Breaking called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is set to songs containing drum breaks in hip-hop, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns. Breaking was created by African American youth during early 1970s; the earliest breakdancing groups included the "Zulu Kings" and "Clark Kent". By the late seventies, the dance had begun to spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity. A practitioner of this dance is called b-girl, or breaker. Although the term "breakdance" is used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.
Instead of the original term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the art-form as breakdancing, by which it came to be known. Some enthusiasts consider "breakdancing" an ignorant and derogatory term due to the media’s exploitation of the artform; the media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called "tricks" were everything trading the culture for money and promotion. The term "breakdancing" is problematic because it has become a diluted umbrella term that includes popping and electric boogaloo, which are not styles of "breakdance", but are funk styles that were developed separately from breaking in California; the dance itself is properly called "breaking" by rappers such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def, Darryl McDaniels of Run-D. M. C; the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", "breaker" were the original terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Herc's breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ, responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music.
The obvious connection of the term "breaking" is to the word "breakbeat". DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term "breaking" was 1970s slang for "getting excited", "acting energetically" or "causing a disturbance". Most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", and/or "breaker" when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in hip-hop culture, the term "breakdancer" may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture. B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as "breakers". Frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, "we were known as b-boys", hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, "b-boys, what you call break boys... or b-girls, what you call break girls." In addition, co-founder of Rock Steady Crew Santiago "Jo Jo" Torres, Rock Steady Crew member Marc "Mr. Freeze" Lemberger, hip-hop historian Fab 5 Freddy, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Tech N9ne use the term "b-boy".
Many elements of breakdancing can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon and Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert, both of Rock Steady Crew, cite James Brown and Kung Fu films as influences. Many of the acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. In the 1877 book'Rob Roy on the Baltic' John MacGregor describes seeing near Norrköping a'...young man quite alone, practicing over and over the most inexplicable leap in the air...he swung himself up, round on his hand for a point, when his upper leg described a great circle...'. The engraving shows a young man breakdancing; the dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or'salmon district dance'. In 1894 Thomas Edison filmed Walter Wilkins, Denny Toliver and Joe Rastus dancing and performing a "breakdown". In 1898 he filmed a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins. However, it was not until the 1970s that b-boying developed as a defined dance style in the United States.
There is evidence of this style of dancing in Kaduna, Nigeria in 1959. Beginning with DJ Kool Herc, Bronx-based DJs would take the rhythmic breakdown sections of dance records and prolong them by looping them successively; the breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. This led to the first battles—turn-based dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity and musicality; these battles occurred in cyphers—circles of people gathered around the breakers. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated entirely by Puerto Rican-Americans. A separate but related dance form which influenced breakdancing is uprock called rocking or Brooklyn rock. Uprock is an aggressive dance that involves two dancers mimicking ways of fighting each other using mimed weaponry in rhythm with the music.
Uprock as a dance style of its own never gained the same widespread popularity as breakdancing, except for some specific moves adopted by breakers who use it as a variation for their toprock. When used in a breakdancing battle, opponents respond by performing similar uprock moves creating a short uprock battle; some breakers argue that because uprock was a separate dance style it should never be mixed with breakdancing and that the uprock moves performed by breakers toda
Bass describes tones of low frequency and range from 16 to 256 Hz and bass instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range C2-C4. They can cover a wide range of musical roles. Since producing low pitches requires a long air column or string, for stringed instruments, a large hollow body, the string and wind bass instruments are the largest instruments in their families or instrument classes. In musical compositions, such as songs and pieces, these are the lowest-pitched parts of the harmony. In choral music without instrumental accompaniment, the bass is supplied by adult male bass singers. For an accompanied choir, the bass is provided by pipe organ or piano. In an orchestra, the basslines are played by the double bass and cellos, bassoon or contrabassoon, low brass such as the tuba and bass trombone, the timpani. In many styles of traditional music such as Bluegrass, in styles such as Rockabilly and Big Band and Bebop jazz, the bass role is filled by the upright bass. In most rock and pop bands and in jazz fusion groups, the bass role is filled by the electric bass.
In some 20th and 21st century pop genres, such as 1980s pop, hip hop music and Electronic Dance Music, the bass role may be filled with a bass synthesizer. When bass notes are played in a musical ensemble such an orchestra, they are used to provide a counterpoint or counter-melody, in a harmonic context either to outline or juxtapose the progression of the chords, or with percussion to underline the rhythm. In popular music, the bass part, called the "bassline" provides harmonic and rhythmic support to the band; the bass player is a member of the rhythm section in a band, along with the drummer, rhythm guitarist, and, in some cases, a keyboard instrument player. The bass player emphasizes the root or fifth of the chord in her basslines and accents the strong beats. In classical music, different forms of bass are: basso recitante. Basso continuo was an approach to writing music during the Baroque music era. With basso continuo, a written-out bassline served to set out the chord progression for an entire piece, with the bassline being played by pipe organ or harpsichord and the chords being improvised by players of chordal instruments.
"The bass differs from other voices because of the particular role it plays in supporting and defining harmonic motion. It does so at levels ranging from immediate, chord-by-chord events to the larger harmonic organization of a entire work." As seen in the musical instrument classification article, categorizing instruments can be difficult. For example, some instruments fall into more than one category; the cello is considered a tenor instrument in some orchestral settings, but in a string quartet it is the bass instrument. Examples grouped by general form and playing technique include: Double bass from the viol or violin family Bass guitar and acoustic bass guitar, instruments shaped and held like guitars, that play in the bass range; the electric bass guitar is the instrument referred to as a "bass" in pop and rock music. A bass horn, such as a tuba and sousaphone from the wind family and low-tuned versions of specific types of brass and woodwind instruments, such as bassoon, bass clarinet, bass trombone and bass saxophone, etc.
Keyboard bass, a keyboard alternative to the bass guitar or double bass Washtub bass, a simple folk instrumentA musician playing one of these instruments is known as a bassist. Other more specific terms such as'bass guitarist','double bassist','bass player', etc. may be used. Keyboard bass Pedal keyboard Bass drum Timpani Double bass Bass guitar Washtub bass Bassoon Bass clarinet Bass saxophone Contrabassoon Baritone Saxophone Tuba Bass trombone Euphonium With recorded music playback, for owners of 33 rpm LPs and 45 singles, the availability of loud and deep bass was limited by the ability of the phonograph record stylus to track the groove. While some hi-fi aficionados had solved the problem by using other playback sources, such as reel-to-reel tape players which were capable of delivering accurate deep bass from acoustic sources, or synthetic bass not found in nature, with the popular introduction of the compact cassette in the late 1960s it became possible to add more low frequency content to recordings.
By the mid-1970s, 12" vinyl singles, which allowed for "more bass volume", were used to record disco, reggae and hip-hop tracks.
Breakaway (2011 film)
Breakaway is a 2011 Canadian sports-comedy film directed by Robert Lieberman, produced by Akshay Kumar and Paul Gross. The film stars debutant Vinay Virmani opposite Camilla Belle, with Rob Lowe, Russell Peters and Anupam Kher in pivotal roles, it features Drake and Ludacris in cameo roles. The film was released on 23 September 2011 and received negative reviews, failing to sell tickets in the Indian market, it was released in two languages and dubbed into Hindi as Speedy Singhs Breakaway, or Speedy Singhs, is the story of Rajveer Singh, a young and dedicated teenager who gave up college halfway through due to his lack of interest, one of the many conflicts between him and his father Darvesh. Rajveer and Darvesh had never gotten along. Rajveer still meets up with his Sikh friends, when they get the time, they play hockey as a hobby. One day, while practising hockey, a few players on the Hammerheads insult the Singhs, Rajveer and his friends beat the other players at hockey. Realizing how good they are, Rajveer decides to make a hockey team with his friends.
His father disagrees with this, forbids him to play hockey again. Unwilling to take the sorrow, his friends convince him to join the team, all together, they name their team, "Speedy Singhs"; the Speedy Singhs turn out to be a huge commercial success, but they need to get into the Hyundai Cup championship to earn real fame, so using the help of Coach Dan Winters, they all start practicing day and night for the tournament. Rajveer lies to his family by telling them he is working extra at his job, but never has the courage to tell them that he plays in his own hockey team; the tournament begins, during the first match Rajveer is caught by his businessman uncle, Sammy. Sammy promises not to tell Darvesh, so goes on the tournament with Speedy Singhs. Whilst playing, Rajveer falls in love with Melissa; the two love each other, keep on meeting. A night before the hockey finals, Rajveer lies to his father and says he is going to New York for a job delivery, though his father spots him playing hockey in the semi-finals.
When a night out celebrating with the team ends poorly, Raj winds up arguing with his father, losing his position as captain after arguing with the coach, quitting the team. Though the Speedy Singhs make it to the finals against the Hammerheads without Raj, Melissa reveals that the Speedy Singhs must wear helmets, which they cannot do unless they remove their turbans. Inspired by the story of why Sikh men wear turbans, Raj obtains special helmets that will accommodate the team's turbans and pays for the legal fees to allow the special helmets, he apologizes to Dan and the Speedy Singhs for his selfishness and they accept him back. The day of the finals coincides with Raj's cousin Sonu's wedding, which many of the Speedy Singhs are attending; when Sonu thanks all the guests, he brings up how the Speedy Singhs have become a source of pride for the community and encourages everyone to attend the finals. Rajveer explains his passion about hockey to his father. Though still angry, Darvesh lets him refuses to go to the game.
The Speedy Singhs do well in the game until the Hammerheads tie the game at the end of the third period, forcing overtime. Darvesh, after listening to the game at the temple, arrives at the arena to show his support. Rajveer, with his father's acceptance, makes the winning goal and the Speedy Singhs win the game and on hugs Darvesh in the rink. Special appearances. Including special features by RDB, Jassi Sidhu, Rishi Rich Productions, Bohemia, J. Hind, Sukshinder Shinda, Jazzy B and Malkit Singh. Breakaway received negative reviews from critics upon release. Rotten Tomatoes reports a 20% approval rating, based on five reviews; the film was dubbed into Hindi and retitled as Speedy Singhs, but opened to negative reviews from Indian critics. Taran Adarsh from Bollywood Hungama rated it as 1.5 out of 5 and said "Speedy Singhs fails to deliver!" Komal Nahta gave it 1 out of 5 stars and claimed "If you want to watch a disaster version of Chak De! India watch Speedy Singhs!" At the box office, the film subsequently failed to pick up over the weekend.
The film faced a further drop throughout the next few days worldwide, was declared a "disaster" by Box Office India. Breakaway on IMDb
South Asia or Southern Asia, is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia; the current territories of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka form South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is an economic cooperation organisation in the region, established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia. South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2, 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the world's land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world.
Overall, it accounts for about 39.49% of Asia's population, over 24% of the world's population, is home to a vast array of people. In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus and Sikhs, it has the largest population of Muslims in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as over 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists. The total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical. Aside from the central region of South Asia part of the British Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries. Myanmar is included in Southeast Asia by others; some do not include Afghanistan, others question whether Afghanistan should be considered a part of South Asia or the Middle East. The current territories of Bangladesh and Pakistan, which were the core of the British Empire from 1857 to 1947, form the central region of South Asia, in addition to Afghanistan, a British protectorate until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war.
The mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan, the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are included as well. Myanmar is added, by various deviating definitions based on substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well; the common concept of South Asia is inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, with several exceptions. The Aden Colony, British Somaliland and Singapore, though administered at various times under the Raj, have not been proposed as any part of South Asia. Additionally Burma was administered as part of the Raj until 1937, but is now considered a part of Southeast Asia and is a member state of ASEAN; the 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining Union of India or Dominion of Pakistan. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India,The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a contiguous block of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries – Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka – and added Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2007.
China and Myanmar have applied for the status of full members of SAARC. This bloc of countries include two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj – Nepal, Bhutan. Afghanistan was a British protectorate from 1878 until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war; the World Factbook, based on geo-politics and economy defines South Asia as comprising Afghanistan, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territory, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement incorporated Afghanistan in 2011, the World Bank grouping of countries in the region includes all eight members comprising South Asia and SAARC as well, the same goes for the United Nations Children's Fund; the United Nations Statistics Division's scheme of sub-regions include all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia, along with Iran only for statistical purposes. Population Information Network includes Afghanistan, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka as part of South Asia.
Maldives, in view of its characteristics, was admitted as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network only in principle. The Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region includes only the original seven signatories of SAARC; the British Indian Ocean Territory is connected to the region by a publication of Jane's for security considerations. The region may include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but is now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang; the inclusion of Myanmar in South Asia is without consensus, with many considering it a part of Southeast Asia and others including it within South Asia. Afghanistan was of importance to the British colonial empire after the Second Anglo-Afghan War over 1878–1880. Afghanistan remained a British protectorate until 1919, when a treaty with Vladimir Lenin included the granting of independe
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and
Hindi cinema metonymously referred to as Bollywood, known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in Mumbai, India. The term originates as a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood"; the Hindi-language film industry is related to Tamil film industry, Telugu film industry and others industries, which combined are components of Indian Cinema, the largest film industry in the world. Although American film industry has produced more than 150 musicals films by 1930 with first introduction of The Jazz Singer in the west, the world's first musical-talkie film, it took India more than 3 years to import the sound sequence technology but went on to produce its first song-sequence talkie film Alam Ara in the year 1931. Since Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre exceeding Hollywood's total musicals from the 1960s when musical era declined in the west. Today, Bollywood is popular for its musicals though non-musicals have continued to be produced in India.
Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish. Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales in 2001, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place.
The name Bollywood is criticized by some film journalists and critics by arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. According to Madhava Prasad- had described "Bollywood" is inspired by "Tollywood"—once refer to the cinema of West Bengal, dating back in 1932. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name, referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge, whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India at the time. According to P. Anandam Kavoori and Aswin Punathambekar book "Global Bollywood"—the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names leading to the coining of "Bollywood"; as of now "Tollywood" is referred to the Telugu film industry, a part of Indian cinema. According to OxfordDictionaries.com— the word "Bollywood" got originated in 1970's. and print media claims that it got originated in 1970's and was popularized in the time when Cinema of India overtook Hollywood in terms of film production.
Many journalists have been credited by newspapers for the invention of the word "Bollywood". According to "The Telegraph" article published in 2005, it was Amit Khanna who had coined the word "Bollywood". and according to The Hindu article published in 2004 it was journalist Bevinda Collaco. Raja Harishchandra, by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year; the first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara, was a major commercial success. There was a huge market for talkies and musicals; the 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first color film in Kisan Kanya.
The next year, he made a version of Mother India. However, color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Prior to the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry was linked to the Lahore film industry, as both industries produced films in Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, the lingua franca across northern and central India. Another major center of Hindi-Urdu film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, which produced Hindi-Urdu films along with local Bengali language films. In the 1940s, many actors and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K. L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand, singers such as Mohammed Rafi and Shamshad Begum. Around the same time and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to the Bombay film industry.
As a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the new Republic of India after partitio