Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,785 and its metropolitan area had a population of 170,943. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the "capital" of the Wabash Valley; the city is home to several higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Terre Haute is located alongside the eastern bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana; the city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the physical geography of the city. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the historic flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the southern sections of the city, respectively.
In the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city. Pioneer Oil of Lawrenceville, IL, began drilling for oil at 10th and Chestnut streets on the Indiana State University campus in late December 2013, the first oil well drilled in downtown Terre Haute since 1903; that well produced oil into the 1920s. Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways: U. S. 40 from California to Maryland and US 41 from Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. Climate is characterized by high summer temperatures, mean winter temperatures near freezing, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa". Terre Haute's name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning "Highland." It was named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River.
At the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the known beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village existed near the fort, the orchards and meadows they kept a few miles south of the fort became the site of the present-day city; the village of Terre Haute a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816. Terre Haute became the county seat of newly formed Vigo County in 1818, leading to increased population growth; the village's 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, followed by elevation to city status in 1853. Early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing; however the business and industrial expansion of the city prior to 1860 developed thanks to transportation. The Wabash River, the building of the National Road and the Wabash and Erie Canal linked Terre Haute to the world and broadened the city's range of influence.
The economy was based on iron and steel mills, hominy plants and, late in the 19th century, distilleries and bottle makers. Coal mines and coal operating companies developed to support the railroads, yet agriculture remained predominant due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. With steady growth and development in the part of the 19th Century, the vibrant neighborhoods of the city benefited from improved fire protection, the founding of two hospitals, dozens of churches and a number of outlets for amusement. Terre Haute's position as an educational hub was fostered as several institutions of higher education were established; the city developed a reputation for entertainment offerings. Grand opera houses were built that hosted hundreds of theatrical performances, it became a stop on the popular vaudeville circuit. The development of the streetcar system and the electric-powered trolleys in the 1890s made it possible for residents to travel with ease to enjoy baseball games, river excursions, amusement parks and racing.
The famous "Four-Cornered" Racetrack, now the site of Memorial Stadium, was laid out in 1886 and drew the best of the country's trotters and drivers. On the evening of Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a major tornado struck Terre Haute at 9:45 p.m. It demolished more than 300 homes, killed twenty-one people and injured 250. Damage to local businesses and industries was estimated at $1 million to $2 million. Up to that time it was the deadliest tornado. Heavy rains followed the tornado. By midday on Tuesday, March 25, West Terre Haute was three-quarters submerged. On Saturday June 16, 1923, through to the following dawn, the largest Ku Klux Klan rally held in Indiana took place in Forest Park, five miles north of Terre Haute. A special train of eight coaches brought Klan members from Indianapolis, another came from Evansville and Vincennes, another brought 1,000 Klansmen from Muncie, it was reported tha
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, United States. It is located on the lower Wabash River in the southwestern part of the state, nearly halfway between Evansville and Terre Haute. Founded in 1732 by French fur traders, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes for whom the Fort was named, Vincennes is the oldest continually-inhabited European settlement in Indiana and one of the oldest settlements west of the Appalachians. According to the 2010 census, its population was 18,423, a decrease of 1.5% from 18,701 in 2000. Vincennes is the principal city of the Vincennes, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area, which comprises all of Knox County and had an estimated 2017 population of 38,440; the vicinity of Vincennes was inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples. During the Late Woodland period, some of these peoples used local loess hills as burial sites. In historic times, prominent local Indian groups who drove these people out were the Shawnee and the Miami tribe.
The first European settlers were French, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of New France. On, it would be transferred to the colony of Louisiana. Several years France lost the French and Indian War, as result ceded territory east of the Mississippi River, including Vincennes, to the victorious British. Once the area was under British rule, it was associated with the Province of Quebec, until after the American Revolution, it became part of the Illinois Country of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. Next it became part of Knox County in the Northwest Territory, it was included in the Indiana Territory. Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon; the first trading post on the Wabash River was established by Sieur Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montréal. With thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on October 28, 1702 to trade for Buffalo hides with American Indians; the exact location of Juchereau's trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, many believe it was here.
The post was a success. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned; the French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile the capital of Louisiana. The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was established in 1732 as a second French fur trading post in this area; the Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, to build a post along the Wabash River to discourage local nations from trading with the British. De Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash and White rivers, the overland Buffalo Trace. De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe, persuaded the Piankeshaw to establish a village at his trading post, he encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, Vincennes had a hard time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations, who were being courted by British traders.
The boundary between the French colonies of Louisiana and Canada, although inexact in the first years of the settlement, was decreed in 1745 to run between Fort Ouiatenon and Vincennes. In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake near the present-day town of Fulton, Mississippi, his settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor. Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive to command Poste Vincennes; as the French colonials pushed north from Louisiana and south from Canada, the British colonists to the east continued to push west. In addition, British traders lured away many of Indians; this competition escalated in the Ohio Country until 1754 and the eruption of the French and Indian War On February 10, 1763, when New France was ceded to the British Empire at the conclusion of the French and Indian War, Vincennes fell under the dominion of Great Britain.
British Lt. John Ramsey came to Vincennes in 1766, he took a census of the settlement, built up the fort, renamed it Fort Sackville. The population grew in the years that followed, resulting in a unique culture of interdependent Native Americans and British colonials and traders. Vincennes was far from centers of colonial power. In 1770 and 1772 General Thomas Gage, the commander in chief of Britain's North American forces, received warnings that the residents of Vincennes were not remaining loyal, were inciting native tribes along the river trade routes against the British; the British Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Hillsborough, ordered the residents to be removed from Vincennes. Gage delayed while the residents responded to the charges against them, claiming to be "peaceful settlers, cultivating the land which His Most Christian Majesty granted us." The issue was resolved by Hillsborough's successor, Lord Dartmouth, who insisted to Gage that the residents were not lawless vagabonds, but English subjects whose rights were protected by the King.
In 1778, residents at Poste Vincennes received word of the French alliance with the American Second Continental Congress from Father Pierre Gibault
Aurora is a city in Center Township, Dearborn County, United States. The population was 3,750 at the 2010 census. Aurora is located at 39°3′31″N 84°54′23″W. According to the 2010 census, Aurora has a total area of 3.087 square miles, of which 2.76 square miles is land and 0.327 square miles is water. Aurora was platted in 1819, it was named for the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology. Aurora was incorporated in 1848. Aurora is known for its picturesque historic downtown area and the ornate Hillforest mansion built for Thomas Gaff who earned his fortune shipping goods on the Ohio River by steamboat; the mansion was designed by architect Isaiah Rogers and was completed in 1855 in the Italian Renaissance style. The design is symmetrical. Details include arched windows and balconies and porches. Hillforest was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1992. In addition to Hillforest, the Aurora City Hall, Aurora Methodist Episcopal Church, Aurora Public Library, Downtown Aurora Historic District, First Evangelical United Church of Christ, First Presbyterian Church, George Street Bridge, Lewis Hurlbert, Sr. House, Leive and Stapp Opera House, Levi Stevens House, George Sutton Medical Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
As of the 2010 census, there were 3,750 people, 1,472 households, 936 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,358.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,647 housing units at an average density of 596.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 1,472 households of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.4% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 36.2 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.
As of the 2000 census, there were 3,965 people, 1,592 households, 1,022 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,428.2 people per square mile. There were 1,716 housing units at an average density of 618.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.59% White, 0.10% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.25% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.61% of the population. There were 1,592 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, the median income for a family was $39,331. Males had a median income of $32,058 versus $24,671 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,587. About 9.4% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. The government consists of a city council; the mayor is elected in citywide vote. The city council consists of five members. Four are elected from individual districts. One is elected at-large. Mayor: Donnie Hastings Jr. Clerk Treasurer: Benny Turner Council District 1: John Borgman Council District 2: Joey Turner Council District 3: Terry Hahn Council District 4: Mark Drury Council At Large: Patrick Schwing The town has a free lending library, the Aurora Public Library District. Jesse Lynch Holman - Helped plat the town of Aurora in 1819.
Helped establish the First Baptist Church of Aurora in 1820 and the Indiana Bible Society in 1831. Helped served as the superintendent for Dearborn County schools. Appointed by President Andrew Jackson to the U. S. District Court for the District of Indiana. William S. Holman - Born in Aurora at Veraestau, the home built by his father, Jesse Lynch Holman, he was elected to 10 terms in the United States House of Representatives. John Q. Tufts - Born in Aurora in 1840, his family moved to Iowa in 1852, he was elected as a Republican to represent Iowa's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. Elias Selah Holliday - Served 4 terms in the United States House of Representatives from Indiana's 5th congressional district. Kirtley Baker - Major League Baseball player. Harry Emerson Rowbottom - Served 3 terms in the United States House of Representatives from Indiana's 1st congressional district. Elmer Davis - Director of the Office of War Information in World War II. Stephen Bechtel Sr.
- Former president of
Bluffton is a city in Harrison and Lancaster townships, Wells County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 9,897 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Wells County. Bluffton was named for river bluffs near the original town site; the Bluffton post office has been in operation since 1839. Bluffton was included in the corporate name of the short-lived Cincinnati and Chicago Railroad, founded in 1903; the railroad's Bluffton bridge collapsed on May 22, 1913, the struggling carrier went out of business shortly thereafter. Bluffton is one of the first towns in Indiana, across America, to both publicly acknowledge its history of exclusion as a sundown town and to promote itself as an inclusive town. In 2006, Bluffton was featured in USA Today as an inclusive town, putting up welcoming, inclusive signs at all local schools as well as at the entrances of three state highways. Mayor Ted Ellis was noted in the article for his helping Bluffton become one of the first to join the National League of Cities' Partnership for Working Toward Inclusive Communities.
The Stewart-Studebaker House, Villa North Historic District, Wells County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The John A. Grove House is listed. Bluffton is located at 40°44′17″N 85°10′20″W. According to the 2010 census, Bluffton has a total area of 8.359 square miles, of which 8.23 square miles is land and 0.129 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census, there were 9,897 people, 4,112 households, 2,585 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,202.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,532 housing units at an average density of 550.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.0% White, 0.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 1.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 4,112 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.1% were non-families.
32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age in the city was 38.3 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the 2000 census, there were 9,536 people, 3,922 households, 2,517 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,442.7 people per square mile. There were 4,197 housing units at an average density of 635.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.65% White, 0.34% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.35% of the population. There were 3,922 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families.
31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,416, the median income for a family was $45,294. Males had a median income of $33,088 versus $22,018 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,118. About 6.4% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over. Bluffton has a branch of the Wells County Public Library. Adam Ballinger, basketball player Randy Borror, member of Indiana House of Representatives Charles Clemon Deam, botanist.
S.. S. Senator from New York, former U. S. Ambassador to United Nations, former ambassador to India Everett Scott, MLB baseball player Robert Tonner, fashion designer and doll artist.
The Indiana Statehouse is the state capitol building of the U. S. state of Indiana. Housing the Indiana General Assembly, the office of the Governor of Indiana, the Supreme Court of Indiana, other state officials, it is located in the state capital Indianapolis at 200 West Washington Street. Built in 1888, it is the fifth building to house the state government; the first statehouse, located in Corydon, Indiana, is still standing and is maintained as a state historic site. The second building was the old Marion County courthouse, demolished and replaced in the early 20th century; the third building was a structure modeled on the Parthenon, but was condemned in 1877 because of structural defects and razed so the current statehouse could be built on its location. When Indiana became a state in 1816, the capital was located in Corydon; the first capitol building was a humble, two-story limestone building constructed in 1813 to house the legislature of the Indiana Territory. The building was constructed by a company owned by Dennis Pennington, a member of the early territorial legislature.
Construction cost $1,500, paid for by the citizens of Harrison County, was completed in three years. It measured forty-feet square with ten-foot ceilings; the building was made of limestone cut from a nearby quarry and, at the time of its completion, was one of the largest buildings in the state. The capitol contained three rooms and became too small for the state government, which had to erect additional office buildings across the street for the state's administration; the lower floor of the statehouse was used by the Indiana House of Representatives. The upper floor was split into two rooms, one for the Indiana State Senate and another for the Indiana Supreme Court, with a narrow hall between them; the building was abandoned as the capitol in 1824 and was given to Harrison County to use as a courthouse. The old capitol building is now a state historic site; when the state government relocated to Indianapolis in December 1824, the government was housed in the Marion County Courthouse. The courthouse had been constructed with state funds in 1822 after Indianapolis was chosen as the site for the new capitol.
The courthouse served as the state capitol building for twelve years. At the time Indianapolis was a frontier site, nearly 60 miles from the nearest settlement of significance, making large scale construction impractical; the relocation to Indianapolis was an arduous task. At the time it was an eleven-day journey by horseback from Corydon to the new capital. To complicate matters, no road existed and a path for the wagons had to be cut through the dense forests during the winter transit as the long caravan moved north; the caravan was large because it contained the state treasury, state library, state records, the furniture of the General Assembly, Supreme Court, ExecutIve Offices, along with a whole host of other implements to aid the caravan on its long journey. Colonel Samuel Merrill, the state treasurer, was authorized by the General Assembly to oversee the move, it took more than a month to relocate the government to Indianapolis. The first session of the General Assembly convened there in January 1825.
In 1831, the Indiana General Assembly approved construction of a new statehouse. The building was to be funded by the sale of lots of land in Indianapolis. A commission was established and Commissioner James Blake offered a $150 prize to the architect who could design the best statehouse; the firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis created the winning design. Their plans were for a structure, inspired by the ancient Greek Parthenon; the building looked much like the Parthenon except for a large central dome. Town and Davis was awarded the contract to construct the building, completed it ahead of schedule in 1835; the statehouse was built of blue limestone, two stories high. The governor and the Supreme Court occupied the lower floor, the legislature occupied the upper floor, with each house in its own wing; the building was the site of many great events in its history, including a bier for Abraham Lincoln. The building was popular after its construction but by the 1860s Greek Revival architecture had fallen out of style, the building was beginning to become decrepit.
The building's limestone foundation began to fail, many feared a general structural collapse of the building. In 1867 the ceiling in the chambers of the Indiana House of Representative collapsed. A debate was held in 1873 about how to preserve the building but no solution was found. By the time that Governor James Williams was elected to office, the building was about to be condemned, it was demolished in 1877. When the third statehouse was condemned in 1876 the government abandoned the building; the General Assembly relocated to a large office building, built in 1865 and was housing the Supreme Court. The Governor and the executive staff relocated to another office building; the office building was used as the statehouse during the interim period that the new statehouse was being built. In 1887, before the new statehouse had been completed, enough of the lower floors were usable for the government to move out of the cramped office space and begin holding sessions in the new structure. With Indiana's rapid increase of population during the middle of the 19th century, the state's government increased in size, causing the previous capitol building to become crowded.
In 1865, a state office building had to be constructed to house some of the burgeoning government, the Supreme Court and several bureaus were relocated into the new building. When the statehouse was condemned in 1877, the state was without a real capitol building, the administration of Governor James D. Williams
Clarksville is a town in Clark County, United States, along the Ohio River and is a part of the Louisville Metropolitan area. The population was 21,724 at the 2010 census; the town was founded in 1783 by early resident George Rogers Clark at the only seasonal rapids on the entire Ohio River, it is the oldest American town in the former Northwest Territory. The town is home to the Colgate clock, one of the largest clocks in the world and the Falls of the Ohio State Park, home to the world's largest exposed Devonian period fossil bed; the site that would become Clarksville was first used as a base of operations by George Rogers Clark during the American Revolution. In 1778 he established a post on an island at the head of the Falls of the Ohio, from which he trained his 175-man regiment for the defense to the west. After the war, Clark was granted a tract of 150,000 acres for his services in the war. In 1783, 1,000 acres were set aside for the development of Clarksville; the same year a stockade was built and settlement began.
The explorer William Clark was a younger brother of George Rogers Clark. Renowned historian Stephen Ambrose writes of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in Undaunted Courage, "When they shook hands, the Lewis and Clark Expedition began." A two-figure statue near the falls commemorates the expedition. Several localities other than Clarksville claim precedence for the start of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, most notably St. Louis, Missouri. Due to the many floods in the nineteenth century and the Indiana Canal Company's failed competition to build a canal around the Ohio Falls, the town struggled. On August 24, 1805 the Indiana Territorial Legislature authorized the construction of a canal around the Falls of the Ohio at Clarksville; the first attempt failed and the investors lost their money. Historians believe. Developers tried to build a canal in 1817 and again in 1820, but the race to build the canal was lost in 1826 when the federal government made a large grant to build the Louisville and Portland Canal.
The lack of a canal handicapped the growth of the town as the Falls of the Ohio made river transport from the city difficult. Clarksville became a popular dueling spot for Kentuckians who wanted to dodge their home state's anti-dueling laws; the most famous of these was the 1809 duel between Humphrey Marshall. There was an attempt to build a second town within Clarksville's boundaries, named Ohio Falls City, until the Indiana Supreme Court ruled that this would be illegal; the town was managed by a ten-member Board of Trustees in the charter from Virginia. The trustees were allowed to align lots along roads and sell the lots for the proceeds to benefit the town; the trustees did not have to reside in the town. This remained controversial with residents until 1889 when the board stopped meeting and was replaced by a three-member board. One member was selected by the Floyd County Commissioners, one by the Clark County Commissioners, one by residents of Clarksville. Between 1889 and 1937, the town established a five-member board elected by residents.
The historic records related to this governmental change were lost in the Ohio River flood of 1937. The Great Flood of 1937 decimated the town; the entire town was submerged beneath as much as 12 feet of water in some areas for over three weeks during January and February. With all of the old town destroyed, Clarksville was rebuilt with a new modern city plan; the post-World War II housing boom and new jobs brought growth to the city. The population increased from 2,400 in 1940 to 22,000 in 2000; the city has expanded to the north by annexing several sizable suburbs. By 1981 the State of Indiana changed statutes to convert the managing board of trustees to a council with members rather than trustees. In 1990 voters approved expansion of members of the Town Council from five to seven following the area growth. Clarksville is now the major shopping hub of Southern Indiana, with the hub area centered on Lewis and Clark Parkway and nearby Veterans Parkway. Clarksville is located at 38°18′43″N 85°46′2″W.
According to the 2010 census, Clarksville has a total area of 10.17 square miles, of which 9.97 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,724 people, 9,175 households, 5,464 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,178.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,839 housing units at an average density of 986.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.1% White, 5.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 5.7% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. There were 9,175 households of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.4% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.98.
The median age in the town was 37.3 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,400 people, 8,984 households, 5,561 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,120.6 people per square mile. There wer