Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Interstate 65 in Indiana
Interstate 65 in the U. S. state of Indiana traverses from the south-southeastern Falls City area bordering Louisville, through the centrally located capital city of Indianapolis, to the northwestern Calumet Region of the Hoosier State, part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The Indiana portion of I-65 begins in Jeffersonville after crossing the Ohio River and travels north, passing just west of Columbus prior to reaching the Indianapolis metro area. Upon reaching Indianapolis, the route alignment of I-65 begins to run more to the northwest and subsequently passes Lafayette on that city's east and north sides. Northwest of there, in west-central Jasper County, the route again curves more northward as it approaches the Calumet Region. Shortly after passing a major junction with I-80 and I-94, I-65 reaches its northern national terminus in Gary at I-90, carried on the Indiana East–West Toll Road. I-65 covers 261.27 miles in the state of Indiana. This is one of the principal interstate highways that cross the state, more intersect at the city of Indianapolis, that has given the state the nickname of "Crossroads of America".
I-65 enters. I-65 travels past Clark State Forest before reaching Seymour to the north. I-65 intersects with U. S. Highway 50 providing access to Seymour to the west. US 31 runs parallel to the Interstate. North of Seymour, I-65 passes through Columbus. Just north of Columbus, I-65 runs near an Indiana National Guard training base; the Interstate continues north into Indianapolis. I-65 crosses the I-465 loop before reaching Indianapolis; the section of I-65 in Downtown Indianapolis overlaps I-70. The junctions are referred to as the "North Split" and the "South Split", forming a section of Interstate locally known as the "Inner Loop" or "Spaghetti Bowl" due to the visual complexity of the overlapping freeways. In 1999, the 25-mile segment of I-65 between the two I-465 interchanges was renamed the Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds Highway. At mile marker 116, I-65 passes Crown Hill Cemetery, burial site and memorial of President Benjamin Harrison. I-65 leaves the I-465 loop on the northwest side of Indianapolis.
The highway travels past Eagle Creek Park and it passes the terminus of I-865 and picks up US 52. The segment of I-65 north of Indianapolis heads in the direction of Illinois. US 52 runs concurrently until the north side of Lebanon. From this point US 52 runs parallel to I-65. At about the halfway point to the end of I-65 and Indianapolis, I-65 passes through Lafayette. I-65 passes next to Prophetstown State Park. North of Lafayette, I-65 passes through the open flatlands of northwest Indiana. Protruding from the fields are some of the hundreds of wind turbines of the Benton County Wind Farm and Fowler Ridge Wind Farm. At mile 199.4 is the time zone boundary between Central Time and Eastern Time. As with all time zone changes on highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation, this change in time zone is not marked with any roadside signage. Upon crossing into Lake County, over the Kankakee River, the highway is known as the Casimir Pulaski Memorial Highway, it is known as this from that point to its northern terminus.
The northern terminus of I-65 is only 1⁄8 mile north of I-90. Like all Interstate Highways in Indiana, I-65 was constructed in segments. There were six segments in the southern portion of the state between the Kentucky border and the south leg of I-465 in Indianapolis, nine within the I-465 loop and eleven more that made up the northern portion connecting the northwest side of Indianapolis to the Indiana Toll Road in Gary; the first section of I-65 to be completed in Indiana was a 13.39-mile stretch between a temporary connection with US 52 near Royalton in Boone County and the US 52 junction northwest of Lebanon, which opened in December 1960. The initial southern Indiana portion, running 45.71 miles between then-US 31E in Clarksville and US 50 east of Seymour, saw its first traffic in November 1961. The final of the 17 segments of I-65 outside of I-465, 23.09 miles from SR 252 near Edinburgh to Southport Road on Indy's far south side, opened on June 30, 1972. Unlike for most of portions of I-70 within the I-465 beltway, several inner sections of I-65 were built throughout the overall project lifespan.
However, the final three segments from the south side through the heart of the city, including the common portion of I-65 and I-70, were not finished and opened to traffic until around 1974. Prior to 2004, the interchange from the Indiana Toll Road to southbound I-65 required making a physical left turn onto I-65 via a traffic signal; this deficiency has since been corrected by a grade-separation. As part of the Operation Indy Commute project, INDOT began work in 2013 to widen I-65 on both northbound and southbound mainlines from exit 103 at Southport Road northward to the southern junction with I-465, adding auxiliary lanes in this section to improve merging of traffic entering southbound I-65 from I-465 and entering northbound I-65 from westbound Southport Road. To reduce congestion on I-65 South from I-465 West, the loop ramp from westbound I-465 was replaced by a flyover ramp to southbound I-65; the eastbound I-465 exit to southbound I-65 South
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
U.S. Route 231 in Indiana
U. S. Route 231 in Indiana is a main north–south highway in the western part of the state; the southern terminus of US 231 is at the Kentucky state line and the northern terminus is at US 41 just south of St. John; the highway is a mixture of two-lane roadway. The expressway is in southern Indiana and around the Lafayette area, with the rest being two-lanes. US 231 was signed as a state road from Spencer to Lafayette. North of Lafayette, the road was a U. S. Highway until it was decommissioned in favor of US 231; this route will become an expressway in southern Indiana from the current northern terminus of the expressway to the future interchange at Interstate 69. US 231 contains two segments included as a part of the National Highway System; the first segment runs from the Kentucky state line to SR 558 and the second segment runs from I-70 to Lafayette. The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation like all other U. S. Highways in the state; the department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic.
This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any day of the year. In 2010, INDOT calculated that the section of US 231 with the lowest average daily traffic levels – with 1,100 vehicles and 180 commercial vehicles – was from US 52 to I–65; the peak traffic volumes on US 231 was 27,990 vehicles and 1,950 commercial vehicles AADT along the section concurrent with US 52. US 231 enters Indiana on the William H. Natcher Bridge over the Ohio River from Kentucky; the road enters as a four–lane divided highway and has a folded diamond interchange with State Road 66. The highway through farmland towards Dale; the route turns northeast. The road turns north having an interchange with SR 162; the expressway turns northwest and enters Dale. On the south side of Dale, the roadway intersects SR 62; the highway turns northeast again, around the northwest side of Dale. Subsequently, the route has an interchange with I–64. At the Dubois County line, the highway enters the Eastern Time Zone.
At the Dubois County line, the expressway ends and US 231 becomes a two-lane rural highway. US 231 heads north-northeast towards Huntingburg; the highway enters passing through residential areas. The route has a traffic light in downtown Huntingburg with SR 64. North of downtown Huntingburg, the road passes before leaving town; the highway heads north towards Jasper, passing by a mix of both farmland and woodland. US 231 enters Jasper from the south. West of downtown Jasper, the route begins a concurrency with SR 56, with both routes heading east; the concurrency enters downtown and has a traffic light at the northern terminus of SR 64. That is intersection SR 56 turn towards the north; the two highways head north into residential areas. The road leaves Jasper heading northeastward toward Loogootee. In Haysville, the concurrency with SR 56 ends. US 231 heads north-northeast from SR 54, before turning more northward; the highway enters Loogootee and begins a concurrency with both U. S. Route 50 and US 150.
The concurrency travels due north turns northeast and enters downtown Loogootee. In downtown, the concurrency ends, with US 150 heading east and US 231 heading northwest; the highway heads north towards Bloomfield, passing the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division. The route enters Bloomfield from the south; this intersection is the southern terminus of SR 157. US 231 and SR 54 head due west after about 4 miles, after which SR 54 keeps heading due west and US 231 turns due north; this intersection is the northern terminus of SR 57. US 231 heads north for about 4 miles until SR 67; the two routes head northeast heading towards Spencer, along the banks of the White River. The highway turns towards the north away from the concurrency ends. SR 67 heads northeast again and US 231 heads northwest; the road travels towards Cloverdale, passing through an intersection with SR 42. The route enters Cloverdale passing by a mix of residential properties. On the north side of Cloverdale, the highway becomes a four-lane divided highway, with an interchange at I–70.
North of I -- 70, US 231 narrows to a two-lane highway. The route has a traffic light at US 40, south of Greencastle; the highway enters Greencastle from the southeast and begins to turn north, passing DePauw University to the west. In downtown Greencastle, the highway has a traffic light with the western terminus of SR 240. US 231 leaves Greencastle heading further north for Crawfordsville, passing through a traffic light at US 36, a brief concurrency with SR 236, an intersection with SR 234. On the south side of Crawfordsville, the route becomes a four-lane undivided highway, passing through commercial development; the road heads toward downtown Crawfordsville, begins a concurrency with both SR 32 and SR 47. The concurrency passes Wabash College and has an intersection with US 136. At this intersection, the concurrency with SR 32 and SR 47 turns east onto US 136. US 231 becomes a four-lane divided highway north of US 136, heading through the north side of Crawfordsville. Through the north side of Crawfordsville, the road passes through residential land, with a few commercial