Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, United States. It is located on the lower Wabash River in the southwestern part of the state, nearly halfway between Evansville and Terre Haute. Founded in 1732 by French fur traders, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes for whom the Fort was named, Vincennes is the oldest continually-inhabited European settlement in Indiana and one of the oldest settlements west of the Appalachians. According to the 2010 census, its population was 18,423, a decrease of 1.5% from 18,701 in 2000. Vincennes is the principal city of the Vincennes, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area, which comprises all of Knox County and had an estimated 2017 population of 38,440; the vicinity of Vincennes was inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples. During the Late Woodland period, some of these peoples used local loess hills as burial sites. In historic times, prominent local Indian groups who drove these people out were the Shawnee and the Miami tribe.
The first European settlers were French, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of New France. On, it would be transferred to the colony of Louisiana. Several years France lost the French and Indian War, as result ceded territory east of the Mississippi River, including Vincennes, to the victorious British. Once the area was under British rule, it was associated with the Province of Quebec, until after the American Revolution, it became part of the Illinois Country of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. Next it became part of Knox County in the Northwest Territory, it was included in the Indiana Territory. Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon; the first trading post on the Wabash River was established by Sieur Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montréal. With thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on October 28, 1702 to trade for Buffalo hides with American Indians; the exact location of Juchereau's trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, many believe it was here.
The post was a success. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned; the French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile the capital of Louisiana. The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was established in 1732 as a second French fur trading post in this area; the Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, to build a post along the Wabash River to discourage local nations from trading with the British. De Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash and White rivers, the overland Buffalo Trace. De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe, persuaded the Piankeshaw to establish a village at his trading post, he encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, Vincennes had a hard time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations, who were being courted by British traders.
The boundary between the French colonies of Louisiana and Canada, although inexact in the first years of the settlement, was decreed in 1745 to run between Fort Ouiatenon and Vincennes. In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake near the present-day town of Fulton, Mississippi, his settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor. Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive to command Poste Vincennes; as the French colonials pushed north from Louisiana and south from Canada, the British colonists to the east continued to push west. In addition, British traders lured away many of Indians; this competition escalated in the Ohio Country until 1754 and the eruption of the French and Indian War On February 10, 1763, when New France was ceded to the British Empire at the conclusion of the French and Indian War, Vincennes fell under the dominion of Great Britain.
British Lt. John Ramsey came to Vincennes in 1766, he took a census of the settlement, built up the fort, renamed it Fort Sackville. The population grew in the years that followed, resulting in a unique culture of interdependent Native Americans and British colonials and traders. Vincennes was far from centers of colonial power. In 1770 and 1772 General Thomas Gage, the commander in chief of Britain's North American forces, received warnings that the residents of Vincennes were not remaining loyal, were inciting native tribes along the river trade routes against the British; the British Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Hillsborough, ordered the residents to be removed from Vincennes. Gage delayed while the residents responded to the charges against them, claiming to be "peaceful settlers, cultivating the land which His Most Christian Majesty granted us." The issue was resolved by Hillsborough's successor, Lord Dartmouth, who insisted to Gage that the residents were not lawless vagabonds, but English subjects whose rights were protected by the King.
In 1778, residents at Poste Vincennes received word of the French alliance with the American Second Continental Congress from Father Pierre Gibault
Indiana State Road 45
State Road 45 is a state route from Bean Blossom, Indiana to Scotland, Indiana in the southern half of the state. From Bean Blossom and through Brown County, State Road 45 is a narrow, shoulderless two-lane road that passes between the Morgan-Monroe State Forest and the Yellowwood State Forest, it is wooded and follows the natural terrain, which gives the road tight curves and steep hills. As the road passes into Monroe County, the woods disappear and farms and homes begin to line the road; the road remains hilly and curvy until it reaches Bloomington, where it bypasses the city concurrent with State Road 46 and State Road 37 and Interstate 69. West of Bloomington, shoulders appear on its two lanes become wider; the road meanders with the rolling terrain until it meets and overlaps State Road 58, after which it is straight and flat until its terminus at US 231. Prior to the early 1980s, State Road 45 was multiplexed with U. S. 231 from Rockport to the State Road 58 junction near Scotland. However, as with State Road 43's former multiplex with 231 from Spencer to Lafayette, the state highway department deleted much of the route.
This left the current segment along with a short, 5-mile section from Patronville to Rockport that acted as a connector to then-U. S. 231 and Owensboro, Kentucky. This southern section was decommissioned and turned over to the control of the city of Rockport and Spencer County in early 2001, about a year before U. S. 231 was rerouted onto the William H. Natcher Bridge. A major construction project to widen the road to four lanes in Bloomington was completed in November 2012
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,785 and its metropolitan area had a population of 170,943. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the "capital" of the Wabash Valley; the city is home to several higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Terre Haute is located alongside the eastern bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana; the city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the physical geography of the city. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the historic flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the southern sections of the city, respectively.
In the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city. Pioneer Oil of Lawrenceville, IL, began drilling for oil at 10th and Chestnut streets on the Indiana State University campus in late December 2013, the first oil well drilled in downtown Terre Haute since 1903; that well produced oil into the 1920s. Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways: U. S. 40 from California to Maryland and US 41 from Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. Climate is characterized by high summer temperatures, mean winter temperatures near freezing, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa". Terre Haute's name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning "Highland." It was named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River.
At the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the known beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village existed near the fort, the orchards and meadows they kept a few miles south of the fort became the site of the present-day city; the village of Terre Haute a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816. Terre Haute became the county seat of newly formed Vigo County in 1818, leading to increased population growth; the village's 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, followed by elevation to city status in 1853. Early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing; however the business and industrial expansion of the city prior to 1860 developed thanks to transportation. The Wabash River, the building of the National Road and the Wabash and Erie Canal linked Terre Haute to the world and broadened the city's range of influence.
The economy was based on iron and steel mills, hominy plants and, late in the 19th century, distilleries and bottle makers. Coal mines and coal operating companies developed to support the railroads, yet agriculture remained predominant due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. With steady growth and development in the part of the 19th Century, the vibrant neighborhoods of the city benefited from improved fire protection, the founding of two hospitals, dozens of churches and a number of outlets for amusement. Terre Haute's position as an educational hub was fostered as several institutions of higher education were established; the city developed a reputation for entertainment offerings. Grand opera houses were built that hosted hundreds of theatrical performances, it became a stop on the popular vaudeville circuit. The development of the streetcar system and the electric-powered trolleys in the 1890s made it possible for residents to travel with ease to enjoy baseball games, river excursions, amusement parks and racing.
The famous "Four-Cornered" Racetrack, now the site of Memorial Stadium, was laid out in 1886 and drew the best of the country's trotters and drivers. On the evening of Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a major tornado struck Terre Haute at 9:45 p.m. It demolished more than 300 homes, killed twenty-one people and injured 250. Damage to local businesses and industries was estimated at $1 million to $2 million. Up to that time it was the deadliest tornado. Heavy rains followed the tornado. By midday on Tuesday, March 25, West Terre Haute was three-quarters submerged. On Saturday June 16, 1923, through to the following dawn, the largest Ku Klux Klan rally held in Indiana took place in Forest Park, five miles north of Terre Haute. A special train of eight coaches brought Klan members from Indianapolis, another came from Evansville and Vincennes, another brought 1,000 Klansmen from Muncie, it was reported tha
Carlisle is a town in Haddon Township, Sullivan County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 692 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Terre Haute Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carlisle is home to the Wabash Valley Correctional Facility. Carlisle was named after the city of Pennsylvania; the Carlisle post office has been in operation since 1816. Carlisle is located at 38°57′44″N 87°24′2″W. According to the 2010 census, Carlisle has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 692 people, 271 households, 188 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,330.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 311 housing units at an average density of 598.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.1% White, 0.6% Native American, 1.9% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 271 households of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.6% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the town was 38.2 years. 25.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,660 people, 286 households, 193 families residing in the town; the population density was 4,953.5 people per square mile. There were 322 housing units at an average density of 599.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town, including prison population, was 63.68% White, 32.26% African American, 0.90% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 1.58% from other races, 1.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.14% of the population. There were 286 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 7.0% under the age of 18, 17.9% from 18 to 24, 53.9% from 25 to 44, 16.2% from 45 to 64, 5.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 603.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 756.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $29,875, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $28,207 versus $20,682 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,822. About 12.0% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. Carlisle has a branch of the Sullivan County Public Library. John Wesley Davis, U. S. Congressman and Speaker of the House of Representatives
Merom is a town in Gill Township, Sullivan County, United States. The population was 228 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Terre Haute Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nearby is Hoosier Energy's Merom Generating Station; the town's name commemorates the Battle of the Waters of Merom. The Merom post office has been in operation since 1818. Merom is located at 39°3′25″N 87°34′0″W. According to the 2010 census, the town has a total area of 0.36 square miles, all land. The Bluff Park in Merom is the site of the type locality of the Merom Sandstone; as of the census of 2010, there were 228 people, 99 households, 59 families residing in the town. The population density was 633.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 123 housing units at an average density of 341.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.4% of the population. There were 99 households of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.4% were non-families.
37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the town was 39.4 years. 30.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.4% male and 49.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 294 people, 108 households, 81 families residing in the town; the population density was 813.7 people per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 373.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.30% White, 0.68% African American, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.68% of the population. There were 108 households out of which 43.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.2% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 3.4% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,528, the median income for a family was $33,333. Males had a median income of $30,250 versus $20,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,087. About 13.5% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under the age of eighteen and 3.6% of those sixty five or over. Merom has a branch of the Sullivan County Public Library. Merom's two main attractions are the Bluff Park overlooking the Wabash River and the farm fields of Illinois and the Merom Conference Center, A retreat, conference center and summer camp of the Indiana-Kentucky Conference of the United Church of Christ.
Town website Media related to Merom, Indiana at Wikimedia Commons
Jackson County, Indiana
Jackson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 42,376; the county seat is Brownstown. Jackson County was formed in 1816, it was named after General Andrew Jackson. Jackson County was the site of the first recorded train robbery of a moving train in the United States. On October 6, 1866 the Reno Gang robbed an Ohio and Mississippi Railway train, making off with over $10,000. Jackson County has the second longest 3-span covered bridge in the world. After a recent project to refurbish the Medora Covered Bridge, the nearby town of Medora now holds an annual event at the bridge; the bridge is open for pedestrian traffic and site-seers. Another long neglected covered bridge, the Bells Ford Bridge, believed to have been the last remaining Post Truss bridge in the world, succumbed to neglect, collapsing into the White River on January 2, 2006. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 513.91 square miles, of which 509.31 square miles is land and 4.60 square miles is water.
Seymour Brownstown Crothersville Medora Freetown Vallonia Kurtz Norman Station Tampico Uniontown Brown County Bartholomew County Jennings County Scott County Washington County Lawrence County Monroe County Sources: National Atlas, U. S. Census Bureau Interstate 65 U. S. Route 31 U. S. Route 50 State Road 11 State Road 39 State Road 58 State Road 135 State Road 235 State Road 250 State Road 256 State Road 258 Hoosier National Forest Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge In recent years, average temperatures in Brownstown have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.84 inches in February to 5.01 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the fiscal body of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county.
The 7 representatives are elected from 3 at-large positions. The council members serve four-year terms, they are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases; the judge on the court is elected to a term of six years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term.
In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Jackson County is part of Indiana's 9th congressional district and is represented in Congress by Republican Todd Young, it is part of Indiana Senate districts 44 and 45 and Indiana House of Representatives districts 65, 66 and 73. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,376 people, 16,501 households, 11,629 families residing in the county; the population density was 83.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,202 housing units at an average density of 35.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.5% white, 0.8% Asian, 0.7% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.4% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.8% were German, 13.1% were American, 12.8% were Irish, 9.2% were English. Of the 16,501 households, 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families, 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 38.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $53,534. Males had a median income of $38,608 versus $30,030 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,498. About 7.6% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. The Tribune, daily newspaper covering Jackson County National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, Indiana Jackson County Visitor Center
Indiana State Road 37
State Road 37 is a major route in the U. S. state of Indiana, running as a four-lane divided highway for 110 miles of its course. At one time, the route ran from the southwest corner of the state to the northeast corner. In the pre-Interstate Highway era, Indiana 37 was the most direct route between Fort Wayne and Indianapolis. Interstate 69 has supplanted it as a through route, State Road 37 now consists of two disconnected segments; the longer segment starts at Tell City on the Ohio River and ends in Marion in north central Indiana. The other segment in northeastern Indiana runs from Interstate 469 near Fort Wayne to the Ohio state line; the southern section of Indiana SR 37 begins at a junction with SR 66 near the Ohio River in Tell City. Angling northeast, it enters the Hoosier National Forest turns north until it meets Interstate 64 just north of State Road 62 at St. Croix. SR 37 now continues north beyond I-64, to meet SR 64 near Eckerty; these two routes run concurrently to the east for about 8 miles, where just north of English SR 37 departs to the north toward Paoli and SR 64 continues east toward Marengo.
Just prior to reaching Paoli SR 37 leaves the National Forest. Once in town the route has a brief concurrency with US 150 and SR 56 to loop around the town square before it leaves to the north, heading for Orleans and Mitchell; until reaching Mitchell, SR 37 is a two-lane rural route with light traffic. However, from this point north to Indianapolis, the character of the road changes to become a major rural arterial route. At Mitchell the 4-lane divided highway begins with a short concurrency of SR 60 on SR 37 as both routes skirt the edge of town. From there, SR 37 continues north to US 50 on the outskirts of Bedford. US 50 and SR 37 run concurrently, curving northeast to cross the East Fork of the White River before turning north to bypass the center of the city on its west side. After US 50 leaves to the east, SR 37 proceeds northward to Bloomington, where it now meets up with the new southern extension of Interstate 69 on that city's southwest side. From that point in Bloomington heading north to Martinsville, SR 37 was converted from an expressway to a full freeway to allow for I-69 to run concurrently along its path and was completed October 31 2018.
Conversion of the stretch between Martinsville and a point just south of I-465 on the southwest side of Indianapolis is planned to follow, which will complete the southern extension of I-69 between Evansville and Indianapolis. The present southern junction of SR 37 and I-465 is at the Harding Street interchange. From there, the state road proceeds counterclockwise around the beltway to exit 37 in the Castleton neighborhood of Indianapolis' northeast side. There it runs concurrent with the southern end of the original section of I-69 to the northeast for about 5 miles to Fishers, before exiting to the north as a access-controlled divided highway. Northeast of Noblesville, SR 37 reverts to a two-lane rural highway. Along the Hamilton—Madison County line it runs concurrent with SR 13 until those routes split just south of Elwood. From there, SR 37 angles north-northeast to reach the present northern terminus of the southern section at SR 9 just south of Marion; the portion of SR 37 between Tell City and I-64 has been designated as the Frank O'Bannon Highway, to honor the late former governor.
The northern section of Indiana SR 37 begins at a junction with Interstate 469 on the northeast side of Fort Wayne. From there it runs northeast 20 miles, passing through Harlan, to terminate at the Ohio state line near the Allen—DeKalb County line; the road continues on northeast in Ohio as State Route 2, to Hicksville and beyond. SR 37 was once a section of the Dixie Highway from Indianapolis to Paoli. In the 1950s, SR 37 ran north of Bloomington on the roads now called Cascades Drive and Old 37 to the northern end of Monroe County. South of Bloomington, SR 37 followed Walnut Street Pike, Fairfax Road, Valley Mission Road, Guthrie Road, Kentucky Hollow Road to Oolitic; these were replaced in the late 1950s and early 1960s with the straighter sections called College Avenue and Walnut Street north of Bloomington and the sections called Walnut Street and Old 37 south to Oolitic. As soon as the current 4-lane 37 was finished in 1976, a portion of Kentucky Hollow Road was abandoned north of Oolitic and a stone quarry, alongside SR 37 for years consumed the road.
SR 37 now turns to the east and is concurrent with SR 64 from Eckerty to English, where it exits the eastbound highway and rejoins the old route. The old, winding stretch of 37 from I-64 at Exit 86 north to English has been designated as SR 237; this change, which occurred between 2009 and 2014 eliminated the SR 37 concurrency with I-64 between that route's exits 79 and 86. SR 37 ended at the junction of SR 35 and US 31 at Meridian and South Streets in downtown; the route that became SR 37 was numbered SR 13 in Marion and most of Hamilton Counties. SR 13 began at Meridian and Michigan Streets the junction of US 31, SR 13 and SR 367. SR 13 followed Meridian St. north to Fall Creek Parkway N. Drive, where it turned northeast. SR 13 followed Fall Creek and Allisonville Road to Strawtown in Hamilton County, where what is now SR 37 was undesignated until 1940. In 1940, the portion from north of Strawtown to south of Elwood was made part of SR 13. From south of Elwood to Marion, the road, now SR 37 was numbered SR 15.
By 1945, the entire route described above became a continuation of SR 37 from the south side of Indianapolis. SR 37 was designated along Michigan St. and Vermont St