Kharosthi
The Kharosthi script spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, was an ancient Indian script used in Gandhara to write Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit. It was popular in Central Asia as well. An abugida, it was introduced at least by the middle of the 3rd century BCE during the 4th century BCE, remained in use until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE, it was in use in Bactria, the Kushan Empire and along the Silk Road, where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan and Niya. Kharosthi is encoded in the Unicode range U+10A00–U+10A5F, from version 4.1. Kharosthi is written right to left, but some inscriptions show the left to right direction, to become universal for the South Asian scripts; each syllable includes the short /a/ sound by default, with other vowels being indicated by diacritic marks. Recent epigraphic evidence highlighted by Professor Richard Salomon of the University of Washington has shown that the order of letters in the Kharosthi script follows what has become known as the Arapacana alphabet.
As preserved in Sanskrit documents, the alphabet runs: a ra pa ca na la da ba ḍa ṣa va ta ya ṣṭa ka sa ma ga stha ja śva dha śa kha kṣa sta jñā rtha bha cha sma hva tsa gha ṭha ṇa pha ska ysa śca ṭa ḍhaSome variations in both the number and order of syllables occur in extant texts. Kharosthi includes only one standalone vowel, used for initial vowels in words. Other initial vowels use the a character modified by diacritics. Using epigraphic evidence, Salomon has established that the vowel order is /a e i o u/, rather than the usual vowel order for Indic scripts /a i u e o/; that is the same as the Semitic vowel order. There is no differentiation between long and short vowels in Kharosthi. Both are marked using the same vowel markers; the alphabet was used in Gandharan Buddhism as a mnemonic for remembering a series of verses on the nature of phenomena. In Tantric Buddhism, the list was incorporated into ritual practices and became enshrined in mantras. There are two special modified forms of these consonants: Various additional marks are used to modify vowels and consonants: Nine Kharosthi punctuation marks have been identified: Kharosthi included a set of numerals that are reminiscent of Roman numerals.
The system is based on an additive and a multiplicative principle, but does not have the subtractive feature used in the Roman number system. The numerals, like the letters, are written from right to left. There is no zero and no separate signs for the digits 5–9. Numbers in Kharosthi use an additive system. For example, the number 1996 would be written as 1000 4 4 1 100 20 20 20 20 10 4 2; the Kharosthi script was deciphered by James Prinsep using the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. This in turn led to the reading of the Edicts of Ashoka, some of which, from the northwest of South Asia, were written in the Kharosthi script. Scholars are not in agreement as to whether the Kharosthi script evolved or was the deliberate work of a single inventor. An analysis of the script forms shows a clear dependency on the Aramaic alphabet but with extensive modifications to support the sounds found in Indic languages. One model is that the Aramaic script arrived with the Achaemenid Empire's conquest of the Indus River in 500 BCE and evolved over the next 200+ years, reaching its final form by the 3rd century BCE where it appears in some of the Edicts of Ashoka found in northwestern part of South Asia.
However, no intermediate forms have yet been found to confirm this evolutionary model, rock and coin inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE onward show a unified and standard form. An inscription in Aramaic dating back to the 4th century BCE was found in Sirkap, testifying to the presence of the Aramaic script in northwestern India at that period. According to Sir John Marshall, this seems to confirm that Kharoshthi was developed from Aramaic; the study of the Kharosthi script was invigorated by the discovery of the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, a set of birch bark manuscripts written in Kharosthi, discovered near the Afghan city of Hadda just west of the Khyber Pass in Pakistan. The manuscripts were donated to the British Library in 1994; the entire set of manuscripts are dated to the 1st century CE, making them the oldest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered. Kharosthi was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2005 with the release of version 4.1. The Unicode block for Kharosthi is U+10A00–U+10A5F: Brahmi History of Afghanistan History of Pakistan Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan Kaschgar und die Kharoṣṭhī Dani, Ahmad Hassan.
Kharoshthi Primer, Lahore Museum Publication Series - 16, Lahore, 1979 Falk, Harry. Schrift im alten Indien: Ein Forschungsbericht mit Anmerkungen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1993 Fussman's, Gérard. Les premiers systèmes d'écriture en Inde, in Annuaire du Collège de France 1988-1989 Hinüber, Oscar von. Der Beginn der Schrift und frühe Schriftlichkeit in Indien, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990 Nasim Khan, M.. Ashokan Inscriptions: A Palaeographical Study. Atthariyyat, Vol. I, pp. 131–150. Peshawar Nasim Khan, M.. Two Dated Kharoshthi Inscriptions from Gandhara. Journal of Asian Civilizations, Vol. XXII, No.1, July 1999: 99-103. Nasim Khan, M.. An Inscribed Relic-Casket from Dir; the Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. V, No. 1, March 1997: 21-33. Peshawar Nasim Khan, M.. Kharoshthi Inscription from Swabi - Gandhara; the Journal of Humanities and Soc
Hindu–Arabic numeral system
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system is a positional decimal numeral system, is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world. It was invented between the 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians; the system was adopted in Arabic mathematics by the 9th century. Influential were the books of Al-Kindi; the system spread to medieval Europe by the High Middle Ages. The system is based upon ten glyphs; the symbols used to represent the system are in principle independent of the system itself. The glyphs in actual use are descended from Brahmi numerals and have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages; these symbol sets can be divided into three main families: Western Arabic numerals used in the Greater Maghreb and in Europe, Eastern Arabic numerals used in the Middle East, the Indian numerals used in the Indian subcontinent. The Hindu-Arabic numerals were invented by mathematicians in India. Perso-Arabic mathematicians called them "Hindu numerals", they came to be called "Arabic numerals" in Europe, because they were introduced to the West by Arab merchants.
The Hindu–Arabic system is designed for positional notation in a decimal system. In a more developed form, positional notation uses a decimal marker, a symbol for "these digits recur ad infinitum". In modern usage, this latter symbol is a vinculum. In this more developed form, the numeral system can symbolize any rational number using only 13 symbols. Although found in text written with the Arabic abjad, numbers written with these numerals place the most-significant digit to the left, so they read from left to right; the requisite changes in reading direction are found in text that mixes left-to-right writing systems with right-to-left systems. Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, most of which developed from the Brahmi numerals; the symbols used to represent the system have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages, arranged in three main groups: The widespread Western "Arabic numerals" used with the Latin and Greek alphabets in the table, descended from the "West Arabic numerals" which were developed in al-Andalus and the Maghreb.
The "Arabic–Indic" or "Eastern Arabic numerals" used with Arabic script, developed in what is now Iraq. A variant of the Eastern Arabic numerals is used in Urdu; the Indian numerals in use with scripts of the Brahmic family in India and Southeast Asia. Each of the dozen major scripts of India has its own numeral glyphs; as in many numbering systems, the numerals 1, 2, 3 represent simple tally marks. After three, numerals tend to become more complex symbols. Theorists believe that this is because it becomes difficult to instantaneously count objects past three; the Brahmi numerals at the basis of the system predate the Common Era. They replaced the earlier Kharosthi numerals used since the 4th century BC. Brahmi and Kharosthi numerals were used alongside one another in the Maurya Empire period, both appearing on the 3rd century BC edicts of Ashoka. Buddhist inscriptions from around 300 BC use the symbols that became 1, 4, 6. One century their use of the symbols that became 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 was recorded.
These Brahmi numerals are the ancestors of the Hindu–Arabic glyphs 1 to 9, but they were not used as a positional system with a zero, there were rather separate numerals for each of the tens. The actual numeral system, including positional notation and use of zero, is in principle independent of the glyphs used, younger than the Brahmi numerals; the place-value system is used in the Bakhshali Manuscript. Although date of the composition of the manuscript is uncertain, the language used in the manuscript indicates that it could not have been composed any than 400; the development of the positional decimal system takes its origins in Hindu mathematics during the Gupta period. Around 500, the astronomer Aryabhata uses the word kha to mark "zero" in tabular arrangements of digits; the 7th century Brahmasphuta Siddhanta contains a comparatively advanced understanding of the mathematical role of zero. The Sanskrit translation of the lost 5th century Prakrit Jaina cosmological text Lokavibhaga may preserve an early instance of positional use of zero.
These Indian developments were taken up in Islamic mathematics in the 8th century, as recorded in al-Qifti's Chronology of the scholars. The numeral system came to be known to both the Persian mathematician Khwarizmi, who wrote a book, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals in about 825, the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes, On the Use of the Hindu Numerals around 830; these earlier texts did not use the Hindu numerals. Kushyar ibn L
Decimal
The decimal numeral system is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers. It is the extension to non-integer numbers of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system; the way of denoting numbers in the decimal system is referred to as decimal notation. A decimal numeral, or just decimal, or casually decimal number, refers to the notation of a number in the decimal numeral system. Decimals may sometimes be identified for containing a decimal separator. "Decimal" may refer to the digits after the decimal separator, such as in "3.14 is the approximation of π to two decimals". The numbers that may be represented in the decimal system are the decimal fractions, the fractions of the form a/10n, where a is an integer, n is a non-negative integer; the decimal system has been extended to infinite decimals, for representing any real number, by using an infinite sequence of digits after the decimal separator. In this context, the decimal numerals with a finite number of non–zero places after the decimal separator are sometimes called terminating decimals.
A repeating decimal is an infinite decimal that after some place repeats indefinitely the same sequence of digits. An infinite decimal represents a rational number if and only if it is a repeating decimal or has a finite number of nonzero digits. Many numeral systems of ancient civilisations use ten and its powers for representing numbers because there are ten fingers on two hands and people started counting by using their fingers. Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, Chinese numerals. Large numbers were difficult to represent in these old numeral systems, only the best mathematicians were able to multiply or divide large numbers; these difficulties were solved with the introduction of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system for representing integers. This system has been extended to represent some non-integer numbers, called decimal fractions or decimal numbers for forming the decimal numeral system. For writing numbers, the decimal system uses ten decimal digits, a decimal mark, for negative numbers, a minus sign "−".
The decimal digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. For representing a non-negative number, a decimal consists of either a sequence of digits such as 2017, or in full generality, a m a m − 1 … a 0 or two sequence of digits separated by a decimal mark such as 3.14159, 15.00, or in full generality a m a m − 1 … a 0. B 1 b 2 … b n It is assumed that, if m > 0, the first digit am is not zero, but, in some circumstances, it may be useful to have one or more 0's on the left. This does not change the value represented by the decimal. For example, 3.14 = 03.14 = 003.14. If bn =0, it may be removed, conversely, trailing zeros may be added without changing the represented number: for example, 15 = 15.0 = 15.00 and 5.2 = 5.20 = 5.200. Sometimes the extra zeros are used for indicating the accuracy of a measurement. For example, 15.00 m may indicate that the measurement error is less than one centimeter, while 15 m may mean that the length is fifteen meters, that the error may exceed 10 cm. For representing a negative number, a minus sign is placed before am.
The numeral a m a m − 1 … a 0. B 1 b 2 … b n represents the number a m 10 m + a m − 1 10 m − 1 + ⋯ + a 0 10 0 + b 1 10 1 + b 2 10 2 + ⋯ + b n 10 n Therefore, the contribution of each digit to the value of a number depends on its position in the numeral; that is, the decimal system is a positional numeral system The numbers that are represented by decimal numerals are the decimal fractions, that is, the rational numbers that may be expressed as a fraction, the denominator of, a power of ten. For example, the numerals 0.8, 14.89, 0.00024 represent the fractions 8/10, 1489/100, 24/100000. More a decimal with n digits after the separator represents the fraction with denominator 10n, whose numerator is the integer obtained by removing the separator. Expressed as a reduced fraction, the decimal numbers are those whose denominator is a product of a powe
Sinhala numerals
Sinhala belongs to the Indo-European language family with its roots associated with Indo-Aryan sub family to which the languages such as Persian and Hindi belong. Although it is not clear whether people in Sri Lanka spoke a dialect of Prakrit at the time of arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there is enough evidence that Sinhala evolved from mixing of Sanskrit and local language, spoken by people of Sri Lanka prior to the arrival of Vijaya in Sri Lanka, the founder of Sinhala Kingdom, it is surmised that Sinhala had evolved from an ancient variant of Apabramsa, known as ‘Elu’. When tracing history of Elu, it was preceded by Pali Sihala. Sinhala though has close relationships with Indo Aryan languages which are spoken in the north, north eastern and central India, was much influenced by Dravidian language families of Hindi. Though Sinhala is related to Indic languages, it has its own unique characteristics: Sinhala has symbols for two vowels which are not found in any other Indic languages in India: ‘æ’ and ‘æ:’.
The Sinhala script had evolved from Southern Brahmi script from which all the Southern Indic Scripts such as Telugu and Oriya had evolved. Sinhala was influenced by Grantha writing of Southern India. Since 1250 AD, the Sinhala script had remained the same with few changes. Although some scholars are of the view that the Brahmi Script arrived with the Buddhism, Mahavamsa speaks of written language right after the arrival of Vijaya. Archeologists had found pottery fragments in Anuradhapura Sri Lanka with older Brahmi script inscriptions, carbon dated to 5th century BC; the earliest Brahmi Script found in India had been dated to 6th Century BC in Tamil Nadu though most of Brahmi writing found in India had been attributed to emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. Sinhala letters are round-shaped and are written from left to right and they are the most circular-shaped script found in the Indic scripts; the evolution of the script to the present shapes may have taken place due to writing on Ola leaves.
Unlike chiseling on a rock, writing on palm leaves has to be more round-shaped to avoid the stylus ripping the Palm leaf while writing on it. When drawing vertical or horizontal straight lines on Ola leaf, the leaves would have been ripped and this may have influenced Sinhala not to have a period or full stop. Instead a stylistic stop, known as ‘Kundaliya’ is used. Period and commas were introduced into Sinhala script after the introduction of paper due to the influence of Western languages. Although various scholars had mentioned about numerations in the Sinhala language in their writing on Sinhala language, a systematic study had not been conducted up to now on numerals and numerations found in Sinhala right before British occupation of Kandy. In modern Sinhala, Arabic numerals, which were introduced by Portuguese and English, is used for writing numbers and carrying out calculations. Roman numerals are used for writing dates and for listing items or words in Sinhala though at present, Roman numerals are not used and they were introduced by Westerners who invaded Sri Lanka.
It is accepted. It had been discovered by Sri Lankan archeologists that Brahmi numerals were used in the ancient Sri Lanka and it may have evolved into two sets of numerals which were known as archaic Sinhala numerals and Lith Illakkum which were found in the Kandyan period; this paper covers numerals and numerations in Sri Lanka at the time of British occupation of the Kandyan Kingdom and their evolution to the forms which were found in 1815, the year the British occupied the whole of Sri Lanka. This article will touch upon Brahmi numerals, which were found in Sri Lanka, it had been found that five different types of numerations were used in the Sinhala language at the time of the invasion of the Kandyan kingdom by the British. Out of the five types of numerations, two sets of numerations were in use in the twentieth century for astrological calculations and to express traditional year and dates in ephemeri des; the five types or sets of numerals or numerations are listed below. Abraham Mendis Gunasekera, in A Comprehensive Grammar of Sinhalese Language, described a set of archaic numerals which were no longer in use.
According to Mr. Gunesekera, these numerals were used for ordinary calculations and to express simple numbers. Gunasekera wrote: The Sinhalase had symbols of its own to represent the different numerals which were in use until the beginning of the present century. Arabic Figures are now universally used. For the benefit of the student, the old numerals are given in the plate opposite. Sinhala numerals did not have a zero and they did not have zero concept holder, they included separate symbols for 10, 40, 50, 100, 1000. These numerals were regarded as Lith Lakunu or ephemeris numbers by W. A. De Silva in his Catalogue of Palm leaf manuscripts in the library of Colombo Museum; this set of numerals was known as Sinhala Sinhala archaic numerals. Sinhala numerals or Sinhala illakkam were used in the Kandyan convention, signed between Kandyan Chieftains and the British governor, Robert Brownrig, in 1815. Eleven clauses were numbered in Arabic numerals in the English part of the agreement, the parallel Sinhala clauses were numbered in Sinhala archaic numerals.
Although this numeral set was used for casting horoscopes and to carry out astrological calculations, it had been found that this set had been used for numbering pages of Ola palm leaf books which covered of none Buddhist topics in
Japanese numerals
The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language. The Japanese numerals in writing are based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by 10,000. Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Japanese: one is based on Sino-Japanese readings of the Chinese characters and the other is based on the Japanese yamato kotoba. There are two ways of writing the numbers in Japanese: in Chinese numerals; the Arabic numerals are more used in horizontal writing, the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing. Most numbers have two readings, one derived from Chinese used for cardinal numbers and a native Japanese reading used somewhat less formally for numbers up to 10. In some cases the Japanese reading is preferred for all uses. * The special reading 〇 maru is found. It may be optionally used when reading individual digits of a number one after another, instead of as a full number. A popular example is the famous 109 store in Shibuya, Tokyo, read as ichi-maru-kyū.
This usage of maru for numerical 0 is similar to reading numeral 0 in English as oh. It means a circle. However, as a number, it is only written as rei. Additionally and five are pronounced with a long vowel in phone numbers. Starting at 万, numbers begin with 一; that is, 100 is just 百 hyaku, 1000 is just 千 sen, but 10,000 is 一万 ichiman, not just *man. This differs from Chinese as numbers begin with 一 if no digit would otherwise precede starting at 百. And, if 千 sen directly precedes the name of powers of myriad, 一 ichi is attached before 千 sen, which yields 一千 issen; that is, 10,000,000 is read as 一千万 issenman. But if 千 sen does not directly precede the name of powers of myriad or if numbers are lower than 2,000, attaching 一 ichi is optional; that is, 15,000,000 is read as 千五百万 sengohyakuman or 一千五百万 issengohyakuman, 1,500 as 千五百 sengohyaku or 一千五百 issengohyaku. The numbers 4 and 9 are considered unlucky in Japanese: 4, pronounced shi, is a homophone for death. See tetraphobia; the number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky.
On the contrary, numbers 7 and sometimes 8 are considered lucky in Japanese. In modern Japanese, cardinal numbers are given the on readings except 4 and 7, which are called yon and nana respectively. Alternate readings are used in month names, day-of-month names, fixed phrases. For instance, the decimal fraction 4.79 is always read yon-ten nana kyū, though April and September are called shi-gatsu, shichi-gatsu, ku-gatsu respectively. The on readings are used when shouting out headcounts. Intermediate numbers are made by combining these elements: Tens from 20 to 90 are "-jū" as in 二十 to 九十. Hundreds from 200 to 900 are "-hyaku". Thousands from 2000 to 9000 are "-sen". There are some phonetic modifications to larger numbers involving voicing or gemination of certain consonants, as occurs in Japanese: e.g. roku "six" and hyaku "hundred" yield roppyaku "six hundred". * This applies to multiples of 10. Change ending -jū to -jutchō or -jukkei. ** This applies to multiples of 100. Change ending -ku to -kkei.
In large numbers, elements are combined from largest to smallest, zeros are implied. Beyond the basic cardinals and ordinals, Japanese has other types of numerals. Distributive numbers are formed from a cardinal number, a counter word, the suffix -zutsu, as in hitori-zutsu. Following Chinese tradition, large numbers are created by grouping digits in myriads rather than the Western thousands: Variation is due to Jinkōki, Japan's oldest mathematics text; the initial edition was published in 1627. It had many errors. Most of these were fixed in the 1631 edition. In 1634 there was yet another edition; the above variation is due to inconsistencies in the latter two editions. Examples: 1 0000: 一万 983 6703: 九百八十三万 六千七百三 20 3652 1801: 二十億 三千六百五十二万 千八百一 However, numbers written in Arabic numerals are separated by commas every three digits following English-speaking convention. If Arabic numbers and kanji are used in combination, Western orders of magnitude may be used for numbers smaller than 10,000. In Japanese, when long numbers are written out in kanji, zeros are omitted for all powers of ten.
Hence 4002 is 四千二. However, when reading out a statement of accounts, for example, the skipped digit or digits are sometimes indicated by tobi or tonde: e.g. yon-sen tobi ni or yon-sen tonde ni instead of the normal yon-sen ni. Japanese has two systems of numerals for decimal fractions, they are no longer in general use, but are still used in some instances such as batting and fielding averages of baseball players, winning percentages for sports teams, in some idiomatic phrases, when repr
Hebrew numerals
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The system was adapted from that of the Greek numerals in the late 2nd century BCE; the current numeral system is known as the Hebrew alphabetic numerals to contrast with earlier systems of writing numerals used in classical antiquity. These systems were inherited from usage in the Aramaic and Phoenician scripts, attested from c. 800 BC in the so-called Samaria ostraca and sometimes known as Hebrew-Aramaic numerals derived from the Egyptian Hieratic numerals. The Greek system was adopted in Hellenistic Judaism and had been in use in Greece since about the 5th century BC. In this system, there is no notation for zero, the numeric values for individual letters are added together; each unit is assigned a separate letter, each tens a separate letter, the first four hundreds a separate letter. The hundreds are represented by the sum of two or three letters representing the first four hundreds.
To represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999, the same letters are reused to serve as thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands. Gematria uses these transformations extensively. In Israel today, the decimal system of Arabic numerals is used in all cases; the Hebrew numerals are used only in special cases, such as when using the Hebrew calendar, or numbering a list, much as Roman numerals are used in the West. The Hebrew language has names for common numbers. Letters of the Hebrew alphabet are used to represent numbers in a few traditional contexts, for example in calendars. In other situations Arabic numerals are used. Cardinal and ordinal numbers must agree in gender with the noun. If there is no such noun, the feminine form is used. For ordinal numbers greater than ten the cardinal is used and numbers above the value 20 have no gender. Note: For ordinal numbers greater than 10, cardinal numbers are used instead. Note: For numbers greater than 20, gender does not apply. Numbers greater than million were represented by the long scale.
Cardinal and ordinal numbers must agree in gender with the noun. If there is no such noun, the feminine form is used. Ordinal numbers must agree in number and definite status like other adjectives; the cardinal number precedes the noun, except for the number one. The number two is special: shnayim and shtayim become shney and shtey when followed by the noun they count. For ordinal numbers greater than ten the cardinal is used; the Hebrew numeric system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to form the total. For example, 177 is represented as קעז which corresponds to 100 + 70 + 7 = 177. Mathematically, this type of system requires 27 letters. In practice the last letter, tav is used in combination with itself and/or other letters from kof onwards, to generate numbers from 500 and above. Alternatively, the 22-letter Hebrew numeral set is sometimes extended to 27 by using 5 sofit forms of the Hebrew letters. By convention, the numbers 15 and 16 are represented as ט״ו and ט״ז in order to refrain from using the two-letter combinations י-ה and י-ו, which are alternate written forms for the Name of God in everyday writing.
In the calendar, this manifests every full moon. Combinations which would spell out words with negative connotations are sometimes avoided by switching the order of the letters. For instance, 744 which should be written as תשמ״ד might instead be written as תשד״מ or תמש״ד; the Hebrew numeral system has sometimes been extended to include the five final letter forms—ך, ם, ן, ף and ץ —which are used to indicate the numbers from 500 to 900. The ordinary forms for 500 to 900 are: ת״ק, ת״ר, ת״ש, ת״ת and תת״ק. Gershayim are inserted before the last letter to indicate that the sequence of letters represents a number rather than a word; this is used in the case. A single Geresh is appended after a single letter to indicate that the letter represents a number rather than a word; this is used in the case. Note that Geresh and Gershayim indicate "not a word." Context determines whether they indicate a number or something else. An alternative method found in old manuscripts and still found on modern-day tombstones is to put a dot above each letter of the number.
In print, Arabic numerals are emplo
Maya numerals
The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization. It was a vigesimal positional numeral system; the numerals are made up of three symbols. For example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal bars. With these three symbols each of the twenty vigesimal digits could be written. Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty; the Mayan used powers of twenty, just as the Hindu–Arabic numeral system uses powers of tens. For example, thirty-three would be written as one dot, above three dots atop two bars; the first dot represents "one twenty" or "1×20", added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen. Therefore, + 13 = 33. Upon reaching 202 or 400, another row is started; the number 429 would be written as one dot above one dot above four dots and a bar, or + + 9 = 429. Other than the bar and dot notation, Maya numerals were sometimes illustrated by face type glyphs or pictures; the face glyph for a number represents the deity associated with the number.
These face number glyphs were used, are seen on some of the most elaborate monumental carving. Adding and subtracting numbers below 20 using Maya numerals is simple. Addition is performed by combining the numeric symbols at each level: If five or more dots result from the combination, five dots are removed and replaced by a bar. If four or more bars result, four bars are removed and a dot is added to the next higher row. With subtraction, remove the elements of the subtrahend symbol from the minuend symbol: If there are not enough dots in a minuend position, a bar is replaced by five dots. If there are not enough bars, a dot is removed from the next higher minuend symbol in the column and four bars are added to the minuend symbol, being worked on; the "Long Count" portion of the Maya calendar uses a variation on the vigesimal numbering. In the second position, only the digits up to 17 are used, the place value of the third position is not 20×20 = 400, as would otherwise be expected, but 18×20 = 360, so that one dot over two zeros signifies 360.
This is because 360 is the number of days in a year. Subsequent positions use all twenty digits and the place values continue as 18×20×20 = 7,200 and 18×20×20×20 = 144,000, etc; every known example of large numbers in the Maya system uses this'modified vigesimal' system, with the third position representing multiples of 18×20. It is reasonable to assume, but not proven by any evidence, that the normal system in use was a pure base-20 system. Several Mesoamerican cultures used similar numerals and base-twenty systems and the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar requiring the use of zero as a place-holder; the earliest long count date is from 36 BC. Since the eight earliest Long Count dates appear outside the Maya homeland, it is assumed that the use of zero and the Long Count calendar predated the Maya, was the invention of the Olmec. Indeed, many of the earliest Long Count dates were found within the Olmec heartland. However, the Olmec civilization had come to an end by the 4th century BC, several centuries before the earliest known Long Count dates—which suggests that zero was not an Olmec discovery.
Mayan numerals were added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2018 with the release of version 11.0. The Unicode block for Mayan Numerals is U+1D2E0–U+1D2FF: Maya Mathematics - online converter from decimal numeration to Maya numeral notation. Anthropomorphic Maya numbers - online story of number representations. BabelStone Mayan Numerals - free font for Unicode Mayan numeral characters