Vonnegut, Wright & Yeager
Vonnegut, Wright & Yeager was an architectural firm active in mid-twentieth-century Indiana. It was located at 1126 Hume Mansur Building, Indiana and 402 Opera House Building, Terre Haute, Wright & Yeager was formed in 1946. Stalker Hall, Indiana State University, built to designs by Ralph O Yeager in 1954 for $920,000 Coca Cola Company Building, Terre Haute, Terre Haute City Hall, built for $250,000. Woodrow Wilson Junior High School, built for $750,000, alabama Street Anderson Bank building in Anderson, Indiana New buildings for Hooks Drug Stores prior to World War II. Kurt Vonnegut, Sr. Residence 4365 North Illinois Street, Indianapolis 4th Ward Washington Township, Marion County, Indiana
Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law and he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nations first Secretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System, as President, Jefferson pursued the nations shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the countrys territory, as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces.
Jeffersons second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory. Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and he was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jeffersons keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society and he shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages and he founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves.
Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jeffersons private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13,1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject and his father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen, his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children, the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757, his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph.
Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and he assumed full authority over his property at age 21
In the 18th century, Great Britain and the France disputed for control of this region. The French had claimed it in the 17th century as part of New France and this activity stimulated the development of the eastern parts of the eventual National Road by private investors. Most of the territory and its successors was settled by emigrants passing through the Cumberland Narrows, the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7,1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution, the territory included all the land of the United States west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River. It covered all of the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan. The area covered more than 260,000 square miles, European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders.
French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin. The French exercised control from widely separate posts in the region, France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. This action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act, Britain annexed the region to the Province of Quebec in order to provide a civil government, the prohibition of settlement west of the Appalachians remained, contributing to the American Revolution. In February 1779, George Rogers Clark of the Virginia Militia captured Kaskaskia, the Old Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, and northwest of the Ohio River.
It covered all of the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan. The area covered more than 260,000 square miles and was a significant addition to the United States, several states had competing claims on the territory. As a concession in order to obtain ratification, these states ceded their claims on the territory to the government, New York in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts. So the majority of the territory became public land owned by the U. S. government and Connecticut reserved the land of two areas to use as compensation to military veterans, The Virginia Military District and the Connecticut Western Reserve. In this way, the United States included territory and people outside any of the states, Thomas Jeffersons Land Ordinance of 1784 was the first organization of the territory by the United States. Some older French communities property claims based on systems of long
Adolph Gustav Wolter van R Wolter was German-born American sculptor and carver. Wolter was born in Reutlingen and his father was a stone carver and Wolter apprenticed with him before enrolling in the Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart. In 1922 he immigrated to the United States and moved to Minneapolis, in 1933 Wolter arrived in Indianapolis, Indiana, to carve the reliefs on the Indiana State Library, he stayed in Indiana for the remainder of his life. Wolter graduated from the Herron School of Art and taught there, the use of sculptors to aid in the facial reconstruction of war veterans had already been pioneered by sculptor and medical doctor R. Tait McKenzie, author of Reclaiming the Maimed. Wolter is remembered for creating public monuments and architectural sculpture. Wolter was married to the late Evelyn Crostreet of Indianapolis, step-grandchildren include Brian Grossman, who resides in Washington D. C. Anne Tillie and Keith Grossman, who reside in Indiana, and Elizabeth Wolter, carved relief panels for the Indiana State Library Building, Indianapolis,1933.
Four Freedoms Monument, White Chapel Cemetery, Michigan,1948, University Park, Indiana,1973. American Legion Soldier, American Legion Building, Washington D. C.1951, St. Mary of the Woods, St Mary of the Woods College, Saint Mary of the Woods, Indiana,1965. Louis Chevrolet Memorial, Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Indiana,1975, a Glimpse of White Chapel, Where Memory Lives in Beauty, White Chapel Memorial Cemetery, Troy, MI, n. d. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington D. C, Faith & Fancy, Outdoor Public Sculpture in Indiana. Tait McKenzie, A Sculptor of Youth and Lockley, Guide to the Architectural Sculpture of America, http, //www. archsculptbooks. com
Bedford, has been noted to have the highest quality quarried limestone in the United States. Salem limestone, like all limestone, is a rock formed of calcium carbonate. Native Americans were the first people to discover limestone in Indiana, not long after they arrived, American settlers used this rock around their windows and doors and for memorials around the towns. The first quarry was started in 1827, and by 1929 Hoosier quarries yielded 12,000,000 ft3 of usable stone, the expansion of the railroads brought great need for limestone to build bridges and tunnels and Indiana was the place to get it. American architecture of the late 19th and early 20th century included a lot of detail work on buildings. Salem limestone was officially designated as the stone of Indiana by the Indiana General Assembly in 1971. With the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, the price of building materials skyrocketed so Indiana limestone reemerged as an energy-efficient building material. Indiana limestone is part of a high-end market and it is mostly used on the exterior of homes and commercial buildings.
With the impact of rain it is not used in monuments as it was in the 19th century. Indiana limestone has used in many other famous structures in the United States, such as the Empire State Building, the Pentagon, Yankee Stadium. In addition,35 of the 50 state capitol buildings are made of Indiana limestone, Indiana limestone was used extensively in rebuilding Chicago after the Great Chicago Fire. Built from 1890-1893, Indianas Wayne County Courthouse is made of Salem limestone, 1959s architecturally significant St. Augustines Episcopal Church uses Indiana limestone in the interior. The Saint Sava Serbian Orthodox Church in Merrillville, consecrated in 1991 and awarded a Gold Medal Award for Excellence in Masonry Design, the new Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, which opened in 2009, extensively uses Indiana limestone paneling on its exterior facade. The original 1930s buildings of Rockefeller Center use limestone from Bedford, in 1955 the Tennessee State Capitol exterior was renovated using Indiana limestone to replace the poorer quality Tennessee limestone that had started to deteriorate.
Indiana limestone was used in the rebuilding of the Pentagon after the terrorist attack of Sept.11,2001, the project took around 15,000 cubic feet of stone and was rededicated exactly one year after the attack. Indiana limestone has been popular for the construction of university buildings. The Neo-Gothic campus of the University of Chicago is almost entirely constructed out of Bedford limestone, the campus of Washington University in St. Louis – both for new construction and original buildings – makes use of Indiana limestone in its collegiate gothic architecture. The majority of Indiana University, was constructed out of limestone, in addition, many buildings on the north side of Michigan State University use Indiana limestone
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans, particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Technically a walnut is the seed of a drupe or drupaceous nut and it is used for food after being processed while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available. The walnut is nutrient-dense with protein and essential fatty acids, walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree commonly used for the meat after fully ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, during the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard. The shell encloses the kernel or meat, which is made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – commonly available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves, typically not until more than halfway through the spring and they secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing. Because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them, the two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut. The English walnut originated in Persia, and the black walnut is native to eastern North America, the black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut, other species include J. californica, the California black walnut, J. cinerea, and J. major, the Arizona walnut. In 2013, worldwide production of walnuts was 3.458 million tonnes, other major producers were, United States and Ukraine. The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3.5 tonnes per hectare in 2013, eastern European countries had the highest yield, with Slovenia and Romania each harvesting about 22 tonnes per hectare.
The United States is the worlds largest exporter of walnuts, followed by Turkey, the Central Valley of California produces 99 percent of United States commercial English walnuts. Walnuts, like tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations, a mold-infested walnut batch should be entirely discarded. The ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the −3 to 0 °C and low humidity – for industrial and home storage
Carvings (Indiana State Library)
Carvings, is a series of bas-relief limestone panels decorating the facade of the Indiana State Library in Indianapolis, United States. The reliefs were designed by artist Leon Hermant and carved by German sculptor Adolph Wolter in 1934, the library building was dedicated Dec.7,1934. The Indiana State Library Carvings are a series of limestone panels. Located beneath the line on the east side of the building, ten square relief panels depict the founding. The first panel, the Explorer, illustrates La Salle at portage between the St. Joseph and Kanakakee Rivers, the next panel, the Soldier, shows George Rogers Clark and the capture of Vincennes. The next panel depicts the Pioneer followed by a panel depicting the Farmer, next is a panel depicting the Legislator and the signing of the state constitution, followed by panels of the Miner, the Builder, the Manufacturer, the Educator and the Aspiring Student. Above the ground floor windows, a set of eight relief panels depict an Indian with a peace pipe, the Trapper, the Priest, the Pioneer.
On the south side of the building, individual figures represent, History, figures on the north side represent, Art and Justice. Above the buildings entrance is an owl holding an open with its proper left claw. On each side of the entrance is a seated female figure sitting back to back. Indiana State Library Carvings on Flickr Save Outdoor Sculpture
The phrase may refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures, outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan in particular are in wood, and so are the majority of African sculpture. Wood is light and can take very fine detail so it is suitable for masks. It is easier to work on than stone. Some of the finest extant examples of early European wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Germany, Russia and France, in England, many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. The gouge, a tool with a cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows, rounds. The coping saw, a saw that is used to cut off chunks of wood at once. The chisel and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines, the V-tool, used for parting, and in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines.
The U-Gauge, a deep gouge with a U-shaped cutting edge. Sharpening equipment, such as stones and a strop, necessary for maintaining edges. The nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in wood is not equally strong in all directions. The direction in which wood is strongest is called grain and it is smart to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it. Less commonly, this principle is used in solid pieces of wood. Probably the two most common used for carving in North America are basswood and tupelo, both are hardwoods that are relatively easy to work with. Chestnut, oak, American walnut and teak are very good woods, while for fine work Italian walnut, sycamore maple, pear, box or plum, are usually chosen. Decoration that is to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is often carved in pine, the type of wood is important. Hardwoods are more difficult to shape but have greater luster and longevity, softer woods may be easier to carve but are more prone to damage
Henry Dearborn was an American soldier and statesman. In the Revolutionary War, he served under Benedict Arnold in the expedition to Quebec, after being captured and exchanged, he served in George Washingtons Continental Army, and was present at the British surrender at Yorktown. Dearborn served on General Washingtons staff in Virginia and he was US Secretary of War, serving under President Thomas Jefferson from 1801 to 1809, and served as a commanding general in the War of 1812. In life his criticism of General Israel Putnams performance at the Battle of Bunker Hill caused a major controversy, Fort Dearborn in Illinois and the city of Dearborn, were named in his honor. Henry Dearborn was born February 23,1751, to Simon Dearborn and Sarah Marston in North Hampton and he was descended from Godfrey Dearborn, from Exeter in England, who came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1639. Godfrey Dearborn settled at Exeter, New Hampshire, and soon after at Hampton, Henry spent much of his youth in Epping, New Hampshire, where he attended public schools.
He grew up as a boy, notably strong and a champion wrestler. He studied medicine under Dr. Hall Jackson of Portsmouth and opened a practice on the square in Nottingham, New Hampshire, in 1772. Dearborn was married three times, to Mary Bartlett in 1771, to Dorcas Marble in 1780, and to Sarah Bowdoin, Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn was his son by his second wife. He was appointed Deputy Quartermaster General in July 1781 and served on George Washingtons staff while in Virginia, Dearborn years would accuse Israel Putnam of failing his duty during that battle, resulting in a major controversy. Dearborn volunteered to serve under Colonel Benedict Arnold in September 1775, Dearborn would record in his Revolutionary War journal their overall situation and condition, We were small indeed to think of entering a place like Quebec. But being now almost out of provisions we were sure to die if we attempted to return back, on the final leg of the march he was taken seriously ill with fever, forcing him to remain behind in a cottage on the Chaudière River.
Later he rejoined the forces of Arnold and Gen. Richard Montgomery in time to take part in the assault on Quebec. Dearborns journal is an important record for that campaign, during the march he and Aaron Burr became companions. Along with a number of officers, Dearborn was captured on December 31,1775, during the Battle of Quebec. He was released on parole in May 1776, but he was not exchanged until March 1777, after fighting at Ticonderoga in July 1777, Dearborn was appointed major in the regiment commanded by Alexander Scammell. In September 1777, Dearborn was transferred to the 1st New Hampshire Regiment and he took part in the Saratoga campaign against Burgoyne at Freemans Farm. The first battle was fought by troops from New Hampshire