State Park is located 2 miles west of the city along Georgia State Route 42 and contains a lake, a campground, the springs for which it is named. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 652 people, 206 households, 172 families residing in the city; the population density was 334.7 people per square mile. There were 222 housing units at an average density of 114.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 47.85% White, 51.53% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.46% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population. There were 206 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.5% were non-families. 13.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.17 and the average family size was 3.47. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,194, the median income for a family was $42,679. Males had a median income of $26,507 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,712. About 13.0% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over
A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the area groundwater; the groundwater travels through a network of cracks and fissures—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring; the forcing of the spring to the surface can be the result of a confined aquifer in which the recharge area of the spring water table rests at a higher elevation than that of the outlet. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells; this is possible if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used like a hose by the higher elevated recharge area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Non-artesian springs may flow from a higher elevation through the earth to a lower elevation and exit in the form of a spring, using the ground like a drainage pipe.
Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring; the action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring; the term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns. Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin. Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, the size of the spring outlet. Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth and losing streams.
In some cases entire creeks disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed. Grand Gulf State Park in Missouri is an example of an entire creek vanishing into the groundwater system; the water emerges 9 miles away. Human activity may affect a spring's discharge—withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow. Springs are classified by the volume of the water they discharge; the largest springs are called "first-magnitude", defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet of water per second. Some locations contain many first-magnitude springs, such as Florida where there are at least 27 known to be that size; the scale for spring flow is as follows: Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes; this is why spring water is bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is the subject of deceptive advertising.
Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts sodium carbonate, are called'soda springs'. Many resorts are known as spa towns. Water from springs is clear; however some springs may be colored by the minerals. For instance, water heavy with iron or tannins will have an orange color. In parts of the United States a stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream may be called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a long-term average temperature of its aquifer; the cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate. Springs have been used for a variety of human needs including drinking water, domestic water supply, mills and electricity generation. Other modern uses include recreational activities such as fishing and floating. A sacred spring, or holy well, is a small body of water emerging from underground and revered either in a Christian, pagan or other religious context, sometimes both.
The lore and mythology of ancient Greece was replete with sacred and storied springs—notably, the Corycian and Castalian. In medieval Europe, holy wells were pagan sacred sites that became Christianized; the term "holy well" is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in local folklore. This can take the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the spring water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints. LaMor
Blood Mountain Wilderness
The Blood Mountain Wilderness was designated in 1991 and consists of 7,800 acres. The Wilderness is located within the borders of the Chattahoochee National Forest in Lumpkin County and Union County, Georgia; the Wilderness is managed by the United States Forest Service and is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. In November, 1999, three fires burned through parts of the Blood Mountain Wilderness and the Chatahoochee National Forest. Fire crews came from across the nation to help fight the fires; the highest elevation in the Blood Mountain Wilderness is the 4,458-foot peak of Blood Mountain. The Wilderness includes 10.75 miles of the Appalachian Trail, which may be the most used portion of the AT. The Blood Mountain Wilderness is the first wilderness encountered on the AT after its starting point on Springer Mountain. Due to conflicts with black bears, in 2012 the Forest Service implemented a seasonal requirement for all overnight campers to carry bear-resistant canisters; the requirement goes into effect every year, from March 1 to June 1, it encompasses all areas within quarter mile of the AT, from Jarrard Gap to Neels Gap.
In connection with its management of the Wilderness, the Forest Service promotes adherence to the Leave No Trace principles. The seven Leave No Trace principles are: Plan Ahead and Prepare Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces Dispose of Waste Properly Leave What You Find Minimize Campfire Impacts Respect Wildlife Be Considerate of Other Visitors Wilderness.net entry for the Blood Mountain Wilderness Blood Mountain Wilderness Photos from after the 1999 fire Leave No Trace organization
Treaty of Indian Springs (1825)
The Treaty of Indian Springs known as the Second Treaty of Indian Springs and the Treaty with the Creeks, is a treaty concluded between the Muscogee and the United States on February 12, 1825 at what is now the Indian Springs Hotel Museum. The Muscogee and the United States had signed the First Treaty of Indian Springs in 1821, under which the former ceded their territory east of the Flint River to Georgia. In exchange, the federal government of the United States paid them $200,000 in installments and assumed their debts to the Georgian people. In December 1824, the American envoys Duncan Campbell and James Meriwether tried and failed to secure a treaty that would see the Muscogee cede their territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States; the treaty, agreed was negotiated with six chiefs of the Lower Creek, led by William McIntosh. McIntosh agreed to cede all Muscogee lands east of the Chattahoochee River, including the sacred Ocmulgee National Monument, to Georgia and Alabama, accepted relocation west of the Mississippi River to an equivalent parcel of land along the Arkansas River.
In compensation for the move to unimproved land, to aid in obtaining supplies, the Muscogee nation would receive $200,000 paid in decreasing installments over a period of years. An additional $200,000 was paid directly to McIntosh; the United States Senate ratified the treaty on March 7 by a margin of one vote. The treaty was popular with Georgians, who reelected George Troup governor in the state's first popular election in 1825, it was signed by only six chiefs. On April 29, the Upper Creek chief Menawa took 200 warriors to attack McIntosh at his plantation on the Chattahoochee River in present-day Carroll County, Georgia, they killed him and two other signatories, set fire to the house. Both his sons-in-law and Benjamin Hawkins, Jr. were slated for execution. A delegation from the Creek National Council, led by chief Opothleyahola, traveled to Washington, D. C. with a petition to the American president John Quincy Adams to have it revoked. They negotiated the 1826 Treaty of Washington, in which the Muscogee surrendered most of the lands sought by Georgia under more generous terms, retaining a small piece of land on the Georgia-Alabama border and the Ocmulgee National Monument.
They were, not required to move west. Troup refused to recognize the new treaty, ordered the Muscogee lands surveyed for a land lottery, he began forcibly evicting the Lower Creek. Adams threatened federal intervention, but backed down after Troup mobilized Georgia militia
Fort Pulaski National Monument
Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island between Savannah and Tybee Island, Georgia. It preserves Fort Pulaski, where in 1862 during the American Civil War, the Union Army tested rifled cannon in combat, the success of which rendered brick fortifications obsolete; the fort was used as a prisoner-of-war camp. The National Monument includes all of adjacent McQueens Island. Following the War of 1812, U. S. President James Madison ordered a new system of coastal fortifications to protect the United States against foreign invasion. Construction of a fort to protect the port of Savannah began in 1829 under the direction of Major General Babcock, Second Lieutenant Robert E. Lee, a recent graduate of West Point; the new fort would be located on Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River. In 1833, the facility was named Fort Pulaski in honor of Kazimierz Pulaski, a Polish soldier and military commander who fought in the American Revolution under the command of George Washington.
Pulaski played a large role in training Revolutionary troops. He took part of Savannah. Fort Pulaski belonged to what is known as the Third System of coastal fortifications, which were characterized by greater structural durability than the earlier works. Most of the nearly thirty Third System forts built after 1816 still exist along either the Atlantic or Gulf coasts. Wooden pilings were sunk up to 70 feet into the mud to support an estimated 25 million bricks. Fort Pulaski was completed in 1847 following eighteen years of construction and nearly $1 million in construction costs. Walls were 11 feet thick, thought to be impenetrable except by only the largest land artillery; the smooth bore cannon of the time had a range of only around a half mile, the nearest land was much further away than that. It was assumed. Lt. Lee remarked that "one might as well bombard the Rocky Mountains as Fort Pulaski". Though completed in 1847, Fort Pulaski was under the control of only two caretakers until 1860 when South Carolina seceded from the United States and set in motion the Civil War.
It was at this time that Georgia governor Joseph E. Brown ordered Fort Pulaski to be taken by the state of Georgia. A steamship carrying 110 men from Savannah traveled downriver and the fort was seized by the state of Georgia. Following the secession of Georgia in February 1861, the state joined the Confederate States of America. Confederate troops moved into the fort. By December 1861, Tybee Island was thought to be too isolated and unprepared for conflict and was abandoned by Confederate forces; this allowed Union troops to gain a foothold across the Savannah River from Fort Pulaski. Union forces under Quincy A. Gillmore began construction of batteries along the beaches of Tybee. On the morning of April 10, 1862 Union forces asked for the surrender of the Fort to prevent needless loss of life. Colonel Charles H. Olmstead, commander of the Confederate garrison, rejected the offer. Fort Pulaski was prepared for a possible infantry attack. However, it never endured a direct land assault. Using 36 guns, including the new James Rifled Cannon and Parrott rifles, Union troops began the long sustained bombardment of Fort Pulaski.
The rifled projectiles could be fired farther than the larger and heavier smoothbore cannonballs. Within 30 hours, the new rifled cannon had breached one of the fort's corner walls. Shells now passed through the fort dangerously close to the main powder magazine. Reluctantly, Colonel Olmstead surrendered the fort. Only two soldiers, one Confederate and one Union, were injured in the attack. Olmstead's decision to surrender haunted him for decades. We were isolated beyond any possibility of help from the Confederate authorities, I did not feel warranted in exposing the garrison to the hazard of the blowing up of our main magazine -- a danger which had just been proved well within the limits of probability.... There are times when a soldier must hold his position to the last extremity, which means extermination, but this was not one of them.... That the fort could and would be destroyed by the force of the enemy was a demonstrated fact... while our own power to harm them had been reduced to a minimum...
I am still convinced. Gillmore succeeded entirely because of his rifled cannon, which caused massive damage in the walls of the fort. Gillmore's triumph won him promotion from engineer captain to brigadier general. Within six weeks of the surrender, Union forces repaired the Fort and all shipping in and out of Savannah ceased; the loss of Savannah as a viable Confederate port crippled the Southern war effort. With the Fort securely in Union control, General David Hunter, commander of the Union garrison issued General Order Number 7, which stated that all slaves in Florida and South Carolina were now free. President Abraham Lincoln rescinded the order, but issued his own Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. At this time, Fort Pulaski was made a final destination on the Underground Railroad as slaves throughout the area were freed upon arrival on Cockspur Island; the garrison of Union soldiers reached 600 during the initial occupation, but as the War dragged on it became obvious the Southern forces would not be able to retake the fort.
The garrison was reduced to about 250. Late in the war, the fort was turned into a prison for a group of captured Confederate officers known as "The Immortal Six Hundred." Thirteen of these men would die at the fort. After the war ended, Fort Pulaski continued as a political prison for a short while, it woul
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, in Brazil. The term is used in the Australian state of Victoria; the equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar under state rather than federal administration. Local government entities below state level may maintain parks, e.g. regional parks or county parks. In general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California; as of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, according to the National Association of State Park Directors.
There are some 739 million annual visits to the country's state parks. The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail, 217,367 campsites, 8,277 cabins and lodges across U. S. state parks. The largest state park system in the United States is Alaska State Parks, with over 100 sites encompassing 3.3 million acres. Many states include designations beyond "state park" in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, state nature reserves; some state park systems include historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, established in 1885; however several public parks or maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a public park since 1825, although it did not gain the title "State Park" until 1931. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the federal government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890.
In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its northern forests as "The State Park" but, needing money, sold most of it to lumber companies within 20 years. The first state park with the designation of "state park" was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, first a national park before being transferred to the state of Michigan. Many state park systems date to the 1930s, when around 800 state parks across the country were developed with assistance from federal job creation programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration. List of U. S. state parks Wilderness preservation systems in Carol. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development." Wisconsin Magazine of History: 184-204. In JSTOR Landrum, Ney C; the State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. "Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement." Oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp: 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. "The State Park Movement: 1864-1933.
"When Forests Trumped Parks: The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950." Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp: 203-224