Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands
Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Southeastern cultures, or Southeast Indians are an ethnographic classification for Native Americans who have traditionally inhabited the Southeastern United States and the northeastern border of Mexico, that share common cultural traits. This classification is a part of the Eastern Woodlands; the concept of a southeastern cultural region was developed by anthropologists, beginning with Otis Mason and Frank Boas in 1887. The boundaries of the region are defined more by shared cultural traits than by geographic distinctions; because the cultures instead of abruptly shift into Plains, Prairie, or Northeastern Woodlands cultures, scholars do not always agree on the exact limits of the Southeastern Woodland culture region. Shawnee, Waco, Tonkawa, Karankawa and Mosopelea are seen as marginally southeastern and their traditional lands represent the borders of the cultural region; the area was linguistically diverse, major language groups were Caddoan and Muskogean, besides a number of language isolates.
The following section deals with the history of the peoples in the lengthy period before European contact. Evidence of the preceding cultures have been found in archeological artifacts, but in major earthworks and the evidence of linguistics. In the Late Prehistoric time period in the Southeastern Woodlands, cultures increased agricultural production, developed ranked societies, increased their populations, trade networks, intertribal warfare. Most Southeastern peoples were agricultural, growing crops like maize and beans for food, they supplemented their diet with hunting and gathering wild plants and fungi. Belonging in the Lithic stage, the oldest known art in the Americas is the Vero Beach bone found in present-day Florida, it is a mammoth bone, etched with a profile of walking mammoth. The Poverty Point culture inhabited portions of the state of Louisiana from 2000–1000 BCE during the Archaic period. Many objects excavated at Poverty Point sites were made of materials that originated in distant places, indicating that the people were part of an extensive trading culture.
Such items include chipped stone projectile tools. Stone tools found at Poverty Point were made from raw materials that can be traced to the nearby Ouachita and Ozark mountains, as well as others from the more distant Ohio and Tennessee River valleys. Vessels were made from soapstone which came from the Appalachian foothills of Georgia. Hand-modeled lowly fired clay objects occur in a variety of shapes including anthropomorphic figurines and cooking balls. Mississippian cultures flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 CE to 1500 CE, varying regionally. After adopting maize agriculture the Mississippian culture became agrarian, as opposed to the preceding Woodland cultures that supplemented hunting and gathering with limited horticulture. Mississippian peoples built platform mounds, they refined their ceramic techniques and used ground mussel shell as a tempering agent. Many were involved with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, a multi-regional and multi-linguistic religious and trade network that marked the southeastern part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere.
Information about Southeastern Ceremonial Complex primary comes from archaeology and the study of the elaborate artworks left behind by its participants, including elaborate pottery, conch shell gorgets and cups, stone statuary, Long-nosed god maskettes. The Calusa peoples, of southern Florida and painted wood in exquisite depictions of animals. By the time of European contact the Mississippian societies were experiencing severe social stress; some major centers had been abandoned. With social upsets and diseases unknowingly introduced by Europeans many of the societies collapsed and ceased to practice a Mississippian lifestyle, with an exception being the Natchez people of Mississippi and Louisiana. Other tribes descended from Mississippian cultures include the Alabama, Caddo, Muscogee Creek and many other southeastern peoples. During the Indian Removal era of the 1830s, most southeastern tribes were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River by the US federal government, as European-American settlers pushed the government to acquire their lands.
Some members of the tribes chose to accept state and US citizenship. Since the late 20th century, descendants of these people have organized as tribes. Frank Speck identified several key cultural traits of Southeastern Woodlands peoples. Social traits included having a matrilineal kinship system, exogamous marriage between clans, organizing into settled villages and towns. Southeastern Woodlands societies were divided into clans, they observe strict incest taboos, including taboos against marriage within a clan. In the past, they allowed polygamy to chiefs and other men who could support multiple wives, they held puberty rites for both girls. Southeastern peoples traditionally shared similar religious beliefs, based on animism, they used
Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The earliest inhabitants of North America's central and eastern Arctic are referred to as the Arctic small tool tradition and existed c. 2500 BC. AST consisted of several Paleo-Eskimo cultures, including the Independence cultures and Pre-Dorset culture; the Dorset culture refers to the next inhabitants of eastern Arctic. The Dorset culture evolved because of technological and economic changes during the period of 1050–550 BC. With the exception of the Quebec/Labrador peninsula, the Dorset culture vanished around 1500 AD. Dorset/Thule culture transition dates around the 9th–10th centuries. Scientists theorize that there may have been cross-contact of the two cultures with sharing of technology, such as fashioning harpoon heads, or the Thule may have found Dorset remnants and adapted their ways with the predecessor culture. Others believe the Thule displaced the Dorset. By 1300, the Inuit, present-day Arctic inhabitants and descendants of Thule culture, had settled in west Greenland, moved into east Greenland over the following century.
Over time, the Inuit have migrated throughout the Arctic regions of Canada, Greenland and the United States. Other Circumpolar North indigenous peoples include the Chukchi, Inupiat, Koryaks, Sami and Yupik, who still refer to themselves as Eskimo which means "snowshoe netters", not "raw meat eaters" as it is sometimes mistakenly translated. Ancient Beringian - Siberia and Alaska Chukotko-Kamchatkan Koryaks, Russia Chukchi, Russia Tungusic Evenks, Mongolia, Russia Evens, Russia Turkic Northeast Turkic Dolgans, Russia Yakuts, Russia Eskimo-Aleut Eskimo Yupik: Alaska and the Russian Far East Alutiiq, Alaska Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alaska Cup'ik, Alaska Cup'ig, Nunivak Island Siberian Yupik, Russia Inuit: Greenland, Northern Canada, United States Kalaallit, Greenland Iñupiat: Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits, United States Aleut: Aleutian Islands, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia Uralic Ugric peoples, Siberia, Russia Khanty, Siberia, Russia Mansi, Siberia, Russia Permian Komi, Russia Sami: Northern Norway, Finland, Russia Finnic Finns, Finland Karelians and Russia Samoyedic Nenets, Russia Enets, Russia Nganasan, Russia Selkup, Russia Yukaghirs, East Siberia, Russia Indo-European Germanic North Germanic Icelanders, Iceland Norwegians, Norway Slavic East Slavic Pomors and other Russians, Russia Indigenous peoples of Siberia Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic Inuit Circumpolar Council Takashi Irimoto, Takako Yamada Circumpolar Religion and Ecology: An Anthropology of the North, University of Tokyo Press, 1994, ISBN 9780860085157
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions and linguistics. Anthropologists have named various cultural regions, with fluid boundaries, that are agreed upon with some variation; these cultural regions are broadly based upon the locations of indigenous peoples of the Americas from early European and African contact beginning in the late 15th century. When indigenous peoples have been forcibly removed by nation-states, they retain their original geographic classification; some groups span multiple cultural regions. In the United States and Canada, ethnographers classify indigenous peoples into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas. Greenland is part of the Arctic region; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains are separated into Northern and Southern Plains tribes.
Nota bene: The California cultural area does not conform to the state of California's boundaries, many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes and some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. This region is called "Oasisamerica" and includes parts of what is now Arizona, Southern Colorado, New Mexico, Western Texas, Southern Utah and Sonora The regions of Oasisamerica and Mesoamerica span multiple countries and overlap. Organized per Handbook of South American Indians. Anthropologist Julian Steward defined the Antilles cultural area, which includes all of the Antilles and Bahamas, except for Trinidad and Tobago; the Central American culture area includes part of El Salvador, most of Honduras, all of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, some peoples on or near the Pacific coasts of Colombia and Ecuador. The Colombia and Venezuela culture area includes most of Venezuela. Southern Colombia is in the Andean culture area, as are some peoples of central and northeastern Colombia, who are surrounded by peoples of the Colombia and Venezuela culture.
Eastern Venezuela is in the Guianas culture area, southeastern Colombia and southwestern Venezuela are in the Amazonia culture area. This region includes northern parts Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname and parts of the Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Roraima States in Brazil; this region includes parts of the Ceará, Goiás, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Santa Catarina states of Brazil This region includes Amazonas in Brazil. This region includes Amazonas, Maranhão, parts of Pará States in Brazil; this region includes Eastern Bolivia. This region includes the Cuzco, Huánuco Junín, Madre de Dios, Ucayali Regions of eastern Peru, parts of Acre and Rondônia and parts of the La Paz and Beni Departments of Bolivia. Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas; these indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families as well as many language isolates and unclassified languages.
Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made. According to UNESCO, most of the indigenous American languages in North America are critically endangered and many of them are extinct; the haplogroup most associated with Indigenous Americans is Haplogroup Q1a3a. Y-DNA, differs from other nuclear chromosomes in that the majority of the Y chromosome is unique and does not recombine during meiosis; this has the effect that the historical pattern of mutations can be studied. The pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two distinctive genetic episodes; the former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations. Human settlement of the Americas occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line, with an initial 20,000-year layover on Beringia for the founding population; the micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.
The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q mutations, however are distinct from other indigenous Amerindians with various mtDNA mutations. This suggests that the earliest migrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from populations. Indigenous languages of the Americas List of pre-Columbian cultures List of traditional territories of the indigenous peoples of North America Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Aaron Carapella's maps of indigenous tribes of North America Handbook of South American Indians
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands
Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes and First Nation bands residing in or originating from a cultural area encompassing the northeastern and Midwest United States and southeastern Canada. It is part of a broader grouping known as the Eastern Woodlands; the Northeastern Woodlands is divided into three major areas: the Coastal, Saint Lawrence Lowlands, Great Lakes-Riverine zones. The Coastal area includes the Atlantic Provinces in Canada, the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, south until North Carolina; the Saint Lawrence Lowlands area includes parts of Southern Ontario, upstate New York, much of the Saint Lawrence River area, Susquehanna Valley. The Great Lakes-Riverine area includes the remaining inland areas of the northeast, home to Central Algonquian and Siouan speakers; the Great Lakes region are sometimes considered a distinct cultural region, due to the large concentration of tribes in the area. The Northeastern Woodlands region is bound by the Subarctic to the north, the Great Plains to the west, the Southeastern Woodlands to the south.
Around 200 B. C the Hopewell culture began to develop across the Midwest of what is now the United States, with its epicenter in Ohio; the Hopewell culture was defined by its extensive trading system that connected communities throughout the Eastern region, from the Great Lakes to Florida. A sophisticated artwork style developed for its goods, depicting a multitude of animals such as deer and birds; the Hopewell culture is noted for its impressive ceremonial sites, which contain a burial mound and geometric earthworks. The most notable of these sites is in the Scioto River Valley and adjacent Paint Creek, centered on Chillicothe, Ohio; the Hopewell culture began to decline from around 400 A. D. for reasons which remain unclear. By around 1100, the distinct Iroquoian-speaking and Algonquian-speaking cultures had developed in what would become New York State and New England. Prominent Algonquian tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag; the Mi'kmaq, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot tribes formed the Wabanaki Confederacy in the seventeenth century.
The Confederacy covered most of present-day Maine in the United States, New Brunswick, mainland Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island and some of Quebec south of the St. Lawrence River in Canada; the Western Abenaki live on lands in New Hampshire and Massachusetts of the United States. The five nations of the Iroquois League developed a powerful confederacy about the 15th century that controlled territory throughout present-day New York, into Pennsylvania and around the Great Lakes; the Iroquois confederacy or Haudenosaunee became the most powerful political grouping in the Northeastern woodlands, still exists today. The confederacy consists of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga and Tuscarora tribes; the area, now the states of New Jersey and Delaware was inhabited by the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware, who were an Algonquian people. Most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland in the 18th century by expanding European colonies, now the majority of them live in Oklahoma; the characteristics of the Northeastern woodlands cultural area include the use of wigwams and longhouses for shelter and of wampum as a means of exchange.
Wampum consisted of small beads made from quahog shells. The birchbark canoe was first used by the Algonquin Indians and its use spread to other tribes and to early French explorers and fur traders; the canoes were used for carrying goods, for hunting and warfare, varied in length from about 4.5 metres to about 30 metres in length for some large war canoes. Native groups in the Northeast lived in villages of a few hundred people, living close to their crops. Men did the planting and harvesting, while women processed the crops. However, some settlements could be much bigger, such as Hochelaga, which had a population of several thousand people; the most important social group was the clan, named after an animal such as turtle, wolf or hawk. The totem animal concerned was considered sacred and had a special relationship with the members of the clan; the spiritual beliefs of the Algonquians center around the concept of Manitou, the spiritual and fundamental life force, omnipresent. Manitou manifest itself as the Great Spirit or Gitche Manitou, the creator and giver of all life.
The Iroquois equivalent of Manitou is orenda. Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Hopewell tradition War of 1812 Trigger, Bruce C. "Introduction." William C. Sturtevant, general ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. Trigger, volume ed. Sturtevant, William C. general ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978