Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Sculpture in the Indian subcontinent
The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization. After the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization there is little record of sculpture until the Buddhist era, apart from a hoard of copper figures of c. 1500 BCE from Daimabad. Thus the great tradition of Indian monumental sculpture in stone appears to begin late, with the reign of Asoka from 270 to 232 BCE, the Pillars of Ashoka he erected around India, carrying his edicts and topped by famous sculptures of animals lions, of which six survive. Large amounts of figurative sculpture in relief, survive from Early Buddhist pilgrimage stupas, above all Sanchi. During the 2nd to 1st century BCE in far northern India, in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara from what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings; the pink sandstone Hindu and Buddhist sculptures of Mathura from the 1st to 3rd centuries CE reflected both native Indian traditions and the Western influences received through the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, established the basis for subsequent Indian religious sculpture.
The style was developed and diffused through most of India under the Gupta Empire which remains a "classical" period for Indian sculpture, covering the earlier Ellora Caves, though the Elephanta Caves are slightly later. Large scale sculpture remains exclusively religious, rather conservative reverting to simple frontal standing poses for deities, though the attendant spirits such as apsaras and yakshi have sensuously curving poses. Carving is highly detailed, with an intricate backing behind the main figure in high relief; the celebrated bronzes of the Chola dynasty from south India, many designed to be carried in processions, include the iconic form of Shiva as Nataraja, with the massive granite carvings of Mahabalipuram dating from the previous Pallava dynasty. The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization; these include the famous small bronze dancing girl. However such figures in bronze and stone are rare and outnumbered by pottery figurines and stone seals of animals or deities finely depicted.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, the Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is characterized by the strong idealistic realism of Hellenistic art and the first representations of the Buddha in human form, which have helped define the artistic canon for Buddhist art throughout the Asian continent up to the present. Though dating is uncertain, it appears that Hellenistic styles lingered in the East for several centuries after they had declined around the Mediterranean, as late as the 5th century CE; some aspects of Greek art were adopted. Greek foliage decration was influential, with Indian versions of the Corinthian capital appearing. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through some of his symbols.
This may be because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in modern Afghanistan displays Greek and Persian artistic influence. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders and sandals, acanthus leaf decorations, etc; the origins of Greco-Buddhist art are to be found in the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom, located in today’s Afghanistan, from which Hellenistic culture radiated into the Indian subcontinent with the establishment of the small Indo-Greek kingdom. Under the Indo-Greeks and the Kushans, the interaction of Greek and Buddhist culture flourished in the area of Gandhara, in today’s northern Pakistan, before spreading further into India, influencing the art of Mathura, the Hindu art of the Gupta empire, to extend to the rest of South-East Asia; the influence of Greco-Buddhist art spread northward towards Central Asia affecting the art of the Tarim Basin and the Dunhuang Caves, the sculpted figure in China and Japan. The temples of Khajuraho, a complex of Hindu and Jain temples, were constructed in the 9th and 11th centuries CE by the Chandela clan.
They are considered one of the best examples of Indian architecture. The temples have a rich display of intricately carved sculptures. While they are famous for their erotic sculptures, sexual themes cover less than a tenth of the temple sculpture; the sculptures depict various aspects the everyday life, mythical stories as well as symbolic display of various secular and spiritual values important in Hindu tradition. The Chola bronzes are some of the most famous sculptures of India, they were created using the lost wax technique. The sculptures were of Shiva in various avatars with his consort Parvati, Vishnu with his consort Lakshmi, among other deities; the most iconic among these is the bronze figure of Shiva as the lord of dance. In his upper right hand he holds the drum of creation. In his upper left h
Indian painting has a long tradition and history in Indian art. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka rock shelters, some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are 30,000 years old. India's Buddhist literature is replete with examples of texts which describe palaces of the army and the aristocratic class embellished with paintings, but the paintings of the Ajanta Caves are the most significant of the few survivals. Smaller scale painting in manuscripts was also practised in this period, though the earliest survivals are from the medieval period. Mughal painting represented a fusion of the Persian miniature with older Indian traditions, from the 17th century its style was diffused across Indian princely courts of all religions, each developing a local style. Company paintings were made for British clients under the British raj, which from the 19th century introduced art schools along Western lines, leading to modern Indian painting, returning to its Indian roots.
Indian paintings provide an aesthetic continuum that extends from the early civilization to the present day. From being religious in purpose in the beginning, Indian painting has evolved over the years to become a fusion of various cultures and traditions. Around the 1st century BC the Shadanga or Six Limbs of Indian Painting, were evolved, a series of canons laying down the main principles of the art. Vatsyayana, who lived during the third century A. D. enumerates these in his Kamasutra having extracted them from still more ancient works. These'Six Limbs' have been translated as follows: Rupabheda The knowledge of appearances. Pramanam Correct perception and structure. Bhava Action of feelings on forms. Lavanya Yojanam Infusion of grace, artistic representation. Sadrisyam Similitude. Varnikabhanga Artistic manner of using the brush and colours; the subsequent development of painting by the Buddhists indicates that these' Six Limbs' were put into practice by Indian artists, are the basic principles on which their art was founded.
Indian paintings can be broadly classified as miniatures. Murals are large works executed on the walls of solid structures, as in the Ajanta Caves and the Kailashnath temple. Miniature paintings are executed on a small scale for books or albums on perishable material such as paper and cloth; the Palas of Bengal were the pioneers of miniature painting in India. The art of miniature painting reached its glory during the Mughal period; the tradition of miniature paintings was carried forward by the painters of different Rajasthani schools of painting like the Bundi, Jaipur and Mewar. The Ragamala paintings belong to this school, as does the Company painting produced for British clients under the British Raj. Ancient Indian art has seen the rise of the Bengal School of art in 1930s followed by many forms of experimentations in European and Indian styles. In the aftermath of India's independence, many new genres of art developed by important artists like Jamini Roy, M. F. Husain, Francis Newton Souza, Vasudeo S. Gaitonde.
With the progress of the economy the forms and styles of art underwent many changes. In the 1990s, Indian economy was liberalised and integrated to the world economy leading to the free flow of cultural information within and without. Artists include Subodh Gupta, Atul Dodiya, Devajyoti Ray, Bose Krishnamachari and Jitish Kahllat whose works went for auction in international markets. Bharti Dayal has chosen to handle the traditional Mithila painting in most contemporary way and created her own style through the exercises of her own imagination, they appear fresh and unusual; the history of Indian murals starts in ancient and early medieval times, from the 2nd century BC to 8th – 10th century AD. There are known more than 20 locations around India containing murals from this period natural caves and rock-cut chambers; the highest achievements of this time are the caves of Ajanta, Sittanavasal, Armamalai Cave, Ravan Chhaya rock shelter, Kailasanatha temple in Ellora Caves. Murals from this period depict religious themes of Buddhist and Hindu religions.
There are though locations where paintings were made to adorn mundane premises, like the ancient theatre room in Jogimara Cave and possible royal hunting lodge circa 7th-century AD – Ravan Chhaya rock shelter. The pattern of large scale wall painting which had dominated the scene, witnessed the advent of miniature paintings during the 11th and 12th centuries; this new style figured first in the form of illustrations etched on palm-leaf manuscripts. The contents of these manuscripts included literature on Jainism. In eastern India, the principal centres of artistic and intellectual activities of the Buddhist religion were Nalanda, Odantapuri and Somarpura situated in the Pala kingdom. In eastern India miniature painting developed in the 10th century; these miniatures, depicting Buddhist divinities and scenes from the life of Buddha were painted on the leaves of the palm-leaf manuscripts as well as their wooden covers. Most common Buddhist illustrated manuscripts include the texts Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita, Pancharaksa and Kalachakra Tantra.
The earliest extant miniatures are found in a manuscript of the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita dated in the sixth regnal year of Mahipala, presently the possession of The Asiatic Society, Kolkata. This style disappeared from India in the late 12th century; the influence of eastern Indian paintings can be seen in various Buddhist temples in Bagan, Myanmar Abeyadana temple, named after Qu
Culture of India
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India. India's languages, dance, architecture and customs differ from place to place within the country. Indian culture labeled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by a history, several millennia old. Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, cuisine, martial arts, dance and movies have a profound impact across the Indosphere, Greater India and the world. Indian-origin religions Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism, all of which are based on the concept of dharma and karma. Ahimsa, a philosophy of nonviolence, is an important aspect of native Indian faiths whose most well known proponent was Mahatma Gandhi who through civil disobedience brought India together against the British Raj and this philosophy further inspired Martin Luther King, Jr. during the American civil rights movement.
During the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Indian-origin religions have been persecuted by Muslim rulers. Muslim rulers massacred Hindus and Buddhists while attacking temples and monasteries, while forcing them to convert including on the battlefield. Most of the great temples in Northern Indian subcontinent were destroyed during the Muslim rule. Will Durant calls the Muslim conquest of India "probably the bloodiest story in history" between the years 1000 CE and 1500 CE, the population of the Indian subcontinent decreased from 200 to 125 million. Foreign-origin religion, including Abrahamic religions, such as Judasim and Islam, are present in India, as well as Zoroastrianism and Bahá'í Faith both escaping persecution by Islam have found shelter in India over the centuries. India has 29 states with different culture and civilizations and one of the most populated countries in the world; the Indian culture labeled as an amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced and shaped by a history, several thousand years old.
Throughout the history of India, Indian culture has been influenced by Dharmic religions. They have been credited with shaping much of Indian philosophy, architecture and music. Greater India was the historical extent of Indian culture beyond the Indian subcontinent; this concerns the spread of Hinduism, architecture and writing system from India to other parts of Asia through the Silk Road by the travellers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era. To the west, Greater India overlaps with Greater Persia in the Hindu Pamir Mountains. Over the centuries, there has been significant fusion of cultures between Buddhists, Muslims, Jains and various tribal populations in India. India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Jainism and other religions, they are collectively known as Indian religions. Indian religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions with over 2 billion followers altogether, as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers.
Followers of Indian religions – Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists make up around 80–82% population of India. India is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse nations in the world, with some of the most religious societies and cultures. Religion plays a definitive role in the life of many of its people. Although India is a secular Hindu-majority country, it has a large Muslim population. Except for Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Lakshadweep, Hindus form the predominant population in all 29 states and 7 union territories. Muslims are present throughout India, with large populations in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, West Bengal and Assam. Sikhs and Christians are other significant minorities of India. According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practice Hinduism. Islam, Sikhism and Jainism are the other major religions followed by the people of India. Many tribal religions, such as Sarnaism, are found in India, though these have been affected by major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity.
Jainism, Zoroastrianism and the Bahá'í Faith are influential but their numbers are smaller. Atheism and agnostics have visible influence in India, along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other faiths. According to a study conducted by the Pew Research Centre, India will have world's largest populations of Hindus and Muslims by 2050. India is expected to have about 311 million Muslims making up around 19–20% of the population and yet about 1.3 billion Hindus are projected to live in India comprising around 76% of the population. Atheism and agnosticism flourished within Śramaṇa movement; the Cārvāka school originated in India around the 6th century BCE. It is one of the earliest form of atheistic movement in ancient India. Sramana, Jainism, Ājīvika and some schools of Hinduism consider atheism to be valid and reject the concept of creator deity and superstitions. India has produced social reformers. According to the 2012 WIN-Gallup Global Index of Religion and Atheism report, 81% of Indians were religious, 13% were not religious, 3% were convinced atheists, 3% were unsure or did not respond.
Indian philosophy comprises the ph
Television in India
The television industry in India is a wide-ranging one. More than half of all Indian households own a television; as of 2016, the country had over 857 channels of. In January 1950, The Indian Express reported that a television was put up for demonstration at an exhibition in the Teynampet locality of Madras by B. Sivakumaran, a student of electrical engineering. A letter was scanned and its image displayed on a cathode ray tube screen; the report said that "t may be this is not the whole of television but it is the most significant link in the system" and added that the demonstration of the sort could be the "first in India". In Kolkata, television was first used in the house of the wealthy Neogi family. Terrestrial television in India started with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. Daily transmission began in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. Television service was extended to Bombay and Amritsar in 1972. Up until 1975, only seven Indian cities had television services.
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment was an important step taken by India to use television for development. The programmes were produced by Doordarshan, a part of the AIR; the telecast happened twice a day, in the evenings. Other than information related to agriculture and family planning were the other important topics dealt with in these programmes. Entertainment was included in the form of dance, drama and rural art forms. Television services were separated from radio in 1976. National telecast was introduced in 1982. In the same year, color television was introduced in the Indian market. Indian small screen programming started off in the early 1980s. During this time, there was the government-owned Doordarshan; the Ramayana and Mahabharata, both based on the Indian epics of the same names, were the first major television series produced. They notched up world record in viewership numbers. By the late 1980s, more people began to own television sets. Though there was a single channel, television programming had reached saturation.
Hence the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional. This channel was known as DD 2 renamed DD Metro. Both channels were broadcast terrestrially. In 1997, Prasar Bharati, a statutory autonomous body was established. Doordarshan along with the AIR were converted into government corporations under Prasar Bharati; the Prasar Bharati Corporation was established to serve as the public service broadcaster of the country which would achieve its objectives through AIR and Doordashan. This was a step towards greater autonomy for Doordarshan and AIR. However, Prasar Bharati has not succeeded in shielding Doordarshan from government control; the transponders of the American satellites PAS 1 and PAS-4 helped in the transmission and telecast of DD. An international channel called DD International was started in 1995 and it telecasts programs for 19 hours a day to foreign countries-via PAS-4 to Europe and Africa, via PAS-1 to North America; the 1980s was the era of DD with shows like Hum Log, Wagle Ki Duniya and comedy shows like Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi, other than the popular mythological dramas like Ramayan and Mahabharat glued millions to Doordarshan and on Chandrakanta.
Hindi film songs based programs like Chitrahaar, Superhit Muqabla and crime thrillers like Karamchand, Byomkesh Bakshi. Shows targeted at children included Divyanshu ki Kahaniyan, Vikram Betal, Malgudi Days, Tenali Rama, it is noted that Bengali filmmaker Prabir Roy had the distinction of introducing colour television coverage in India in February–March 1982 during the Nehru Cup, a football tournament, held at Eden Gardens, with five on-line camera operation, before Doordarshan started the same during the Delhi Asian Games in November that year. The central government launched a series of economic and social reforms in 1991 under Prime Minister Narasimha Rao. Under the new policies the government allowed private and foreign broadcasters to engage in limited operations in India; this process has been pursued by all subsequent federal administrations. Foreign channels like CNN, STAR TV and private domestic channels such as Zee TV, ETV, Sun TV and Asianet started satellite broadcasts. Starting with 41 sets in 1962 and one channel, by 1995, television in India had covered more than 70 million homes giving a viewing population of more than 400 million individuals through more than 100 channels.
There are at least five basic types of television in India: broadcast or "over-the-air" television, unencrypted satellite or "free-to-air", Direct-to-Home, cable television, IPTV. Over-the-air and free-to-air TV is free with no monthly payments while Cable, DTH, IPTV require a monthly payment that varies depending on how many channels a subscriber chooses to pay for. Channels are sold in groups or a la carte. All television service providers are required by law to provide a la carte selection of channels. In India, the broadcast of free-to-air television is governed through state-owned Prasar Bharati Corporation, with the Doordarshan group of channels being the only broadcaster; as such, cable television is the primary source of TV programming in India. Private channels were started in about 1993; as per the TAM Annual Universe Update - 2015, India now has over 167 million households with television sets, of which over 161 million have access to Cable TV or Satellite TV, including 84 mill
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Theatre of India
Indian theatre is one of the most ancient forms of Indo-European and Asian theatre and it features a detailed textual and dramatic effects. Like in the areas of music and dance, the Indian theatre is defined by the dramatic performance defined by the concept of Natya, a Sanskrit word for drama but encompasses dramatic narrative, virtuostic dance, music. Indian theatre exerted influence beyond its borders, reaching ancient China and other countries in the Far East; the earliest form of classical theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre which came into existence after the development of Greek and Roman theatres in the west. One theory describes this development as an offshoot of Alexander the Great's Indian conquest; the invading army staged Indians picked up the performance art. While some scholars argue that traditional Indian theatre predated it, there is a recognition that classical Greek theatre has helped transformed it. With the Islamic conquests that began in the 10th and 11th centuries, theatre was discouraged or forbidden entirely.
In an attempt to re-assert indigenous values and ideas, village theatre was encouraged across the subcontinent, developing in a large number of regional languages from the 15th to the 19th centuries. Modern Indian theatre developed during the period of colonial rule under the British Empire, from the mid-19th century until the mid-20th. From the last half of the 19th century, theatres in India experienced a boost in numbers and practice. After Indian independence in 1947, theatres spread throughout India as one of the means of entertainment; as a diverse, multi-cultural nation, the theatre of India cannot be reduced to a single, homogenous trend. In contemporary India, the major competition with its theatre is that represented by growing television industry and the spread of films produced in the Indian film industry based in Mumbai, known as "Bollywood". Lack of finance is another major obstacle. Sanskrit theatre emerged in the 2nd century BCE and flourished between the 1st century CE and the 10th, a period of relative peace in the history of India during which hundreds of plays were written.
Despite its name, Sanskrit theatre was not in Sanskrit language. Other Indic languages collectively called as Prakrit were used in addition to Sanskrit; the earliest-surviving fragments of Sanskrit drama date from the 1st century CE. The wealth of archeological evidence from earlier periods offers no indication of the existence of a tradition of theatre; the Vedas contain no hint of it. The Mahābhāṣya by Patañjali contains the earliest reference to what may have been the seeds of Sanskrit drama; this treatise on grammar from 140 BCE provides a feasible date for the beginnings of theatre in India. However, although there are no surviving fragments of any drama prior to this date, it is possible that early Buddhist literature provides the earliest evidence for the existence of Indian theater; the Pali suttas refer to the existence of troupes of actors. It is indicated that these dramas incorporated dance, but were listed as a distinct form of performance, alongside dancing and story recitations; the major source of evidence for Sanskrit theatre is A Treatise on Theatre, a compendium whose date of composition is uncertain and whose authorship is attributed to Bharata Muni.
The Treatise is the most complete work of dramaturgy in the ancient world. It addresses acting, music, dramatic construction, costuming, make-up, the organisation of companies, the audience and offers a mythological account of the origin of theatre. In doing so, it provides indications about the nature of actual theatrical practices. Sanskrit theatre was performed on sacred ground by priests, trained in the necessary skills in a, its aim was both to entertain. An appreciation for the stagecraft and classic Sanskrit drama was seen as an essential part of a sophisticated world view, by the end of the seventh century. Under the patronage of royal courts, performers belonged to professional companies that were directed by a stage manager, who may have acted; this task was thought of as being analogous to that of a puppeteer—the literal meaning of "sutradhara" is "holder of the strings or threads". The performers were trained rigorously in physical technique. There were no prohibitions against female performers.
Certain sentiments were considered inappropriate for men to enact and were thought better suited to women. Some performers played characters their own age. Of all the elements of theatre, the Treatise gives most attention to acting, which consists of two styles: realistic and conventional, though the major focus is on the latter, its drama is regarded as the highest achievement of Sanskrit literature. It utilised stock characters, such as heroine, or clown. Actors may have specialised in a particular type. Kālidāsa is arguably considered to be India's greatest Sanskrit dramatist, writing in the ca. 4th century CE-ca. 5th century CE. Three famous romantic plays written by Kālidāsa are the Mālavikāgnimitram, Vikramuurvashiiya (P