The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum that addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic. Eight member countries constitute the council: Canada, Finland, Norway, Russia and the United States as these are the eight countries with sovereignty over the lands within the Arctic Circle. Outside these, there are some observer states; the first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when the eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. The 1996 Ottawa Declaration established the Arctic Council as a forum for promoting cooperation and interaction among the Arctic States, with the involvement of the Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on issues such as sustainable development and environmental protection; the Arctic Council has conducted studies on climate change and gas, Arctic shipping. In 2011, the Council member states concluded the Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement, the first binding treaty concluded under the Council's auspices.
Only states with territory in the Arctic can be members of the Council. All eight countries are members making the Arctic Council a circumpolar forum; the Council has permanent and ad hoc observer countries and "permanent participants". The member states consist of the following: Canada Denmark. Observers have no voting rights in the Council; as of May 2017, thirteen non-Arctic states have Observer status. Observer states receive invitations for most Council meetings, their participation in projects and task forces within the Working Groups is not always possible, but this poses few problems as few Observer States want to participate at such a detailed level. Observer states consist of the following: Germany, 1998 Netherlands, 1998 Poland, 1998 United Kingdom, 1998 France, 2000 Spain, 2006 China, 2013 India, 2013 Italy, 2013 Japan, 2013 South Korea, 2013 Singapore, 2013 Switzerland, 2017In 2011, the Council clarified its criteria for admission of observers, most notably including a requirement of applicants to "recognize Arctic States' sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction in the Arctic" and "recognize that an extensive legal framework applies to the Arctic Ocean including, the Law of the Sea, that this framework provides a solid foundation for responsible management of this ocean".
Pending observer states need to request permission for their presence at each individual meeting. At the 2013 Ministerial Meeting in Kiruna, the EU requested full observer status, it was not granted because the members do not agree on the EU ban on hunting seals. The indigenous Permanent Participants have mixed views about the increasing group of non-Arctic observers; some fear that their roles will be marginalized if large players such as the EU receive more attention. Pending observer states are: Turkey; the role of observers was re-evaluated. As a result, the distinction between permanent and ad hoc observers were dropped. Chairmanship of the Council rotates every two years; the current chair is Finland, which serves until the Ministerial meeting in 2019. Canada United States Finland Iceland Russia Norway Denmark Sweden Canada United States Finland Iceland Norway and Sweden have agreed on a set of common priorities for the three chairmanships, they agreed to a shared secretariat 2009–2013. Six Arctic indigenous communities have the status of Permanent Participants on the Council.
These groups are represented by the Aleut International Association, Arctic Athabaskan Council, Gwich'in Council International, Inuit Circumpolar Council, Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, the Saami Council. They are assisted by the Arctic Council Indigenous Peoples Secretariat. Approved intergovernmental and interparliamentary organizations and non-governmental organizations can obtain Observer Status, they include the Arctic Parliamentarians, International Union for Conservation of Nature, the International Red Cross Federation, the Nordic Council, the Northern Forum, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme. Seven of the eight member states have sizeable indigenous communities living in their Arctic areas. Organizations of Arctic indigenous peoples can obtain the status of Permanent Participant to the Arctic Council, but only if they represent a single indigenous people resident in more than one Arctic State or more than one Arctic indigenous people resident in a single Arctic State.
The number of Permanent Participants should at any time be less than the number of members. The category of Permanent Participants has been created to provide for active participation and full consultation with the Arctic indigenous representatives within the Arctic Council; this principle applies to all activities of the Arctic Council. Permanent Participants may address the meetings, they may raise points of order. Agendas of Ministerial Meetings need to be consulted beforehand with them; when calling
Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee
The Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee was founded in 1997. It is one of the main trans-national network organizations recognised as a representative of African indigenous peoples in dialogues with governments and bodies such as the UN; as of 2008, IPACC was composed of 150 member organisations in 21 African countries. IPACC identifies several key characteristics associated with indigenous claims in Africa: political and economic marginalisation rooted in colonialism. With respect to concerns expressed that identifying some groups and not others as indigenous is in itself discriminatory, IPACC states that it: "...recognises that all Africans should enjoy equal rights and respect. All of Africa’s diversity is to be valued. Particular communities, due to historical and environmental circumstances, have found themselves outside the state-system and underrepresented in governance... This is not to deny other Africans their status. During the first United Nations International Decade of the World's Indigenous Peoples, IPACC concentrated on human rights standards and normative instruments, notably the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
In April 2007, IPACC leaders adopted a new strategy and action plan focussing on improving the engagement of indigenous peoples in policies dealing with the environment, natural resources and climate change. The plan of action, adopted in Bujumbura, Burundi sets out its main development goal as follows: Indigenous Peoples of Africa concluded that it is imperative for them to demonstrate convincingly to influence makers and decision makers that indigenous peoples are holders of sophisticated indigenous knowledge of the environment, valuable to national resource management planning; the Bujumbura Action Plan has led to a number of IPACC initiatives to help its member organisations express oral traditional ecological knowledge to decision makers with the help of information communication technology. This has included: an East African programme on Participatory 3 Dimensional Modelling with the Yiaku and Ogiek forest-based indigenous peoples. Participatory mapping projects are under preparation in Niger and Gabon.
IPACC co-organised a consultative forum on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and land Degradation with Unissons pour la Promotion des Batwa and the World Bank. The IPACC REDD report noted that current insecure land tenure of mobile and indigenous peoples could lead to further displacements if REDD is not implemented with sufficient attention to safeguarding the rights of indigenous peoples as articulated in the 2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; the recent IPACC strategy links indigenous knowledge of ecosystems and biodiversity with more classical advocacy for cultural and land rights necessary for the survival of herding and hunting communities. IPACC's environmental strategy is supported by important partnerships with the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation and UNESCO's Division for Intercultural Dialogue and Cultural Policies. IPACC is a recognised cooperating partner and observer with the UN Environmental Programme, with UNESCO, with the UN Economic and Social Council, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat and with the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights.
List of indigenous peoples African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organisation United Nations Environmental Programme Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee, official website Indigenous Knowledge in Africa - UNEP Study
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989
The Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 is an International Labour Organization Convention known as ILO-convention 169, or C169. It is the major binding international convention concerning indigenous peoples, a forerunner of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, it was established in 1989, with the preamble stating: Noting the international standards contained in the Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention and Recommendation, 1957, Recalling the terms of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the many international instruments on the prevention of discrimination, Considering that the developments which have taken place in international law since 1957, as well as developments in the situation of indigenous and tribal peoples in all regions of the world, have made it appropriate to adopt new international standards on the subject with a view to removing the assimilationist orientation of the earlier standards, Recognising the aspirations of these peoples to exercise control over their own institutions, ways of life and economic development and to maintain and develop their identities and religions, within the framework of the States in which they live, Noting that in many parts of the world these peoples are unable to enjoy their fundamental human rights to the same degree as the rest of the population of the States within which they live, that their laws, values and perspectives have been eroded, and...
The convention is made of a Preamble, divided in ten parts. These are: Part I. General Policy Part II. Land Part III. Recruitment And Conditions Of Employment Part IV. Vocational Training, Handicrafts And Rural Industries Part V. Social Security And Health Part VI. Education And Means Of Communication Part VII. Contacts And Co-operation Across Borders Part VIII. Administration Part IX. General Provisions Part X. Final Provisions This Convention revised Convention C107, the Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957; some of the nations ratifying the 1989 Convention "denounced" the 1957 Convention. The ILO 169 convention is the most important operative international law guaranteeing the rights of indigenous peoples, its strength, however, is dependent on a high number of ratifications among nations. The revision to the Convention 107 forbade governments from pursuing approaches deemed integrationist and assimilationist, it asserts the rights of indigenous peoples to choose to integrate or to maintain their cultural and political independence.
Articles 8–10 recognize the cultures and special circumstances of indigenous tribal peoples. In November 2009, a court decision in Chile, considered to be a landmark in indigenous rights concerns, made use of the ILO convention law; the court ruled unanimously in favor of granting a water flow of 9 liters per second to Chusmiza and Usmagama communities. The legal dispute had dragged for 14 years, centers on community water rights in one of the driest deserts on the planet; the Supreme Court decision on Aymara water rights upholds rulings by both the Pozo Almonte tribunal and the Iquique Court of Appeals, marks the first judicial application of ILO Convention 169 in Chile. Prior to this decision, some protests had escalated over the failure to respect the Convention 169 in Chile. Mapuche leaders filed an injunction against Michelle Bachelet and minister of the presidency José Antonio Viera Gallo, coordinator of indigenous affairs, with the argument that the government had failed to comply with the Convention 169 clause on the right to "prior consultation," which must be carried out "in good faith and in a form appropriate to the circumstances, with the objective of achieving agreement or consent to the proposed measures," such as logging, agribusiness or mining projects in indigenous territories.
There were several examples of the successful use of the ILO Convention in Chile, like the case of a Machi woman who brought legal action to protect a plot of land with herbs used for medicinal purposes, threatened by the forest industry. Some concerns were however raised at the time over the political framework of the government being brought in line with the convention, not the other way around. ILO convention 169 - International Labour Organization website Campaign for Ratification of the 1989 ILO Convention – UNPO petition for the ILO 169 International Law and Indigenous Peoples: Historical stands and contemporary developments – S. James, Cultural Survival International Law – Survival International
Traditional knowledge, indigenous knowledge and local knowledge refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence, midwifery and ecological knowledge, traditional medicine, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy and others; these kinds of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are based on accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the environment. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed for generations from person to person; some forms of traditional knowledge find expression in stories, folklore, rituals and laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through other means. A report of the International Council for Science Study Group on Science and Traditional Knowledge characterises traditional knowledge as: "a cumulative body of knowledge, know-how and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment.
These sophisticated sets of understandings and meanings are part and parcel of a cultural complex that encompasses language and classification systems, resource use practices, ritual and worldview." Traditional knowledge distinguishes one community from another. In some communities, traditional knowledge takes on spiritual meanings. Traditional knowledge can reflect a community's interests; some communities depend on their traditional knowledge for survival. This is true of traditional environmental knowledge, which refers to a "particular form of place-based knowledge of the diversity and interactions among plant and animal species, landforms and other qualities of the biophysical environment in a given place". An exemplar of a society with a wealth of traditional ecological knowledge, the South American Kayapo people, have developed an extensive classification system of ecological zones of the Amazonian tropical savannah to better manage the land; some social scientists conceptualise knowledge within a naturalistic framework and emphasize the gradation of recent knowledge into knowledge acquired over many generations.
These accounts use terms like "adaptively acquired knowledge", "socially constructed knowledge," and other terms that emphasize the social aspects of knowledge. Local knowledge and traditional knowledge may be thought of as distinguished by the length of time they have existed - decades to centuries versus millennia. A large number of scholarly studies in the naturalistic tradition demonstrate that traditional knowledge is not a natural category, may reflect power struggles and relationships for land and social control rather than adherence to a claimed ancestry or heritage. On the other hand and local communities themselves may perceive traditional knowledge differently; the knowledge of indigenous and local communities is embedded in a cosmology, any distinction between "intangible" knowledge and physical things can become blurred. Indigenous peoples say that "our knowledge is holistic, cannot be separated from our lands and resources". Traditional knowledge in such cosmologies is inextricably bound to ancestors, ancestral lands.
Knowledge may not be acquired by naturalistic trial and error, but through direct revelation through conversations with "the creator", spirits, or ancestors. Chamberlin writes of a Gitksan elder from British Columbia confronted by a government land-claim: "If this is your land," he asked, "where are your stories?"Indigenous and local communities do not have strong traditions of ownership over knowledge that resemble the modern forms of private ownership. Many have clear traditions of custodianship over knowledge, customary law may guide who may use different kinds of knowledge at particular times and places, specify obligations that accompany the use of knowledge. From an indigenous perspective and misuse of knowledge may be offensive to traditions, may have spiritual and physical repercussions in indigenous cosmological systems. Indigenous and local communities argue that others' use of their traditional knowledge warrants respect and sensitivity. Critics of "traditional knowledge", see such demands for "respect" as an attempt to prevent unsubstantiated beliefs from being subjected to the same scrutiny as other knowledge-claims.
This has particular significance for environmental management because the spiritual component of "traditional knowledge" can justify any activity, including the unsustainable harvesting of resources. International attention has turned to intellectual property laws to preserve and promote traditional knowledge. In 1992, the Convention on Biological Diversity recognized the value of traditional knowledge in protecting species and landscapes, incorporated language regulating access to it and its use, it was soon urged that implementing these provisions would require revision of international intellectual property agreements. This became more pressing with the adoption of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, which established rules for creating and protecting intellectual property that could be interpreted to conflict with the agreements made under the CBD. In response, the states who had ratified the CBD requested the World Intellectual Property Organization to investigate the relationship between intellectual property rights, biodiversity an