United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D. C; the court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals; the court occupies the Howard T. Markey National Courts Building, the adjacent Benjamin Ogle Tayloe House, the former Cosmos Club, the Cutts-Madison House in Washington, D. C; the court sits from time to time in locations other than Washington, its judges can and do sit by designation on the benches of other courts of appeals and federal district courts. The Federal Circuit is unique among the courts of appeals as it is the only court that has its jurisdiction based wholly upon subject matter rather than geographic location.
The Federal Circuit is an appellate court with jurisdiction given in 28 U. S. C. § 1295. The court hears certain appeals from all of the United States District Courts, appeals from certain administrative agencies, appeals arising under certain statutes. Among other things, the Federal Circuit has exclusive jurisdiction over appeals from: Article I tribunals: United States Court of Federal Claims United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims United States Trademark Trial and Appeal Board United States Patent Trial and Appeal Board Boards of contract appeals: Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals Civilian Board of Contract Appeals Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals United States Merit Systems Protection Board United States International Trade Commission Article III tribunals: United States Court of International Trade United States district courts relating to: Patents, including appeals arising from an action against the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks under 35 U. S. C. § 145 The Little Tucker Act, 28 U.
S. C. § 1346 Section 211 of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970. Congress, overruled the Supreme Court in the America Invents Act of 2011; as a result, the Federal Circuit hears all appeals where the original action included a complaint or compulsory counterclaim arising under the patent laws. The decisions of the Federal Circuit in regard to patent cases, are unique in that they are binding precedent throughout the U. S. within the bounds of the court's subject-matter jurisdiction. This is unlike the other courts of appeals as the authority of their decisions is restricted by geographic location and thus there may be differing judicial standards depending on location. Decisions of the Federal Circuit are only superseded by decisions of the Supreme Court or by applicable changes in the law. Review by the Supreme Court is discretionary, so Federal Circuit decisions are the final word since there are no circuit splits given the Federal Circuit's exclusive subject-matter jurisdiction. In its first decision, the Federal Circuit incorporated as binding precedent the decisions of its predecessor courts, the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims.
Because the Court is one of national jurisdiction, panels from the court may sit anywhere in the country. Once or twice a year, the court will hold oral arguments in a city outside of its native Washington D. C; the panels may sit in Federal courthouses, state courthouses, or at law schools. The Federal Circuit may have a total of 12 active circuit judges sitting at any given time, who are required to reside within 50 miles of the District of Columbia, as set by 28 U. S. C. § 44. Judges on senior status are not subject to this restriction; as with other federal judges, they are nominated by the President and must be confirmed by the Senate. Their terms last during the "good behavior" of the judges, which results in life tenure; when eligible, judges may elect to take senior status. This allows a senior judge to continue to serve on the court while handling fewer cases than an active service judge; each judge in active service employs a judicial assistant and up to four law clerks, while each judge in senior status employs a judicial assistant and one law clerk.
As of July 8, 2015, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority am
Wisconsin Supreme Court
The Wisconsin Supreme Court is the highest appellate court in Wisconsin. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over original actions, appeals from lower courts, regulation or administration of the practice of law in Wisconsin; the Wisconsin Supreme Court sits in its main hearing room in the East Wing of the Wisconsin State Capitol building in Madison, Wisconsin. Since 1993, the court has travelled, once or twice a year, to another part of the state to hear several cases as part of its "Justice on Wheels" program; the purpose of this program is to give the people of Wisconsin a better opportunity to understand the operations of the state supreme court and the court system. The court is composed of seven justices who are elected in non-partisan elections; each justice is elected for a ten-year term. Only one justice may be elected in any year; this avoids the sudden shifts in jurisprudence seen in other state supreme courts, where the court composition can be radically shifted if two or three justices are targeted for an electoral challenge based on their views on controversial issues.
In the event of a vacancy on the court, the governor has the power to appoint an individual to the vacancy, but that justice must stand for election in the first year in which no other justice's term expires. After passage of a referendum on April 7, 2015, the chief justice of the court is elected for a term of 2 years by the vote of a majority of the justices serving on the court, although the justice so elected may decline the appointment. Previous to the change, the justice with the longest continuous service on the court served as the chief justice. Opponents of the referendum called it an attempt to remove longtime Chief Justice Shirley Abrahamson, a member of the court's liberal minority, while supporters called it an effort to promote democracy on the court. ↑: Subsequently elected in their own right. In 2009, the United States Supreme Court decided Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Co. holding 5-4 that a campaign expenditure of over $3 million by a corporate litigant to influence the election of a judge to the court that would hear its case, although legal, was an "extreme fact" that created a "probability of bias", thus requiring the judge to be recused from hearing the case.
Wisconsin had adopted a limit of $1,000 for campaign contributions to judges, but it was unclear when mandatory recusal was required. The League of Women Voters petitioned the Court to require a judge to recuse himself or herself from a proceeding if the judge had received any campaign contributions from a party or entity involved in it. Instead, during its 2009-2010 term and by a 4-3 vote, the Court adopted a rule that recusal is not required based on any endorsement or receipt of a lawful campaign contribution from a party or entity involved in the proceeding, that a judge does not need to seek recusal where it would be based on a party in the case sponsoring an independent expenditure or issue advocacy communication in favor of the judge. Voting in favor of the new rule were Prosser, Gableman and Ziegler. Voting against were Abrahamson, A. Bradley. In the opinion of Justice Roggensack, "when a judge is disqualified from participation, the votes of all who voted to elect that judge are cancelled for all issues presented by that case.
Accordingly, recusal rules... must be narrowly tailored to meet a compelling state interest." In dissenting, Justice A. Bradley called the decision "a dramatic change to our judicial code of ethics" and took issue with the majority's decision to adopt a rule "proposed by special interest groups." On June 13, 2011, a confrontation between Justices David Prosser, Jr. and Ann Walsh Bradley occurred in Bradley's chambers. Prosser and the other justices were discussing the following day's decision that would overturn a ruling blocking the Wisconsin collective bargaining law. Witnesses stated that the incident happened after Prosser had stated that he'd lost all confidence in the leadership of Chief Justice Shirley Abrahamson. Bradley accused Prosser of putting her in a chokehold. Prosser denied the allegations and asked for "a proper review of the matter and the facts surrounding it"; the incident was investigated by the Dane County Sheriff's Office. Witnesses to the incident disagreed about what had happened and neither Prosser nor Bradley was charged by a special prosecutor.
Ethics charges brought against Prosser based on Bradley's allegations were never adjudicated due to the lack of a quorum on the Court after recusals. Although elections to the Wisconsin Supreme Court are nonpartisan, campaigns for the seats sometimes generate partisan fervor; as a result, elections have become expensive. Justices are elected in nonpartisan elections for ten-year terms. Only one justice may be elected in any year. Justices are elected in the spring election. If there are more than two candidates, a spring primary is held on the third Tuesday in February. Michael Gableman did not seek re-election in 2018. Two county judges, Rebecca Dallet and Michael Screenock, ran for the open seat. A third candidate, Tim Burns, did not make it to the general election in the February 20 primary. Dallet was elected in the April 3 general election. Incumbent Justice Shirley Abrahamson is not seeking re-election in 2019. Appeals Judge Brian Hagedorn was elected to succeed her in the April 2 general election, will take his seat on the court on August 1, 2019.
Wisconsin Court of Appeals Wisconsin Circuit Court Adelman, Lynn. How Big Money Ruined Public Life in Wisconsin, 66 Clev. St. L. Rev. 1. Ranney, Joseph A. Wisconsin and the Shaping of American Law. Madison, WI: University of Wiscon
Scott N. Flanders is an American corporate executive with experience in the media and technology industries, he is chief executive officer of eHealth, Inc. a role he assumed on May 31, 2016. He was chief executive officer of Playboy Enterprises, a role he assumed on July 1, 2009. Flanders was born on December 26, 1956 in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, he attended the University of Colorado. He received a Juris Doctor from Maurer School of Law at Indiana University, he is a C. P. A. From 1986 to 1998, Flanders was the president of Macmillan Publishers, he joined Macmillan from Que Corp. where he oversaw the sale of the computer book publisher to Macmillan in 1986. In his subsequent 14 years at Macmillan, he established the firm as the world's largest computer book publisher and the first publisher of books about the Internet; the company's revenues increased from $5 million to $500 million under his leadership. The Macmillan name was acquired by Pearson in 1998. Between 1998 and 1999, he was co-founder and chief executive of Telstreet.com, an Indianapolis-based e-commerce company that merged with Buy.com in 2000.
In 1999, Flanders was hired by Sony and Time Warner Inc. to lead the integration of CDNow, an online music retailer, Columbia House to establish a new public company jointly held by the two CDNow shareholders The merger plans, made public in the fall of 1999, were dissolved in March 2000, with many analysts pointed to the bursting of the dot-com bubble as a factor. After the dissolution of the merger, Flanders transitioned to the role of Chairman and CEO of Columbia House Company, where he led the company's turnaround strategy, making several executive changes and transitioning the company from a print customer acquisition model to one dominated by online. Flanders led a leveraged buyout of Columbia House by the Blackstone Group. Columbia House was sold to Bertelsmann in a transaction that closed in July 2005, his prior work with the Columbia House led Blackstone Group to ask Flanders to join Freedom Communications as the president and chief executive officer, where he spent 2006 to 2009. He served on Freedom Communications' board of directors during this time and as an independent director for five years before joining the company as its president and CEO.
During his board tenure, Freedom recapitalized with two private equity firms, the Blackstone Group and Providence Equity Partners. Flanders was president of the firm during the transformation of Playboy into a brand management company. In March 2011, with financing from private equity firm Rizvi Traverse Management and investment bank Jefferies & Company, Playboy Enterprises went private for $6.15 per share. In the 20-month period between his arrival and the go-private transaction, shareholder earnings increased 2.07 times the stock price at the time of his arrival. Flanders took over as CEO of eHealth, Inc. after serving as a member of eHealth's board for eight years. Upon taking the reins at eHealth, Flanders developed a three-point plan to drive substantial growth, announced to shareholders on October 27, 2016; the first point in the plan is to accelerate growth in eHealth's Medicare Advantage membership and increase its market share in the Medicare supplement market. The second point in the plan is to expand eHealth's market share in the small business insurance market.
The third point in the plan is to drive higher sales volume in adjacent markets while expanding sales activities with existing and new eHealth members. President of the board of visitors of the Maurer School of Law at Indiana University. Member of the board of eHealth, Inc. One of the angel investors in Ooyala in the company's first round of funding. Board member of the Newspaper Association of America from 2006-2007. Board of trustees of the Orange County Museum of Art in Newport Beach, California
The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002, "to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11 attacks", including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks. The commission was mandated to provide recommendations designed to guard against future attacks. Chaired by former New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean, the commission consisted of five Democrats and five Republicans; the commission was created by Congressional legislation, with the bill signed into law by President George W. Bush; the commission's final report was lengthy and based on extensive interviews and testimony. Its primary conclusion was that the failures of the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation permitted the terrorist attacks to occur and that if these agencies acted more wisely and more aggressively, the attacks could have been prevented. After the publication of its final report, the commission closed on August 21, 2004.
The commission's website has been archived. The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States was established on November 27, 2002, by President George W. Bush and the United States Congress, with former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger appointed to head the commission. However, Kissinger resigned only weeks after being appointed, because he would have been obliged to disclose the clients of his private consulting business. Former U. S. Senator George Mitchell was appointed as the vice-chairman, but he stepped down on December 10, 2002, not wanting to sever ties to his law firm. On December 15, 2002, Bush appointed former New Jersey governor Tom Kean to head the commission. By the spring of 2003, the commission was off to a slow start, needing additional funding to help it meet its target day for the final report, of May 27, 2004. In late March, the Bush administration agreed to provide an additional $9 million for the commission, though this was $2 million short of what the commission requested.
The first hearings were held from March 31 to April 2003, in New York City. Thomas Kean – Republican, former Governor of New Jersey Lee H. Hamilton – Democrat, former U. S. Representative from the 9th District of Indiana Richard Ben-Veniste – Democrat and former chief of the Watergate Task Force of the Watergate Special Prosecutor's Office Max Cleland – Democrat, former U. S. Senator from Georgia. Resigned in December 2003, stating that "the White House has played cover-up" Fred F. Fielding – Republican and former White House Counsel member. Jamie Gorelick – Democrat, former Deputy Attorney General in the Clinton Administration Slade Gorton – Republican, former U. S. Senator from Washington Bob Kerrey – Democrat, President of the New School University and former U. S. Senator from Nebraska, he replaced Max Cleland as a Democratic Commissioner, after Cleland's resignation. John F. Lehman – Republican, former Secretary of the Navy Timothy J. Roemer – Democrat, former U. S. Representative from the 3rd District of Indiana James R. Thompson – Republican, former Governor of IllinoisThe members of the commission's staff included: Philip D. Zelikow – Executive Director/Chair Christopher Kojm – Deputy Executive Director Daniel Marcus – General Counsel John J. Farmer – Senior Counsel Janice Kephart – Counsel Alvin S. Felzenberg – Spokesman Then government officials who were called to testify before the commission included: George W. Bush – President.
The session was not transcribed because the White House considered it a "private meeting" in which classified information would be discussed. Asked to limit the length of testimony to one hour. Testimony took place in the Oval Office. Bush insisted that he testify only to the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the commission, but agreed to testify before the full panel. Dick Cheney – Vice President; the session was not transcribed because the White House considered it a "private meeting" in which classified information would be discussed. Testimony took place in the Oval Office. George John Tenet – Director of Central Intelligence Agency Colin Powell – Secretary of State Donald H. Rumsfeld – Secretary of Defense Condoleezza Rice – National Security Advisor Richard Armitage – Deputy Secretary of State Paul Wolfowitz – Deputy Secretary of Defense Tom Ridge – Secretary of Homeland Security and former Governor of Pennsylvania John Ashcroft – Attorney GeneralPast government officials who were called to testify before the commission included: Bill Clinton – former President.
Testimony was not limited in time. Al Gore – former Vice President. Testimony was not limited in time. Madeleine Albright – former Secretary of State William Cohen – former Secretary of Defense Sandy Berger – former National Security Advisor Richard A. Clarke – former chief counter-terrorism adviser on the National Security Council in the George W. Bush and Bill Clinton administrations Rudy Giuliani - former Mayor of New York City Janet Reno – former Attorney General Sibel Edmonds – former FBI translatorPresident George W. Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, former President Bill Clinton, former Vice President Al Gore all gave private testimony. President Bush and Vice President Cheney insisted on testifying together and not under oath, while Clinton and Gore met with the panel separately; as National Security Advisor, Condoleezza Rice claimed that she was not required to testify under oath because the position of National
Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law
The Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law is located on the campus of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis in Indianapolis, the urban campus of Indiana University. In the summer of 2001, the school moved to Lawrence W. Inlow Hall. IU McKinney is one of two law schools operated by Indiana University, the other being the Indiana University Maurer School of Law in Bloomington. Although both law schools are part of Indiana University, each law school is wholly independent of the other. According to IU McKinney's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 82.5% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, J. D. required or J. D. advantage employment within nine months after graduation–the highest of any Indiana law school. Several of IU McKinney's programs have drawn national attention and honors. U. S. News & World Report ranks the school 11th in the nation for its health care law program, 23rd for legal writing, 23rd for the part-time law program. Additionally, IU McKinney counts among its alumni many distinguished leaders in politics, public service, the judiciary, including two United States Vice Presidents and numerous senators, representatives and ambassadors.
In a listing of "The 50 Most Impressive Law School Buildings in the World," IU McKinney's building, Lawrence W. Inlow Hall, ranked 13th; the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law traces its origins to the late nineteenth century when the first of its private predecessor schools, the Indiana Law School, began operating in 1894. A full-time day school, the Indiana Law School was part of a newly formed University of Indianapolis that included Butler University, the Medical College of Indiana and the Indiana Dental School. All three professional schools became part of Indiana University. Among the first trustees of the school were former United States President, Benjamin Harrison, Indiana industrialist, Eli Lilly. In 1898, a second predecessor school, the Indianapolis College of Law, was founded, offering a two-year evening program; this school, located in the Pythian Building in downtown Indianapolis, was advertised in 1906 as "known everywhere for its successful graduates," and boasted a tuition of $10 per term.
A few years another evening school, the American Central Law School, was established. In 1914, the Indianapolis College of Law and American Central Law School merged to become the Benjamin Harrison Law School, an evening school. In 1936 the Benjamin Harrison Law School and the Indiana Law School merged, taking the name of the latter, offering both day and evening programs. In 1944, the Indiana Law School affiliated with Indiana University, becoming the Indianapolis Division of the Indiana University School of Law. Beginning the following year, the school was housed in the Maennerchor Building, an architectural landmark in Indianapolis; the school gained autonomy in 1968, becoming the Indiana University School of Law – Indianapolis, the largest law school in the state of Indiana and the only law school in the state to offer both full- and part-time programs. The school moved into a new building at 735 West New York Street in 1970 where it remained until moving to Lawrence W. Inlow Hall, located at 530 West New York Street, in May 2001.
The school's name was changed in December 2011 in recognition of a $24 million gift from Robert H. McKinney, who served as chairman and CEO of First Indiana Corporation and is among the founders of Bose McKinney & Evans LLP, one of the largest law firms in Indianapolis; the gift was the largest in school history and was part of an arrangement to match funds with an IUPUI fundraising campaign, for a total value of $31.5 million. The school was renamed after McKinney. According to IU McKinney's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 82.5% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, J. D. required or J. D. advantage employment within nine months after graduation–the highest of any Indiana law school. The total cost of attendance at IU - McKinney for the 2013-2014 academic year for an Indiana resident is $43,936, for a non-Indiana resident it is $63,648; the Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $178,019 for an Indiana resident and $247,171 for a non-Indiana resident.
Of the 203 American Bar Association -accredited law schools evaluated for its 2019 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the school in the top 100 best law schools, 8th in legal writing, 10th in healthcare law and 18th in part-time legal programs. In 2010, based on the number of graduates selected for inclusion in Super Lawyers magazine in 2009, that publication ranked the school 44th out of 180 law schools considered; the school has sat atop the Top 10 Law Schools in Indiana Super Lawyers list since the list's inception in 2010. The school found itself listed in the top 10 by US News in 2014 for highest yield – i.e. percentage of accepted applicants who enroll. The Indiana Law Review is a legal periodical managed by students of the law school; each year, the Law Review publishes one volume. The first three issues contain two to four lead articles and three to five student Notes; the fourth issue is the longest issue of each year. The Survey of Recent Developments in Indiana Law contains fifteen to twenty articles written by professors and Indiana practitioners summarizing the significant changes and developments in Indiana law during the prior year.
The Indiana International & Comparative Law Review is published annually and has been published continuously since 1991. Although the II&CLR has typica
Shirley S. Abrahamson is an associate justice and former chief justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court, she was appointed to the court in 1976 by Governor Patrick Lucey, becoming the first female justice to serve on Wisconsin's highest court. Abrahamson was re-elected to the Supreme Court in 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009, she became Chief Justice on August 1, 1996 and served in that capacity until April 29, 2015. Abrahamson initiated a federal legal challenge seeking reinstatement as Chief Justice. On May 15, 2015 U. S. District Judge James Peterson denied her request to be reinstated as chief justice, her appeal of this decision was dismissed on July 31, 2015. and she withdrew her lawsuit on November 10, 2015. Abrahamson was raised in New York City, where she attended Hunter College High School, she earned an A. B. magna cum laude from New York University in 1953, a J. D. with high distinction from Indiana University Law School in 1956, an S. J. D. in American legal history from the University of Wisconsin Law School in 1962.
Abrahamson practiced law in Madison, Wisconsin for 14 years and was a professor at the University of Wisconsin Law School. She was appointed to the Wisconsin Supreme Court in 1976 by Governor Patrick Lucey, becoming the first woman to serve on Wisconsin's high court, she became Chief Justice on August 1, 1996 and served in that capacity until April 29, 2015. Abrahamson has authored more than 450 majority opinions and participated in more than 3500 written decisions of the court, she has been involved in deciding more than 10,000 petitions for review, bypasses and lawyer and judicial discipline cases. She is a member of the Council of the American Law Institute and serves on the board of directors of the Dwight D. Opperman Institute of Judicial Administration at New York University School of Law, she has been President of the Conference of Chief Justices and Chair of the Board of Directors of the National Center for State Courts and has served on the board of visitors of several law schools. She served as a member of the United States National Academies Committee on Science and Law, was chair of the National Institute of Justice Committee on the Future of DNA Evidence.
In 1997 she was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1998 she was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society, two scholarly societies in the United States. She is a member of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences. In 2004 she was awarded the first annual Dwight Opperman Award for Judicial Excellence by the American Judicature Society, she has received the Margaret Brent Award from the American Bar Association. She has received numerous other awards and fifteen honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the U. S, she is featured in Great American Judges: An Encyclopedia, The Lawdragon 500 Leading Lawyers in America, The Lawdragon 500 Leading Judges in America. She won re-election on April 7, 2009, defeating Jefferson County Circuit Court Judge Randy Koschnick. In April, 2015 voters approved an amendment to the state constitution that changed the way that the chief justice of the Supreme Court was selected; the justice with the most seniority held the position, but the amendment allowed court members to choose the chief justice.
On April 29, 2015, the day the vote canvass was certified by the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board, the justices elected Justice Patience D. Roggensack as the new chief justice. According to Abrahamson's own opinion in the 2002 case, State v. Gonzalez, ""nless a constitutional amendment provides otherwise, it takes effect upon the certification of a statewide canvass of the votes," Since that date, as there is no wording in the amendment saying it should not take effect after the canvass, no stay or temporary restraining order on the amendment, Justice Roggensack became the Chief Justice, she has acted in that position in court business since then. Abrahamson filed a federal lawsuit challenging the immediate implementation of the constitutional amendment, contending that she should remain chief justice until the expiration of her current term in 2019, her lawsuit was heard on May 15, 2015. Five of the seven justices asked the federal judge to dismiss Abrahamson's lawsuit; that day, the federal court denied Abrahamson's request for immediate reinstatement as Chief Justice.
U. S. District Judge James D. Peterson determined there was no harm in Roggensack serving as chief justice while Abrahamson's lawsuit continued. On May 27 she appealed that decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. However, she dropped the lawsuit on November 10, after deciding that, no matter what happened in her lawsuit, her term would be close to ending by the time the litigation ended. On May 30, 2018, Abrahamson announced she would not seek re-election to the Wisconsin Supreme Court in 2019. Abrahamson and her husband, were married for 54 years. List of female state supreme court justices Wisconsin Court System profile of Justice Abrahamson
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti