Supreme Court of Indiana
The Supreme Court of Indiana, established by Article 7 of the Indiana Constitution, is the highest judicial authority in the state of Indiana. Located in Indianapolis, the Court's chambers are in the north wing of the Indiana Statehouse. In December 1816, the Supreme Court of Indiana succeeded the General Court of the Indiana Territory as the state's high court. During its long history the Court heard a number of high-profile cases, including State. Begun as a three-member judicial panel, the Court underwent major reforms in 1852 and 1971, as well as several other reorganizations. Court reforms led to a majority of Supreme Court cases being delegated to lower courts, an enlarged panel of justices, employment of a large staff to assist as its caseload increases. In 2008 the Court consisted of one chief justice and four associate justices, the constitutional minimum. A board of five commissioners assists the Court in its administrative duties. Commissioners are appointed by the governor; the Court offices and chambers are located on the third floor in the north wing of the Indiana Statehouse.
The Court maintains a large legal library on the third floor, open to the public. The Court has no original jurisdiction in most cases, meaning that it can only hear cases appealed to the Court after having been heard in lower courts. Most cases begin in local circuit courts, where the initial trial is held and a jury decides the outcome of the case; the circuit court decision can be appealed to the Indiana Court of Appeals or the Indiana Tax Court, who can hear the case or enforce the lower court's decision. If the parties still disagree with the outcome of the case, they can appeal the decision to the Indiana Supreme Court; the Court can choose to hear the case and overturn the previous judgment, or it can decline to accept the case and uphold the decision of the lower courts. The Supreme Court of Indiana has original and sole jurisdiction in certain specific areas, including the practice of law, discipline or disbarment of judges appointed to the lower state courts, supervision over the exercise of jurisdiction by the other lower courts of the state.
When the Court accepts a case, it reviews the documentation of the trials in the lower court and sometimes allows oral arguments before making a decision. In some cases the justices will issue a decision without hearing arguments from either side and will base their decision on evidence submitted in the lower courts; the Court can order a new trial to take place in the local court, overturn the decision of lower courts and enforce its own decision, or uphold the decision of lower courts. The Court appoints three commissions to assist it in its exclusive jurisdiction over the practice of law in Indiana; the role of the Board of Law Examiners is to "inquire into and determine the character and general qualifications to be admitted to practice law as a member of the bar of the Supreme Court of Indiana." The Disciplinary Commission is responsible for investigating grievances filed against members of the bar for misconduct and making disciplinary recommendations to the Supreme Court. The Commission for Continuing Legal Education administers and regulates continuing legal education requirements, mediation training standards, attorney specialization programs.
The Judicial Nominating Commission is responsible for recruiting and interviewing applicants to fill vacancies on the Indiana Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Tax Court. It sends three nominees for each vacancy to the governor; the Judicial Qualification Commission investigates complaints of judicial misconduct and files charges where appropriate. Both commissions are chaired by the chief justice; the entire Court takes part in the annual Judicial Conference of Indiana, attended by all of the state's judges, recommends improvements to the Court and state judiciary. The Court is responsible for implementing all laws passed by the Indiana General Assembly that affect the judiciary; the Division of Supreme Court Administration is staffed by clerks who oversee the fiscal management of the courts, including payroll and expenses. In addition, the division is responsible for maintaining the Court's records and assists in its administrative functions. Article 7 of the Indiana Constitution governs the term length of Supreme Court Justices.
When there is a vacancy on the Court, a new justice is nominated using a variation of the Missouri Plan. First, the Judicial Nominating Commission submits a list of three qualified nominees to the governor; the governor selects the new Justice from the list. If the governor fails to choose a replacement within sixty days, the chief justice or the acting chief justice must do so; the Judicial Nomination Commission Chief Justice selects the chief justice from the sitting associate justices for a five-year term. The chief justice presides over the Court; when the position of chief justice becomes vacant, the most senior member of the Court serves as the acting chief justice until a new one is chosen by the Judicial Nominating Commission. The chief justice serves as chairman of the Judicial Nominating Commission. Justices are appointed to a term that could last for ten years. Once a new justice is chosen, he may serve for two years before being subjected to a retention election held during the first statewide election following the completion of the justice's second year in office.
The justice is listed on the ballot with the option to be rejected from the Court. If retained, the justice may serve th
Indiana Attorney General
The Indiana Attorney General is the chief legal officer of the State of Indiana in the United States. Attorneys General are chosen by a statewide general election to serve for a four-year term; the forty-third and current Attorney General is Curtis Hill. The annual salary of the Attorney General of Indiana is $97,201.78. Under the 1816 Constitution of Indiana the office of Attorney General was filled by appointment. After the adoption of the 1851 constitution, the office was filled by popular election. Indiana Attorney General official website Indiana Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal Indiana Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw Indiana Code at Law. Justia.com U. S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of Indiana" at FindLaw Indiana State Bar Association National Association of Attorneys General - Curtis T. Hill Press releases at Indiana Attorney General
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Secretary of State of Indiana
The Secretary of State of Indiana is one of five constitutional officers designated in Indiana's State Constitution of 1816. Since 1851 it has been an elected position; the Secretary of State oversees four divisions, is the third highest constitutional office of the state government. The Secretary serves as the State's chief election officer, enforces state securities regulations, regulates automobile dealerships in Indiana, manages the state business services division; the current office holder is Connie Lawson, appointed by Gov. Mitch Daniels to serve out the term of former Secretary of State Charlie White, removed from office due to felony convictions; the annual salary of the Secretary of State of Indiana is $74,580. The Indiana Secretary of State is a constitutional office first established in the 1816 Constitution of Indiana. Between 1816 and until 1851, the Secretary of State was nominated by the governor and confirmed by the state senate. With the adoption of the current constitution in 1851 the Secretary of State's office was filled by a public statewide election every four years.
To be eligible to serve as Secretary of State, a candidate must be a registered voter, at least 30 years old on the day they take the oath of office. Secretaries of State take office on December 1 following their election and hold office for four years. Should they resign, be impeached, or die in office the governor has the power to appoint a temporary Secretary of State to serve until the next general election; the new Secretary of State, either appointed or elected, may only complete the term of the previous Secretary of State, not serve a new four-year term. A Secretary of State may be reelected any number of times, but may serve no more than eight years in any 12-year period; as of 2014, the salary for the secretary is $74,580 annually. Secretary of State elections determine party status in Indiana. A party's Secretary of State candidate must garner at least 10 percent of the vote for his or her party to be considered a major party in the state; the Indiana Secretary of State is a constitutional office in the executive branch of the Government of Indiana.
State law designates the Indiana Secretary of State as the state’s chief election officer. The Indiana Election Division assists the Secretary in receiving candidate filings and certifying election results; the Indiana Election Division receives campaign finance reports and assists the Indiana Election Commission in the administration of campaign finance laws. The Secretary of State serves as chair of the State Recount Commission which conducts recounts and contests regarding major party primary nominations and general elections for federal and state legislative offices; the Indiana General Assembly has granted the secretary additional statutory powers to maintain the state's registry of notaries. The Indiana Securities Division is placed under the leadership of the secretary; the division is statutory and is responsible for enforcing regulations on the purchase and trade of all security investments in the state. The division is responsible for granting operating licenses to collection agencies who wish to collect debts within the state.
The division investigates violations of the state securities laws, can levy fines on law violators, can request the Indiana Attorney General pursue criminal charges. As of 2007, the division regulated over their nearly 40,000 agents; the secretary heads the statutory Division of Business Services. The division is responsible for maintaining the records of all corporations operating within Indiana, which in 2007 amounted to over 250,000 active and inactive corporations. Non-profit businesses, limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships are required to register with the division; the division approves trademarks and service marks for state companies. The division maintains Indiana's Uniform Commercial Code which documents the assets and finances of businesses that fall under jurisdiction of the code. In 2007 one million records were kept in accordance with the code; the Office of Secretary of State is one of five constitutional officers designated in Indiana's State Constitution of 1816.
Sixty-one Hoosiers have served as the third highest-ranking official in state government. Early duties of the office included the maintenance of state records and preservation of the state seal, but as state government expanded, so did the responsibilities of the Secretary of State. Present responsibilities include chartering of new business, regulation of the securities industry, administering regulations relating to the registration of motorized vehicle dealers, oversight of state elections; the Executive Office, located in the Indiana Statehouse, oversees the overall policy and budgeting for the entire office. Four main divisions comprise the balance of the office: Elections, Business Services and Dealer Services. Elections - The Elections Division assists the Secretary of State in carrying out the responsibilities assigned as Indiana's chief elections officer; the bipartisan division is composed of an equal number of Republicans. The division's administrative responsibilities include overseeing the candidate declaration process, certifying election results, maintaining campaign finance reports.
The Secretary of State serves as chairperson for the Indiana Recount Commission and participates in voter outreach projects aimed at increasing voter participation. The Indiana Election Commission, as opposed to the Division, is an independently appointed Commission of two Republicans and two Democrats; the commission deals with questions associated with violations of the Indiana election laws, with the imposition of penalties. Bu
Indiana General Assembly
The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch, of the state of Indiana. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of a lower house, the Indiana House of Representatives, an upper house, the Indiana Senate; the General Assembly meets annually at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. Members of the General Assembly are elected from districts. Representatives serve terms of senators serve terms of four years. Both houses can create bills, but bills must pass both houses before it can be submitted to the governor and enacted into law; the Republican Party holds supermajorities in both chambers of the General Assembly. Republicans outnumber Democrats in the Senate by a 40–10 margin, in the House of Representatives by a 67–33 margin; the Indiana General Assembly is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Indiana has a part-time legislature; the General Assembly convenes on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January. During odd-numbered years the legislature meets for 61 days and must be adjourned by April 30.
During even-numbered years the legislature meets for 30 days and must be adjourned by March 15. The General Assembly may not adjourn for more than three days without a resolution approving adjournment being passed in both houses; the governor has the authority to call on the General Assembly to convene a special session if legislators are unable to complete necessary work within the time allotted by the regular sessions. Special sessions of the General Assembly were called in the state's early history, but have become more commonplace in modern times; the General Assembly delegates are elected from districts. Every ten years the districts are realigned by the General Assembly using information from the U. S. Census Bureau to ensure that each district is equal in population; the districting is maintained to comply with the United States Supreme Court ruling in Reynolds v. Sims; the Indiana Senate and House of Representatives each have several committees that are charged with overseeing certain areas of the state.
Committees vary from three to eleven members. The committees are chaired by senior members of the majority party. Senators and representatives can be members of multiple committees. Most legislation begins within the committees who have responsibility for the area that the bill will affect. Once approved by a committee, a bill can be entered into the agenda for debate and vote in the full chamber. Although not common, bills can be voted on by the full house without going through the committee process. Indiana legislators make a base annual salary of $22,616, plus $155 for each day in session or at a committee hearing and $62 in expense pay every other day. Article 4, Section 7, of the Indiana Constitution states the qualifications to become a Senator or Representative; the candidate must have been a U. S. citizen for a minimum of two years prior to his candidacy and must have been resident of the district that he seeks to represent for one year. Senators must be at least twenty-five years of age and representatives must be twenty-one when sworn into office.
The candidate cannot hold any other public office in the state or federal government during their term. The candidate must be a registered voter within the district they seek to represent. Candidates are required to file papers stating their economic interests. Article 4, Section 3, of the state constitution places several limitations on the size and composition of the General Assembly; the Senate can contain no more than fifty members, the senators serve for a term of four years. The House of Representatives can contain no more than one hundred members, the representatives serve terms of two years. There is no limit to how many terms a state representative may serve. There are several checks and balances built into the state constitution that limit the power of the General Assembly. Other clauses allow the General Assembly to balance and limit the authority of the other branches of the government. Among these checks and balances is the governor's authority to veto any bill passed by the General Assembly.
The General Assembly may, in turn, override his veto by simple majority vote in both houses. Bills passed by a supermajority automatically become law without requiring the signature of the governor. Once the bill is made law, it can be challenged in the state courts which may rule the law to be unconstitutional repealing the law; the General Assembly could override the court's decision by amending the state constitution to include the law. The General Assembly has been the most powerful branch of the state government, dominating a weak governor's office. Although the governor's office has gained more power since the 1970s, the General Assembly still retains the power to remove much of that authority; the authority and powers of the Indiana General Assembly are established in the state constitution. The General Assembly has sole legislative power within the state government; each house can initiate legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not permitted to initiate legislation that will affect revenue.
Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but must be passed by both houses before they can submit to the governor. Each law passed by the General Assembly must be applied uniformly to the entire state; the General Assembly is empowered to regulate the state's judiciary system by setting the size of the courts and the bounds of their districts. The body has the authority to monitor the activities of t
Indiana State Police
The Indiana State Police is the statewide law enforcement agency for the U. S. state of Indiana. Indiana was the 12th state to offer protection to its citizens with a state police force, its headquarters are in the Indiana Government Center North in Indianapolis. On July 15, 1921, the Indiana legislature created a 16-man Indiana Motor Vehicle Police becoming the first law enforcement agency in the state to have statewide jurisdiction to enforce traffic laws, although they had only "limited" authority and were only authorized to enforce the "rules of the road" and motor vehicle laws. In 1933, the Indiana State Police was formed consisting of untrained, ill-equipped traffic officers left over from the Motor Vehicle Police; the first formal "academy" began July 15, 1935, consisted of between 80 and 100 candidates. It was not until 1976; the Indiana State Police Board administers and controls the operation of the agency including the setting of salaries and compensation, with the approval of the governor and may review disciplinary action taken against a state police employee by the superintendent.
The ISP board consists of six civilian members who are appointed by the governor and must be a permanent resident of one of six geographical regions of the state from which they are appointed. Members serve staggered, four-year terms and no more than three may belong to the same political party; the Indiana State Police is led by Superintendent Douglas G. Carter, whose position is appointed by the governor, his command staff includes an assistant superintendent who holds the rank of colonel and four deputy superintendents, each holding the rank of lieutenant colonel who manage four primary areas of responsibility: Financial Management includes the Fiscal Division and Logistics Division. Support Services includes the Criminal Justice Data Division, Laboratory Division, Records Division and Public Information Office. Investigations includes the Office of Professional Standards, Training Division and Criminal Investigation Division. Enforcement includes the Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Division, Human Resources Division and Operations Support Division.
Enforcement operations throughout the state are the responsibility of a north zone and a south zone commander, further composed of five separate areas, each commanded by a captain. These areas are divided into 14 districts, covering from four to 11 counties each and are commanded by a lieutenant. † Chief of the Indiana Motor Vehicle Police The agency's rank structure is as follows: Troopers with 10 and 15 years of service are referred to as a Senior Trooper and a Master Trooper resulting in salary increases, but are not considered ranks. As of July 2015, the starting salary for a trooper is $40,902 upon completion of a one-year probation, while the salary for a colonel with 20 years of service is $90,781. In 1948, the Indiana State Police acquired a Navion airplane. Aircraft continued to be utilized throughout the 1950s and the Aviation Section continued to grow having helicopters introduced into the air fleet. Today, the Indiana State Police have three fixed-wing aircraft, two helicopters and six pilots used for law enforcement throughout the state which are maintained by the Aviation Section of the Operations Support Division.
According to FAA records, aircraft registered to the agency include a Cessna 172N N91SP, a Cessna 172P N193SP and a Raytheon B200 N264SP. Helicopters registered include a Bell 206B N95SP and a Bell 206L-3 N54SP. In 2006, around 50 Glock.40 S&W handguns issued to state troopers were identified as defective, impairing function. The handguns were replaced with the Glock 17 9 mm; the Indiana State Police chose the SIGM400 rifle for its SWAT in 2012, chose the SIG Sauer P227 as its duty pistol in 2014. Troopers are issued the Remington 870 12 gauge Police Magnum shotgun; some troopers are issued AR-15 rifles, but most troopers who want a rifle are required to buy one themselves. The Indiana State Police Fleet vehicle has been since 2011 the Dodge Charger Police Model; the rear wheel drive V8 Hemi Powered car was one of the last of its kind in 2011 after Ford discontinued the Crown Victoria. A total of 374 Horsepower assist ISP Troopers in tracking down violators and responding to emergency calls. For specialty units unable to utilize a charger, the department has a mix of Chevy Tahoe PPVs and Dodge Ram 1500s.
While the Tahoes were purchased pre 2014, there are several still in use by K9s and Commercial Vehicle Enforcement. The current specialty vehicle being purchased is the Dodge Ram which can be outfitted differently based on what the individual need is; the ISP employs marked, semi-marked and unmarked vehicles in their fleet. In the history of the Indiana State Police, 43 troopers and three civilian employees have died in the line of duty; the agency honors its personnel who have given the ultimate sacrifice at its own memorial consisting of an eternal flame and three granite tablets inscribed with their names at a site located on the east side of Indianapolis just off of Post Road at Interstate 70. Their troopers are honored on the Indiana Law Enforcement and Fire Fighters Memorial located at Bicentennial Plaza and Senate Avenue in Indianapolis, dedicated in 2001 to the memory of the state's fallen public safety officers, as well as in Washington at the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial, which honors the nation's law enforcement officers who have died in the line of duty and was dedicated in 1991.
A Trooper Teague was killed out-of-state in Edgar County, Illinois. B Trooper Minneman survived two days. C Trooper Dixon survived two days after his incident took
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th