Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil.
The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.
The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valley
Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, in 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of Indians and founded Santiago in 1541. He extended Spanish rule south to the Bío-Bío River in 1546, fought again in Peru and he began to conquer Chile south of the Bío-Bío and founded Concepción in 1550. He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Araucanian Indians, the city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him. Pedro de Valdivia is believed to have born in Villanueva de la Serena in Extremadura. In 1520 he joined the Spanish army of Charles I and fought in Flanders in 1521 and he reached America in 1535, spent an uneventful year in Venezuela, and moved on to Peru in 1537. There he took part on the side of Hernando Pizarro in his struggle against Diego de Almagro and fought in the battle of Las Salinas in 1538, afterwards he accompanied Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro to conquer both the province of Collao and las Charcas in High Peru.
As compensation for his help in conquering these lands, he was awarded a silver mine, Valdivia had married Marina Ortíz de Gaete in Spain, but in Peru he became attached to the widow Inés de Suárez, who was to accompany him to Chile as his mistress. After the failure of the expedition of Diego de Almagro in 1536, Valdivia asked governor Francisco Pizarro for permission to complete the conquest of that territory. He got his permission but was appointed only Lieutenant Governor, the expedition was fraught with problems from the beginning. Valdivia had to sell the lands and the mine that had been assigned to him in order to finance the expedition, a shortage of soldiers and adventurers was problematic since they were not interested in conquering what they were sure were extremely poor lands. Furthermore, while he was preparing the expedition, Pedro Sancho de Hoz arrived from Spain with a grant for the same country. To avoid difficulties, Pizarro advised the two competitors to join their interests, and on December 28,1539, a contract of partnership was signed, the small expedition finally left Cuzco, Peru in January,1540, with Pizarros permission and Pedro Sancho de Hoz as partner.
They carried with them a plethora of seeds for planting, a drove of swine and brood mares, only one woman was among the travelers, Inés de Suárez, Valdivias mistress. En route more Spaniards joined the expedition, attracted by Valdivias fame as a brilliant leader and these conquistadores had formed part of the failed campaigns to the highlands of Bolivia and all in all around 150 Spaniards joined the expedition. Valdivia resolved to avoid the road over the Andes, which had proved fatal to Almagros army, on the way, Pedro Sancho de Hoz, seeking sole leadership, tried to murder Valdivia but failed. He was pardoned but from on had to subordinate status. The natives of the region were not pleased by the return of the Spaniards due to the maltreatment they had suffered under Almagro, with many promises, Valdivia was able to regain their trust
Cholula (Mesoamerican site)
Cholula, was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BC, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier. The site of Cholula is just west of the city of Puebla. Its immense pyramid is the largest such structure in the Americas, and it is located in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of the central Mexican highlands. It is surrounded to the west by the snow-covered peaks Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl, the summer rainy season and the melted snow in winter provide a great environment for irrigation agriculture. There is a confluence of several streams with the Atoyac River that creates a wetland to the north. This has resulted in abundant and excellent agriculture during the colonial period, maize is the major crop cultivated but they harvested maguey and cochineal for dye. The soil is rich in clay, which made pottery and brick-making an important part of their economy and elaborate decorative capes were popular. Cholula’s strategical location in the center of the Mexican highlands gives it a place as a trade outpost.
Here, trade routes connected the Gulf coast, the Valley of Mexico, Tehuacan Valley, from there, trade routes went to the Pacific coast, where the longer Pacific Coast communication and trade route existed. Because of its location, Cholula served as the center where primary trade routes. Textiles were of importance for Cholula’s economy. During the Postclassic period they were a unit of tribute. Textiles were manufactured for local consumption and traded extensively by different merchants that frequented the city, textile production accounts are provided by ethnohistorical and archaeological sources. Spanish writings from Colonial times have noted their excellence in dying techniques, artifacts such as spindle whorls found at different Cholula site loci provide evidence for the extensive production of textiles in the site. These are rare from the Formative and the Classic periods but become more prevalent in the Postclassic, only unbaked-clay whorls may have been used during the earlier periods but these are not preserved in the archaeological record.
The high concentration of spindle whorls recovered from Cholula in comparison to other Mesoamerican sites attests to the important role played in their economy. Cholula grew from a village to a regional center between AD600 and 700. The earliest occupation dates back to the Early Formative period, in the 1970s, Mountjoy discovered a waterlogged deposit dating to the Late Middle Formative period near the ancient lake shore
Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa and claimed the lands for Spain, Francisco Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Spain in modern-day Extremadura, Spain. He was the son of infantry colonel Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisca González. His date of birth is uncertain, but it is believed to be sometime in the 1470s, little attention was paid to his education and he grew up illiterate. His father was a colonel of infantry who served in Navarre and his mother married late in life and had a son Francisco Martín de Alcántara, who was at the conquest of Peru with his half-brother from its inception. Through his father, Francisco was a cousin, once removed. On 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Gulf of Urabá in Tierra Firme, Pizarro became a participant in Ojedas failed colony, commanding the remnants until he abandoned it with the survivors.
He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso in 1513, in 1513, Pizarro accompanied Vasco Núñez de Balboa in his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific coast. The following year, Pedrarias Dávila became the appointed governor of Castilla de Oro. During the next five years, Pizarro became an associate of Dávila. When Dávila decided to get rid of Balboa out of distrust, he instructed Pizarro to personally arrest him, Balboa was beheaded in January 1519. For his loyalty to Dávila, Pizarro was rewarded with the positions of mayor, on 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Urabá. He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso and, in 1513, reports of Perus riches and Cortéss success in Mexico tantalized Pizarro. He undertook two expeditions to conquer the Incan Empire in 1524 and in 1526, both failed as a result of native hostilities, bad weather and lack of provisions. Pedro de los Ríos, the Governor of Panama, made an effort to recall Pizarro, in April 1528, he reached northern Peru and found the natives rich with precious metals.
This discovery gave Pizarro the motivation to plan an expedition to conquer the area. He returned to Panama to make arrangements, but the Governor refused to grant permission for the project, Pizarro returned to Spain to appeal directly to King Charles I. His plea was successful and he received not only a license for the proposed expedition and he was joined by family and friends and the expedition left Panama in 1530
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Before the conquest, this territory contained a number of competing Mesoamerican kingdoms, the majority of which were Maya. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as infidels who needed to be converted and pacified. Several Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast, the Spanish conquest of the Maya was a prolonged affair, the Maya kingdoms resisted integration into the Spanish Empire with such tenacity that their defeat took almost two centuries. Pedro de Alvarado arrived in Guatemala from the newly conquered Mexico in early 1524, commanding a force of Spanish conquistadors and native allies. Geographic features across Guatemala now bear Nahuatl placenames owing to the influence of these Mexican allies, the Kaqchikel Maya initially allied themselves with the Spanish, but soon rebelled against excessive demands for tribute and did not finally surrender until 1530. In the meantime the other major highland Maya kingdoms had each been defeated in turn by the Spanish and allied warriors from Mexico and native tactics and technology differed greatly.
The Spanish viewed the taking of prisoners as a hindrance to outright victory, whereas the Maya prioritised the capture of live prisoners and of booty. The Maya preferred raiding and ambush to large-scale warfare, using spears and wooden swords with inset obsidian blades, in response to the use of Spanish cavalry, the highland Maya took to digging pits and lining them with wooden stakes. These letters were despatched to Tenochtitlan, addressed to Cortés but with an audience in mind. Gonzalo wrote an account that mostly supports that of Pedro de Alvarado, Pedro de Alvarados brother Jorge wrote another account to the king of Spain that explained it was his own campaign of 1527–1529 that established the Spanish colony. His account was finished around 1568, some 40 years after the campaigns it describes, Hernán Cortés described his expedition to Honduras in the fifth letter of his Cartas de Relación, in which he details his crossing of what is now Guatemalas Petén Department. Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote a critical account of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
The Brevísima Relación de la Destrucción de las Indias was first published in 1552 in Seville, other accounts were in the form of questionnaires answered before colonial magistrates to protest and register a claim for recompense. A letter from the defeated Tzutujil Maya nobility of Santiago Atitlán to the Spanish king written in 1571 details the exploitation of the subjugated peoples, Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán was a colonial Guatemalan historian of Spanish descent who wrote La Recordación Florida, called Historia de Guatemala. The book was written in 1690 and is regarded as one of the most important works of Guatemalan history, field investigation has tended to support the estimates of indigenous population and army sizes given by Fuentes y Guzmán. Christopher Columbus discovered the New World for the Kingdom of Castile, private adventurers thereafter entered into contracts with the Spanish Crown to conquer the newly discovered lands in return for tax revenues and the power to rule.
In the first decades after the discovery of the new lands and they heard rumours of the rich empire of the Aztecs on the mainland to the west and, in 1519, Hernán Cortés set sail with eleven ships to explore the Mexican coast. By August 1521 the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had fallen to the Spanish, a single soldier arriving in Mexico in 1520 was carrying smallpox and thus initiated the devastating plagues that swept through the native populations of the Americas
Conquistadors /kɒŋˈkɪstəˌdɔːrz/ is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania and Asia, conquering territory and they colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Portugal established a route to China in the early 16th century, sending ships via the southern coast of Africa, human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time, from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. The spread of diseases, including smallpox and typhus. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget. The conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics and their units would often specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups.
Their armies were composed of Iberian and other European soldiers. Native allied troops were largely equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically. Some groups consisted of men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties. These native forces often included African slaves and Native Americans and they not only fought in the battlefield but served as interpreters, servants, teachers and scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were Native American women slaves who worked for the Spaniards, Castilian law prohibited foreigners and non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all conquistadors were Castilian, many foreigners Hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592, german-born Nikolaus Federmann, Hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia.
The origin of people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Castilian law banned Spanish women from travelling to America unless they were married and accompanied by a husband, women who travelled thus include María de Escobar, María Estrada, Marina Vélez de Ortega, Marina de la Caballería, Francisca de Valenzuela, Catalina de Salazar. Some conquistadors married Native American women or had illegitimate children, European young men enlisted in the army because it was one way out of poverty. Catholic priests instructed the soldiers in mathematics, theology, Latin and history, Kings army officers taught military arts. An uneducated young recruit could become a leader, elected by their fellow professional soldiers
The Inca Empire, known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru, the Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572, from 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the son of the sun, the Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old world. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, the Incan economy has been described as feudal, socialist. The economy functioned largely without money and without markets, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers.
Taxes consisted of an obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food, the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, the four suyu. The four suyu were, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu, the name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu, the term Inka means ruler or lord in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000. The Spanish adopted the term as a term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered, the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells a story of three caves. The center cave at Tampu Tuqu was named Qhapaq Tuqu, the other caves were Maras Tuqu and Sutiq Tuqu.
Four brothers and four sisters stepped out of the middle cave and they were, Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Awqa and Ayar Uchu, and Mama Ocllo, Mama Raua, Mama Huaco and Mama Qura. Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans, Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live and they traveled for a long time
Zaculeu or Saqulew is a pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site in the highlands of western Guatemala, about 3.7 kilometres outside of the modern city of Huehuetenango. Occupation at the dates to the Early Classic period of Mesoamerican history. Zaculeu was the capital of the Postclassic Mam kingdom, and was conquered by the Kiche Kingdom of Qumarkaj and it displays a mixture of Mam and Kiche style architecture. In AD1525 the city was attacked by Spanish conquistadors under Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras during a siege that lasted several months, Kaybil Balam, the citys last ruler, finally surrendered to the Spanish due to starvation. The site contains a number of temple-pyramids with talud-tablero style architecture, the pyramids and governmental palaces are grouped around a series of large public plazas. The site holds a ballcourt for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame, the site was originally fortified with walls. The site was restored by the United Fruit Company in the late 1940s and it is open to tourists and includes a small museum.
The name Zaculeu means white earth in the Mam and Qanjobal languages, from saq meaning white, in the Mam language, the site is called Chinabajul. The archaeological site is located in the village of San Lorenzo on the outskirts of Huehuetenango city. Zaculeu is the main tourist attraction in the Huehuetenango area, Zaculeu is located at an altitude of 1,900 metres above mean sea level, and is bordered by the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes mountain range. Zaculeu is located in an area of fertile soils close to the Selegua, the site is situated on a plateau overlooking the Selegua River, which flows to the west of the city. Deep ravines bordering the site to the south and east protected its access, the only access to the site is via a narrow land bridge to the north which unites the plateau to the general level of the valley floor. The Zaculeu plateau measures 11,178 square varas, Zaculeu was first occupied in the Early Classic Period, and the buildings from this era show the architectural influence of the great metropolis of Teotihuacán in the Valley of Mexico.
The largest constructions date from the Classic Period, to these were added other plaza groups and buildings in the Early Postclassic and Late Postclassic in an unbroken history. Zaculeu has been used as a site by Mam Maya continuously to the present. Zaculeu came under the influence of central Mexico again in the Late Classic, the Kiche Kingdom of Qumarkaj conquered Zaculeu in the Postclassic. Traditionally that has been calculated as during the 15th century AD based on ethnohistoric accounts, the city was dominated by the Kiche until the Spanish Conquest of the early 16th century. The Kiche king Ququmatz died in battle against a group of the northern Mam and his son Kiqab continued where his father had left off and completed the conquest of the people
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Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalvas exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico and he is considered the conquistador of much of Central America, including Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Historiography portrays that indigenous people, both Nahuatl-speakers and speakers of languages, called him Tonatiuh, meaning sun in the Nahuatl language. Yet he was called Red Sun in Nahuatl, which allows a variety of interpretations, whether this epithet refers to Alvarados red hair, some esoteric quality attributed to him, or both, is disputed. Pedro de Alvarado was flamboyant and charismatic, and was both a brilliant military commander and a cruel, hardened man and his hair and beard were blond, which earned him the name of Tonatiuh from the Aztecs, the name of one of their sun gods. He was handsome, and presented an appearance, but was volatile. He was ruthless in his dealings with the peoples he set out to conquer.
Historians judge that his greed drove him to excessive cruelty, and he was a poor governor of territories he had conquered, and restlessly sought out new adventures. His tactical brutality, such as the massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan and he was accused of cruelty against fellow Spaniards. Alvarado was little suited to govern, when he held governing positions and his letters show no interest in civil matters, and he only discussed exploration and war. Alvarado stubbornly resisted attempts by the Spanish Crown to establish ordered taxation in Guatemala, american historian William H. Prescott described Alvarados character in the following terms, Alvarado was a cavalier of high family and chivalrous, and warm personal friend. He had talents for action, was possessed of firmness and intrepidity, while his frank, underneath this showy exterior, the future conqueror of Guatemala concealed a heart rash and cruel. He was altogether destitute of that moderation, which, in the position he occupied, was a quality of more worth than all the rest.
Spanish chronicler Antonio de Remesal commented that Alvarado desired more to be feared than loved by his subjects, in his easy recourse to violence, Alvarado was a product of his time, and Alvarado was not the only conquistador to have resorted to such actions. Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro carried out deeds of similar cruelty, Pedro de Alvarado was born in 1485 in the town of Badajoz, Extremadura. His father was Gómez de Alvarado, and his mother was Leonor de Contreras, Pedro de Alvarado had a twin sister and four full-blood brothers, Gonzalo, Gómez, and Juan. Pedro had a half brother, named Juan, referred to in contemporary sources as Juan el Bastardo. Very little is known of Pedro de Alvarados early life before his arrival in the Americas, during the conquest of the Americas, tales of his youthful exploits in Spain became popular legends, but their veracity is doubtful
Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro, known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion and rival of Francisco Pizarro. He participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru and is credited as the first European discoverer of Chile, Almagro lost his left eye battling with coastal natives in the New World. In 1525 he joined the Pizarro brothers and Hernándo de Luque at Panama for the conquest of Peru, Diego de Almagro was born and raised in Almagro, Ciudad Real, Spain with parents Juan de Montenegro and Elvira Gutiérrez. He married twice, with Ana Martínez and Mencia and got two children, son Diego de Almagro II wih Ana Martínez and daughter Isabel with Mencia. Diego de Almagro arrived in the New World on June 30,1514, the expedition had landed in the city of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, where many other future conquistadors had already arrived, among them Francisco Pizarro. There are not many details of Almagros activities during this period, De Almagro eventually returned and settled in Darien, where he was granted an encomienda.
He built a house and made a living from agriculture, De Almagro undertook his first conquest on November 1515, commanding 260 men as he founded Villa del Acla, named after the Indian place. Due to illness he had to leave behind this mission to the licenciate Gaspar de Espinosa, Espinosa decided to undertake a new expedition, which departed in December 1515 with 200 men, including De Almagro and Francisco Pizarro, who for the first time was designated as a captain. During this expedition, which lasted 14 months, De Almagro, during this time De Almagro established a friendship with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who was in charge of Acla. Current historians do not believe that De Almagro was expected to participate in Balboas expedition, De Almagro took part in the various expeditions that took place in the Gulf of Panama, taking part again in Espinosas parties. Espinosa was supported by using Balboas ships, De Almagro was recorded as a witness on the lists of natives whom Espinosa ordered to be carried.
De Almagro remained as a settler in the newly founded city of Panama. For four years he stayed there, working at the management of his properties and he took Ana Martínez, an indigenous woman, as a common-law wife. In this period, his first son, el Mozo, was born to them, by 1524 an association of conquest regarding South America was formalized among Almagro and Luque. By the beginning of August 1524, they had received the permission to discover and conquer lands further south. De Almagro would remain in Panama to recruit men and gather supplies for the led by Pizarro. After several expeditions to South America, Pizarro secured his stay in Peru with the Capitulation on 6 July 1529, during Pizarros continued exploration of Incan territory, he and his men succeeded in defeating the Inca army under Emperor Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca in 1532. De Almagro joined Pizarro soon afterward, bringing men and arms