Historically, the five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance. Today, the fine arts commonly include additional forms, such as film, video production/editing, sequential art, conceptual art, and printmaking. However, in some institutes of learning or in museums, fine art, in that sense, there are conceptual differences between the fine arts and the applied arts. The word fine does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question and this definition originally excluded the applied or decorative arts, and the products of what were regarded as crafts. According to some writers the concept of a category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art, A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century, There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. ”Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, and Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is often placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance.
The separation of arts and crafts that often exists in Europe, in Japanese aesthetics the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the mostly landscape painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting. A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving, weaving. Drawing is a form of expression and is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning. Mosaics are images formed with pieces of stone or glass. They can be decorative or functional, an artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper, except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print.
Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy, the reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression, prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. But there are other kinds, discussed below. Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition, in modern times each print is often signed and numbered forming a limited edition
Business of webcomics
Creators of webcomics are able to do so professionally through various revenue channels. Webcomic artist may sell merchandise based on their work, such as T-shirts and toys, many webcomic creators make use of online advertisement on their websites, and some have underwent product placement deals with larger companies. Crowdfunding through Kickstarter and Patreon have become a source of income for webcartoonists since these services have launched. In 2000, Scott McCloud predicted that micropayments would become a source of income for webcartoonists. Many webcomic artists started creating their works without an intention to directly profit from it. A large amount of artists start creating a webcomic with the intention to become a professional, many successful webcomic artist are diversifying their income streams in order to not be solely dependent on the webcomic itself. The strategy of building a business around posting free comics online began in the 1980s, self-publishing on the internet allowed Millikin to avoid censorship and the demographic constraints of mass-market print publishers.
Millikins comics were popular with the early internet audience around the world. However, at time a large online audience and influence did not necessarily translate into enough sales to reach economic success. By 1999, Millikin was one of the few, and first and he now often donates a portion of his profits to charities. In the year after the debut of Witches and Stitches, Joe Ekaitis began online publishing of his weekly comic strip T. H. E. Rabbit and Friends, economic success was elusive, despite running online for several years the comic never achieved its goal of newspaper syndication, and Ekaitis stopped updating the comic in 1998. Professional webcomic creators use various types of models in order to profit from their webcomics. Many webcomic artists make a living on selling T-shirts, prints. When webcomics started out, the way for people to make money through them was by selling merchandise. In 2004, artists like Richard Stevens and Jon Rosenberg supported themselves via sales of books, kate Beaton claimed that 2007 was a good year to get into webcomics, as she was able to make a living off of advertising and T-shirts in a year.
In an interview, Beaton said that made a living off of it by printing off their own shirts. And it was a lot of work, the habit of primarily selling T-shirts resulted in issues in 2008, which Dorothy Campbell described as the great T-shirt crash of 2008
A small press is a publisher with annual sales below a certain level. Commonly, in the United States, this is set at $50 million, after returns, Small presses are defined as those that publish an average of fewer than 10 titles per year, though there are a few who manage to do more. Defined this way, these make up approximately half of the market share of the book publishing industry. Many small presses rely on specialization in genre fiction, poetry, or limited-edition books or magazines, Small presses should not be confused with self-publishing presses. Self-publishing or subsidy presses usually require payment by authors, or a purchase of copies. By comparison, small presses make their profits by selling books to consumers, Small presses should not be confused with printers. Small presses are publishers, which means that they engage in a selection process, along with editing, marketing. Small presses enter into a contract with the author, often paying royalties for being allowed to sell the book, Publishers own the copies they have printed, but usually do not own the copyright to the book itself.
In contrast, printers merely print a book, and sometimes offer limited distribution if they are a POD printing press, printers have a very low selectivity. They will accept anyone who can pay the cost of printing. They rarely offer editing or marketing, printers do not own the copies that are printed, and they do not pay royalties. Book packagers combine aspects of small presses and printers, but they are technically neither small presses nor printers, the majority of small presses are independent or indie publishers, meaning that they are separate from the handful of major publishing house conglomerates, such as Random House or Hachette. Since the profit margins for small presses can be narrow, many are driven by other motives, many presses are associated with crowdfunding efforts that help connect authors with readers. Small presses tend to fill the niches that larger publishers neglect and they can focus on regional titles, narrow specializations and niche genres. At its most minimal, small press production consists of chapbooks and this role can now be taken on by desktop publishing and Web sites.
Small presses became distinguishable from jobbing printers at some time towards the end of the nineteenth century, the roots lie with the Arts and Crafts Movement, particularly the Kelmscott Press. The use of small letterpress machines by amateur printers increased proportionately to the mechanization of commercial printing, the advance of practical lithography made small press publication much easier. A recent burgeoning of small presses has been caused by the introduction of digital printing, there is now a distinction made between small presses and micro-presses
Circuit bending usually involves dismantling the machine and adding components such as switches and potentiometers that alter the circuit. Circuit bending is often practiced by those with no training in circuit theory or design. Inexpensive keyboards, drum machines, and electronic toys are commonly used. Haphazard modifications can result in short circuits, resulting in the risk of fire, aesthetic value, immediate usability and highly randomized results are often factors in the process of successfully bending electronics. Circuit bending is typified by inconsistencies in instruments built in an unscientific manner, while many pre-fitted circuit bent machines are on offer for sale at auction sites such as eBay, this somewhat contravenes the intention of most practitioners. Results are monitored through either the internal speaker or by connecting an amplifier to the speaker output. If an interesting effect is achieved, this connection would be marked for reference or kept active by either soldering a new connection or bridging it with crocodile clips.
This is repeated on a trial and error basis, other components added into the circuit can give the performer more expressiveness, such as potentiometers and pressure sensors. The simplest input, and the one most identified with circuit bending, is the body contact, often metal knobs, screws or studs are wired to these circuit points to give easier access to these points from the outside the case of the device. Since creative experimentation is a key element to the practice of circuit bending, there is always a possibility that short circuiting may yield undesirable results, including component failure. In particular, connecting the power supply or a capacitor directly to a chip lead can destroy the chip. For safety reasons, a circuit bender should have a few basic electronics tools and it is advised that beginner circuit benders should never bend any device that gets its power from mains electricity, as this would carry a serious risk of electrocution. Circuit bending can be carried out in interactive electronic audio games, people modify their electronic games to enhance the quality of recordings used for fan-made projects or to change the speed of the game which results in a pitch change.
This makes the gameplay easier, especially if the game gets impossibly fast, although similar methods were previously used by other musicians and engineers, this method of music creation is believed to have been pioneered by Reed Ghazala in the 1960s. Ghazalas experience with circuit-bending began in 1966 when a toy transistor amplifier, by chance, shorted-out against an object in his desk drawer. Prior to Marks and Reeds experiments other pioneers explored the idea, one of the earliest being Thaddeus Cahill whose telharmonium. Ghazalas How-To Ghazalas official website tutorial GetLoFi a circuit bending blog with a lot of circuit bending tips and resources
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a transmission medium such as air or water. In physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves, humans can hear sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound above 20 kHz is ultrasound and below 20 Hz is infrasound, other animals have different hearing ranges. Acoustics is the science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases and solids including vibration, ultrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, an audio engineer, on the other hand, is concerned with the recording, manipulation and reproduction of sound. Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in, sound can propagate through a medium such as air and solids as longitudinal waves and as a transverse wave in solids. The sound waves are generated by a source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium, as the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave.
At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure, velocity, at an instant in time, the pressure and displacement vary in space. Note that the particles of the medium do not travel with the sound wave and this is intuitively obvious for a solid, and the same is true for liquids and gases. During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium, the behavior of sound propagation is generally affected by three things, A complex relationship between the density and pressure of the medium. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines the speed of sound within the medium, if the medium is moving, this movement may increase or decrease the absolute speed of the sound wave depending on the direction of the movement. For example, sound moving through wind will have its speed of propagation increased by the speed of the if the sound and wind are moving in the same direction. If the sound and wind are moving in opposite directions, the speed of the wave will be decreased by the speed of the wind.
Medium viscosity determines the rate at which sound is attenuated, for many media, such as air or water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible. When sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties, the mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound can travel through all forms of matter, liquids and plasmas. The matter that supports the sound is called the medium, sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Sound is transmitted through gases and liquids as longitudinal waves and it requires a medium to propagate
Machinima is the use of real-time computer graphics engines to create a cinematic production. Most often video games are used to generate the computer animation, machinima-based artists, sometimes called machinimists or machinimators, are often fan laborers, by virtue of their re-use of copyrighted materials. Originally, these recordings documented speedruns—attempts to complete a level as quickly as possible—and multiplayer matches, the addition of storylines to these films created Quake movies. The more general term machinima, a portmanteau of machine cinema, arose when the concept spread beyond the Quake series to other games, after this generalization, machinima appeared in mainstream media, including television series and advertisements. Machinima has advantages and disadvantages compared to other styles of filmmaking. Its relative simplicity over traditional frame-based animation limits control and range of expression and its real-time nature favors speed, cost saving, and flexibility over the higher quality of pre-rendered computer animation.
Virtual acting is less expensive and physically restricted than live action, Machinima can be filmed by relying on in-game artificial intelligence or by controlling characters and cameras through digital puppetry. Scenes can be scripted, and can be manipulated during post-production using video editing techniques. Editing, custom software, and creative cinematography may address technical limitations, Game companies have provided software for and have encouraged machinima, but the widespread use of digital assets from copyrighted games has resulted in complex, unresolved legal issues. Machinima productions can remain close to their roots and feature stunts or other portrayals of gameplay. Popular genres include dance videos and drama, some filmmakers attempt to stretch the boundaries of the rendering engines or to mask the original 3-D context. Some general film festivals accept machinima, and game companies, such as Epic Games, Blizzard Entertainment, 1980s software crackers added custom introductory credits sequences to programs whose copy protection they had removed.
Increasing computing power allowed for more complex intros, and the demoscene formed when focus shifted to the intros instead of the cracks, the goal became to create the best 3-D demos in real-time with the least amount of software code. Disk storage was too slow for this, graphics had to be calculated on the fly, in Disney Interactive Studios 1992 computer game Stunt Island, users could stage and play back stunts, as Nitsche stated, the games goal was not. A high score but a spectacle, released the following year, id Softwares Doom included the ability to record gameplay as sequences of events that the game engine could replay in real-time. Because events and not video frames were saved, the game demo files were small. A culture of recording gameplay developed, as Henry Lowood of Stanford University called it, the result was nothing less than a metamorphosis of the player into a performer. Another important feature of Doom was that it allowed players to create their own modifications, maps, in machinima, there is a dual register of gestures, the trained motions of the player determine the in-game images of expressive motion
Webcomics are comics published on a website. While many are published exclusively on the web, others are published in magazines. Webcomics can be compared to self-published print comics in that anyone with an Internet connection can publish their own webcomic, readership levels vary widely, many are read only by the creators immediate friends and family, while some of the largest claim audiences well over one million readers. Webcomics range from traditional comic strips and graphic novels to avant garde comics and they sometimes take on the role of a comic blog. There are several differences between webcomics and print comics, with webcomics the restrictions of the traditional newspapers or magazines can be lifted, allowing artists and writers to take advantage of the webs unique capabilities. The freedom webcomics provide allows artists to work in nontraditional styles, clip art or photo comics are two types of webcomics that do not use traditional artwork. A Softer World, for example, is made by overlaying photographs with strips of typewriter-style text, pixel art, such as that created by Richard Stevens of Diesel Sweeties, is similar to that of sprite comics but instead uses low-resolution images created by the artist himself.
However, it is common for artists to use traditional styles and layouts. Some webcomics stretch the boundaries of taste, taking advantage of the fact that internet censorship is virtually nonexistent in countries like the United States, Webcomics come in a large variation of formats throughout the world. Comic strips, generally consisting of three or four panels, have traditionally been a format for webcomics. Other webcomics may mimic the pages of comic books and graphic novels. Such a format proved successful in South-Korean webcomics when JunKoo Kim implemented an infinite scrolling mechanism in Line Webtoon in 2004. Some webcartoonists, such as political cartoonist Mark Fiore or Charley Parker with Argon Zark, incorporate animations or interactive elements into their webcomics. The first comics to be shared through the Internet were created in the mid-1980s, services such as CompuServe and Usenet were used before the World Wide Web started to rise in popularity in 1993. Early webcomics were usually derivatives from strips in newspapers, but when the Web became widely popular in the mid-1990s.
By the year 2000, various webcomic creators were financially successful, unique genres and styles became popular during this period. In the second half of the 2000s, webcomics became less financially sustainable due to the rise of social media, crowdsourcing through Kickstarter and Patreon became popular in this period, allowing readers to donate money to webcomic creators directly. The 2010s saw the rise of webtoons in South Korea, in March 1995, Bebe Williams launched the webcomics portal Art Comics Daily, an online gallery of several webcomics
Cassette culture, or the cassette underground, refers to the practices surrounding amateur production and distribution of recorded music that emerged in the late 1970s via home-made audio cassettes. It is characterized by the adoption of home recording by independent artists, the culture was in part an offshoot of the mail art movement of the 1970s and 1980s, and participants engaged in tape trading in addition to traditional sales. The culture is related to the DIY ethic of punk, and encouraged musical eclecticism, several factors led to the rise of cassette culture. Also significant was the fact that bands did not need to go into recording studios any longer. Multi-track recording equipment was becoming affordable, portable and of high quality during the early 1980s. 4-track cassette recorders developed by Tascam and Fostex allowed artists to record, as well, electronic instruments, such as drum machines and synthesizers, became more compact and inexpensive. Therefore, it became feasible to construct home-recording studios, giving rise to an increase of recording artists.
Add to this the fact that college radio was coming into its own, with the influx of new music from sources other than the major record companies—and the quasi-major medium of college radio to lend support—the audio boom was on. In the United Kingdom cassette culture was at its peak in what is known as the post-punk period, throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, and Clock DVA. Artists self-releasing would often copy their music in exchange for a blank tape plus self-addressed envelope, but there existed many small tape labels such as Falling A Records, Sterile Records and Third Mind Records that operated in opposition to the capitalistic aim of maximizing profit. Some did vinyl releases, or developed into vinyl labels, many compilation albums were released, presenting samples of work from various artists. It was not uncommon for artists who had a contract to release on cassette compilations. In September 1982 the NME acknowledged the band Tronics for releasing in 1980 the first independent cassette album, entitled Tronics, Cassette culture received something of a mainstream boost when acknowledged by the major music press.
In the U. S. magazines such as Op Magazine, Factsheet Five, the October 2011 edition of Record Collector magazine published an article about the significance of cassette culture in the UK and listing 21 rare but sought after cassette releases. In the US, cassette culture activity extended through the late 1980s, therefore cassette culture was an ideal and very democratic method for making available music that was never likely to have mainstream appeal. Many found in music that was more imaginative, beautiful. A notable pioneer of cassette culture and outsider music in the United States is R, stevie Moore, through the R. Stevie Moore Cassette Club, has been releasing DIY, home-recorded music steadily since the 1970s, Moore lives in Nashville and continues to make many releases in the cassette-only format
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument, the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment, Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered an instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some refer to as a musical instrument. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago, many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin.
By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development slowed in areas and was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, Instruments can be classified by their effective range, their material composition, their size, etc. However, the most common method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound. The academic study of instruments is called organology. Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by using objects to create music from sounds. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment. The concept of melody and the pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the notion of making music.
Musical instruments are constructed in an array of styles and shapes