Ruhuna cricket team
Ruhuna cricket team was one of the five provincial cricket teams that took part in Sri Lankan Inter-Provincial Tournament, representing Southern Province. The Ruhuna cricket team was based in Galle, it drew cricketers from Sri Lanka Premier Trophy. Team colors were Blue. Ruhuna cricket team took part in all three provincial tournaments: the first-class cricket competition known as the Inter-Provincial First Class Tournament, the List A competition known as the Inter-Provincial Limited Over Tournament and the Twenty20 competition known as the Inter-Provincial Twenty20. Ruhuna cricket team had participated every tournament since the inauguration of the tournament since 1990. Despite the team having been represented by many formidable international, national cricketers the team still to win a title in the Inter-Provincial tournament. Ruhuna was beaten by Wayamba cricket team in 2007/08 Inter-Provincial Twenty20 by 31 runs in the finals, the only time the team was qualified for a final of the tournament.
They however won the 2011 Inter-Provincial Twenty20, its first title that led to its qualification for the 2011 Champions League Twenty20 qualifying rounds. Ruhuna Rhinos will play the qualifying round in Champions League Twenty20 in 2011 under the captaincy of Mahela Udawatte. In the qualifying round, they managed a 4-run win over the Leicestershire Foxes, but they missed out on the tournament proper to Indian franchise Kolkata Knight Riders on net run rate. In the 2009 Inter-Provincial Tournament though Ruhuna's Upul Tharanga scored his maiden first-class double century, it was not sufficient to them qualify for the semi finals. Basnahira South defeat Ruhuna by 4 wickets. In the 2009 Inter-Provincial Twenty20 tournament's second semi-finals, Wayamba cricket team beat the Ruhuna in the bowl-out to reach the finals, after the match was affected by rain. Wayamba went on to win the title, becoming the first team won the title twice. From the inauguration of the Inter-Provincial Tournament in 1990 teams were named in English.
As a result, the cricket team of the Southern Province was known as Southern province. After a ten-year hiatus, the tournament was revived in 2003/04, with Sinhalese names given to the five teams, resulting in its renaming as the Ruhuna cricket team, it was named after Kingdom of Ruhuna, one of the ancient kingdom in Sri Lanka, the capital of, situated in Southern Province. Sri Lanka Cricket fearing that Club cricket alone would not be enough to keep Sri Lankan cricket competitive, the Inter-Provincial Cricket Tournament was created as a domestic first-class cricket tournament in Sri Lanka in 1990. From the inauguration of the tournament, in 1990, participating teams varied from year to year; the tournament started with four provincial teams. They were Central Province, North Western Province and Ruhuna. In the first first-class Inter-provincial tournament, called the 1990 Singer Inter-Provincial Trophy, Ruhuna called Southern Province, captained by Upul Sumathipala, had come third out of the four provinces, losing one out of three of their matches and finishing the tournament with 10.1 points.
Western Province went on not losing a game. With the establishment of Twenty20 cricket in 2003, it came to Sri Lanka in 2004 as the Twenty20 Tournament, however this was replaced with the Inter-Provincial Twenty20 in 2008. Wayamba won the 2007–08 Inter-Provincial Twenty20, the first edition of the tournament, they had won four out of five matches in the group stage and won their way into the finals with Ruhuna. Wayamba won by 31 runs. Galle International Stadium in Galle is the home ground of Ruhuna team, it is a cricket stadium in Galle, Sri Lanka, situated near the Galle fort and fringed on two sides by the Indian Ocean. It is considered to be one of the most picturesque cricket grounds in the world. Before being brought up to international cricket standards, it was known as ‘The Esplanade’, is the home ground of the Galle cricket club. Hirdaramani, one of Sri Lanka's apparel industrial companies is the team sponsor. Sanath Jayasuriya, one of the most experienced players in the contemporary international cricket is the captain of the team.
Number of Southern province-born cricketers present the team such as Sanath Jayasuriya, Marvan Atapattu, Champaka Ramanayake, Lasith Malinga and Upul Tharanga. The top 75 players from the Premier Limited Overs Tournament selected for the Inter-Provincial tournament. Players with international caps are listed in bold. Source: Ruhuna The following is a list of players who have represented both Ruhuna and Sri Lanka. Inter-Provincial First Class Tournament: 0 Inter-Provincial Limited Over Tournament: 0 Inter-Provincial Twenty20: 12011 Inter-Provincial Twenty20
Pakistan national cricket team
The Pakistan Men's National Cricket Team, popularly referred to as the Shaheens, Green Shirts and Men in Green, is administered by the Pakistan Cricket Board. The team is a Full Member of the International Cricket Council, participates in Test, ODI and Twenty20 International cricket matches. Pakistan has played 423 Test matches, winning 136, losing 128 and drawing 159. Pakistan was given Test status on 28 July 1952, following a recommendation by India, made its Test debut against India at Feroz Shah Kotla Ground, Delhi, in October 1952, with India winning by an innings and 70 runs. In the 1930s and 40s, several Pakistani Test players had played Test cricket for the Indian cricket team before the creation of Pakistan in 1947; the team has played tying 8 with 19 ending in no-result. Pakistan was the 1992 World Cup champion, was the runner-up in the 1999 tournament. Pakistan, in conjunction with other countries in South Asia, has hosted the 1987 and 1996 World Cups, with the 1996 final being hosted at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore.
The team has played 142 Twenty20 Internationals, the most of any team, winning 90 losing 49 and tying 3. Pakistan won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and were runners-up in the inaugural tournament in 2007. Pakistan won the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy for the first time, defeating India. Pakistan has the distinct achievement of having won each of the major ICC international cricket tournaments: ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC World Twenty20, ICC Champions Trophy; as of 25 March 2019, the Pakistani cricket team is ranked seventh in Tests, sixth in ODIs and first in T20Is by the ICC. In the past, Pakistan has suffered a lot from terrorism which prevented foreign teams from visiting Pakistan due to the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team; as a result, their home matches have been held in the United Arab Emirates since then. However, due to a decrease in terrorism in Pakistan over the past few years, as well as a sharp increase in security, many teams have toured Pakistan since 2015 and the situation appears to be getting better.
These teams include Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, West Indies, an ICC World XI. Cricket in Pakistan has a history predating the creation of the country in 1947; the first international cricket match in Karachi was held on 22 November 1935 between Sindh and Australian cricket teams. The match was seen by 5,000 Karachiites. Following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, cricket in the country developed and Pakistan was given Test match status at a meeting of the Imperial Cricket Conference at Lord's in England on 28 July 1952 following recommendation by India, being the successor state of the British Raj, did not have to go through such a process; the first captain of the Pakistan national cricket team was Abdul Hafeez Kardar. Pakistan's first Test match was played in Delhi in October 1952 as part of a five Test series which India won 2–1. Pakistan made their first tour of England in 1954 and drew the series 1–1 after a memorable victory at The Oval in which fast bowler Fazal Mahmood took 12 wickets. Pakistan's first home Test match was against India in January 1955 at Bangabandhu National Stadium, East Pakistan, after which four more Test matches were played in Bahawalpur, Lahore and Karachi.
The team is considered a unpredictable team. Traditionally Pakistani cricket has been composed of talented players but is alleged to display limited discipline on occasion, making their performance inconsistent at times. In particular, the India-Pakistan cricket rivalry is emotionally charged and can provide for intriguing contests, as talented teams and players from both sides of the border seek to elevate their game to new levels. Pakistan team contests with India in the Cricket World Cup have resulted in packed stadiums and charged atmospheres; the team is well supported at home and abroad in the United Kingdom where British Pakistanis have formed a fan-club called the "Stani Army". Members of the club are known to provide raucous support; the Stani Army takes part in charity initiatives for underprivileged Pakistanis, including annual friendly cricket matches against British Indian members of the similar "Bharat Army". The 1986 Austral-Asia Cup, played in Sharjah in UAE, is remembered for a famous last-ball victory for Pakistan against arch-rivals India, with Javed Miandad emerging as a national hero.
India batted first and set a target of 245 runs, leaving Pakistan with a required run rate of 4.92 runs per over. Miandad came in to bat at number 3 and Pakistan lost wickets at regular intervals. Recalling the match, he stated that his main focus was to lose with dignity. With 31 runs needed in the last three overs, Miandad hit a string of boundaries while batting with his team's lower order, until four runs were required from the last delivery of the match. Miandad received a leg side full toss from Chetan Sharma, which he hit for six over the midwicket boundary. At the 1992 World Cup Semi-final, having won the toss, New Zealand chose to bat first and ended with a total of 262 runs. Pakistan lost wickets at regular intervals. With the departure of Imran Khan and Saleem Malik shortly thereafter, Pakistan still required 115 runs at a rate of 7.67 runs per over with veteran Javed Miandad being the only known batsman remaining at the crease. A young Inzamam-ul-Haq, who had just turned 22 and was not a well-known player at the time, burst onto the international stage with a match-winning 60 off 37 balls.
Once Inzamam got out, Paki
St. Thomas' College, Matara
St. Thomas' College is a government primary and secondary school for boys in Matara, Sri Lanka, located in the heart of Matara city; the College was founded as a private Anglican school by Christian Missionary Society of England in Wellamadama, Sri Lanka in 1844. It presently has over 4000 enrolled students studying from primary level to secondary level education. St. Thomas' College Matara was founded by the Christian Missionary Society of England in 1844; the main concern of the various missionary bodies in Sri Lanka during the early period of British rule was the determination to give their students a sound English education. As a result of this St. Thomas' School to become a secondary school in 1914 as St. Thomas' College commenced in a bungalow in the village of Wellamadama, the current location of the University of Ruhuna; the school was founded by one of the first Anglican Missionaries in Sri Lanka, Rev. Fr. N. J. Ondatjee in 1844 with a few students and three teachers. In the year 1960 St. Thomas' College was vested in the Government after a long period of missionary control.
K. B. Jayasuriya became the first principal under Government administration; the J. E. M. Fernando, K. B. Jayasuriya and E. A. de L. W. Samarasinghe reactivated the college's old boys association, defunct after its inauguration by S. J. Gunasekeram in 1934. B. D. Jayasekera designed the crest in the early part of the 20th century. Kumaratunga Munidasa taught Sinhala literature at the school, he once expressed his enthusiasm for his alma-mater by writing the following phrase in his book, Kiyawana Nuwana, used as a text book in the school in the second form: "Among countries one which resembles the Island of Sri Lanka and among its cities, one which in Sri Lanka to Matara and among its schools, one which could stimulates St. Thomas' who will be able to emulate." The school is one of the oldest cricket playing school in the island and plays the St. Thomas'–St. Servatius Cricket Encounter with St. Servatius' College; this is the second oldest cricket encounter in the island known as the "Battle of the Blues" or Battle of the Ruhunu.
St. Thomas' College introduced scouting and cadeting to Matara. Rev. N. J. Ondatjee Rev. A. Dias Abeysinghe Rev. J. S. Lyle Rev. F. H. De Winton Rev. F. D. Edirisinghe Clement La-brooy A. W. Wijesinghe J. W. Bultjens R. C. Reginold L. A. Arndt S. J. Gunasekeram J. C. Handy M. S. Soloman Rev. C. C. P. Arulpragasam Rev. R. V. L. Pereira J. E. M. Fernando K. B. Jayasuriya E. A. De L. W. Samarasinghe B. G. Sisira Ratnasiri Suraweera W. B. Piyathissa Our School is old in story Her record fair as long So, young and old and hoary, Come join in rousing song! Hurrah, again hurra-ah, while still we say Saint Thomas’ for Saint Thomas' for aye! We boast not of our merit All credit we disclaim, Our pride is. We’ll endeavour to maintain it, while deed and word proclaim Saint Thomas' for Saint Thomas' for aye! In playing field and class room Our heads we’ll carry high, We’ll yield no shred of honour In loss or victory, Then "Vinces" be our motto "Perseverando" cry Saint Thomas’ forever Saint Thomas’ for aye! REFRAIN: Saint Thomas‘ we uphold her honour everywhere Let east or west or north attest That we are Thomians ture!
Whatever our estate We unite to celebrate The Chocolate and Light Blue! Saint Thomas’ she is our proudest fondest boast Our Hearts o ‘erfiow, our spirits glow With pride and loyalty! Her faithful children we, Strong in unity Until one day we prove the Pride of Lanka! The school song was composed by L. A. Arndt, a former principal College houses' names and colours: Bultjens: Red Dias: Blue Ondatjee: Yellow Edirisinghe: Green St. Thomas-St. Servatius Cricket Encounter is the annual school cricket match played between St. Thomas' College, Matara and St. Servatius' College played since 1900; this is the second oldest cricket encounter in the island which has won the hearts of the common people not only in Matara but the rural folks of the deep south. People from all parts of the southern province rush to witness this big match every year, popularly known as the Battle of the Ruhunu of Ruhuna. and second Battle of the Blues in the Sri Lanka. It is second only to the Royal-Thomian annual cricket encounter.
The match has been played as a 3 day game since 2000, the centenary match. The annual Thomas-Rahula Football Encounter' or "Battle of Golden Ensigns" football Match is played between St. Thomas' College and Rahula College, it is one of the first annual inter-school football. Health Club Green Hands Club Board of Prefects Debating Society Buddhist Society Birds Club Social Services Association Muslim Majlis Science Association Red Cross Unit Cadetting Commerce Society English Literary Unit Media Unit Road Safety Association Western Band First Aid Unit List of alumni of St. Thomas' College, Matara. Thomas' College's official web site St. Thomas' College St. Thomas' College's official web site on mobile phones http://www.island.lk/2004/03/10/news13.html
One Day International
A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format, held every four years. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one-day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one-day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.
The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each; the Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings.
The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result is determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method, a method with statistical approach.
It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate. In other words, a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; the original DL-method however had a few inherent flaws. For example, Tony Lewis, one of the formulators of this method recognized after the match between India and Kenya during the 1999 World Cup held in Bristol, that the original method gave an unfair advantage to the team chasing scores above 350 runs in a 50 overs match. Hence, the method was revised and a new version was released in 2004. There was one more such change made, first implemented on 2009.
Off late, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method is used, a modification of the DL-Method suggested by Prof. Steven Stern, it was first implemented during the 2015 World Cup. One of the major changes made to DLS from DL method was based on a historic analysis by Prof. Stern that a team with higher run rate in their initial stages has a greater chance to get to a high score than a team with slow initial run rate, but more wickets in hand; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cu
India national cricket team
The India national cricket team known as Team India and Men in Blue, is governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status. Although cricket was introduced to India by European merchant sailors in the 18th century, the first cricket club was established in Calcutta in 1792, India's national cricket team did not play its first Test match until 25 June 1932 at Lord's, becoming the sixth team to be granted Test cricket status. In its first fifty years of international cricket, India was one of the weaker teams, winning only 35 of the first 196 Test matches it played. From 1932 India had to wait until 1952 20 years for its first Test victory; the team, gained strength in the 1970s with the emergence of players such as batsmen Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath, all-rounder Kapil Dev and the Indian spin quartet of Erapalli Prasanna, Srinivas Venkataraghavan, Bhagwat Chandrasekhar and Bishen Singh Bedi.
Traditionally much stronger at home than abroad, the Indian team has improved its overseas form in limited-overs cricket, since the start of the 21st century, winning Test matches in Australia and South Africa. It has won the Cricket World Cup twice – in 1983 under the captaincy of Kapil Dev and in 2011 under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni. After winning the 2011 World Cup, India became only the third team after West Indies and Australia to have won the World Cup more than once, the first cricket team to win the World Cup at home, it won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and 2013 ICC Champions Trophy, under the captaincy of MS Dhoni. It was the joint champions of 2002 ICC Champions Trophy, along with Sri Lanka; as of 19 October 2018, India is ranked first in Tests, second in ODIs and second in T20Is by the ICC. Virat Kohli is the current captain of the team across all formats, while the head coach is Ravi Shastri; the Indian cricket team has rivalries with other Test-playing nations, most notably with Pakistan, the political arch-rival of India.
However, in recent times, rivalries with nations like Australia, South Africa and England have gained prominence. The British brought cricket to India in the early 1700s, with the first cricket match played in 1721. In 1848, the Parsi community in Bombay formed the Oriental Cricket Club, the first cricket club to be established by Indians. After slow beginnings, the Europeans invited the Parsis to play a match in 1877. By 1912, the Parsis, Sikhs and Muslims of Bombay played a quadrangular tournament with the Europeans every year. In the early 1900s, some Indians went on to play for the England cricket team; some of these, such as Ranjitsinhji and KS Duleepsinhji were appreciated by the British and their names went on to be used for the Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy – two major first-class tournaments in India. In 1911, an Indian team went on their first official tour of the British Isles, but only played English county teams and not the England cricket team. India was invited to The Imperial Cricket Council in 1926, made their debut as a Test playing nation in England in 1932, led by CK Nayudu, considered as the best Indian batsman at the time.
The one-off Test match between the two sides was played at Lord's in London. The team went on to lose by 158 runs. India hosted its first Test series in the year 1933. England was the visiting team that played 2 Tests in Calcutta; the visitors won the series 2-0. The Indian team continued to improve throughout the 1930s and'40s but did not achieve an international victory during this period. In the early 1940s, India didn't play any Test cricket due to the Second World War; the team's first series as an independent country was in late 1947 against Sir Donald Bradman's Invincibles. It was the first Test series India played, not against England. Australia won the five-match series 4–0, with Bradman tormenting the Indian bowling in his final Australian summer. India subsequently played their first Test series at home not against England against the West Indies in 1948. West Indies won the 5-Test series 1–0. India recorded their first Test victory, in their 24th match, against England at Madras in 1952.
In the same year, they won their first Test series, against Pakistan. They continued their improvement throughout the early 1950s with a series win against New Zealand in 1956. However, they did not win again in the remainder of the decade and lost badly to strong Australian and English sides. On 24 August 1959, India lost by an innings in the Test to complete the only 5–0 whitewash inflicted by England; the next decade saw. They won their first Test series against England at home in 1961–62 and won a home series against New Zealand, they managed to draw another series against England. In this same period, India won its first series outside the subcontinent, against New Zealand in 1967–68; the key to India's bowling in the 1970s were the Indian spin quartet – Bishen Bedi, E. A. S. Prasanna, BS Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan; this period saw the emergence of two of India's best batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath. Indian pitches have had the tendency to support spin and the spin quartet exploited this to create collapses in opposing batting line-ups.
These players were responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar
Matara, Sri Lanka
Matara is a major city in Sri Lanka, on the southern coast of Southern Province, 160 km from Colombo. It is a major commercial hub, it is the administrative capital of Matara District, it was gravely affected by the Asian tsunami in December 2004. Consist of two elements, the term Matara gives its meaning as the Great Ferry, that may be derived from the Tamil Matturai meaning "great seaport" or "great fortress", it is thought as being derived from the mispronunciation of the word'Matora' by the Portuguese who called it'Mature' or Maturai in 1672. The native word'Matora' might derived from'Maha Tera' meaning the place where the Great River was crossed, it was called'Maha Tota' or Maha- pattana, the great ferry. The word Mahathota might be derived from the Tamil Maha Ethara meaning "great ford". Today, the Nilwala River runs through Matara and it is said that there was a wide area where ferries used to cross. In 1673, the Dutch minister Philippus Baldaeus had called it'Mature', in 1681, Robert Knox named it as'Matura' and in 1744, Heydt called it'Maderon'.
Matara belongs to the area, called the Kingdom of Ruhuna, one of the three kingdoms in Sri Lanka. According to Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera's Paravi Sndesaya King Weerabamapanam made Matara as his capital and named it "Mapatuna"; the temple in the middle of the town is built by ancient kings, now it is a popular sacred place among the Buddhists in the area. In the 16th and 18th centuries, Matara was ruled by the Portuguese and the Dutch respectively. In 1756 the Dutch captured the Maritime Province and divided it into four administrative areas — Sabaragamuwa, Sath Korle, Sathara Korele and Matara. Out of these, Matara District covered the largest area. In the deed given by King Dharmapala to the Dutch, it mentioned that the area of Matara District extended from Kotte to Walawe Ganga River. In 1760 the fort was attacked by forces from the Kandyan kingdom. Matara maintained in the hands of the Sinhalese for one year. In 1762, the Dutch recaptured Matara Fort, without any significant resistance. Matara was the second most important fort, behind Galle fort, for the southern maritime provinces of the Dutch and a commanding base for some inland forts.
In 1796 the fort was ceremoniously handed over to the British. The Dutch and English culture and architecture can still be seen throughout the area; the lighthouse at Dondra Head was built by the Dutch, it is considered one of the most beautiful and oldest lighthouses in Sri Lanka. The two fortresses, the Matara fort and the Star fort, that were built by the Dutch can be found in the city. Other important Colonial works are the the marketplace at Nupe Junction; the most famous thinkers who lived in the area are Gajaman Nona. The ethnic majority of Matara is Sinhalese. Today their descendants coexist with Sinhalese peacefully as an ethnic minority. Matara is a busy and sprawling commercial town that owes nothing to tourism – which can make it a fascinating window on modern Sri Lankan life. Matara’s main attractions are its ramparts, Dutch architecture, a well-preserved fort and its street life. Parey Dewa or Paravi Dupatha temple is a modern Buddhist temple on Pigeon Island in front of the city, it is reached by an elegant cable-stayed footbridge, erected in 2008.
The temple is set in attractive gardens and houses numerous statues of Buddha and a replica of the alleged footprint found on Adam's Peak. Weragampita Rajamaha Viharaya Temple Matara Bodhiya, a Buddhist temple, the site of a sacred fig tree. Matara fort/ramparts: The Matara fort was built in 1560 by the Portuguese and was re-built by the Dutch in 1640, following the capture of Galle; the fort, which consists of a large stone rampart, occupies the promontory, which separates the Niwala River lagoon and the ocean. Dutch Reformed Church, Matara was constructed within Matara fort by the Dutch in 1706, it was extensively remodeled in 1767, following the recapture of the fort in 1762. Star Fort is on the landward side of the Nawali River; the fort was constructed by the Dutch following the Matara rebellion in 1761, to protect the main fort from attacks originating from the river. Construction of the unique star-shaped fort was completed in 1765. Old Nupe Market was constructed in 1784 by about 3.2 kilometres from Matara fort.
St Mary's Church is on Beach Road. The date on the doorway refers to the reconstruction following the 1762 Matara Rebellion. University of Ruhuna Open University of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology Matara Central College, established in 1932 Mahinda Rajapaksa College, established in 2013 Rahula College, established in 1923 St. Mary's Convent Matara established in 1908 St. Servatius College, established in 1897 St. Thomas' College, established in 1844. St. Thomas' Girls' High School Sujatha Vidyalaya, established in 1929. Central College, established in 1952. Vijtha central college, established in 1942, this is the only sport school in matara; the Matara railway station, is the terminus of Sri Lanka Railways' Coastal Line, though an extension to Kataragama is planned. Matara is a major transport hub in the country, it is served by the A2 highway. It is the southern terminus of stage 2 of
The captain of a cricket team referred to as the skipper, is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is experienced and has good communication skills, is to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, shrewdness in the field, may contribute to the team's success. Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports. Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails.
The captain who wins the toss bowl first. The decision depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast; the decision depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test Cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets in the match. A side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen; the captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, the captain's assessment of the state of the match; the captain decides. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen.
The captain may change the bowlers around to introduce variation, to prevent the batsmen getting "set". In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are looking to take risks to attack and score quickly. In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it; when the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is'out of form'.
If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play the specialist batsman will have been protected, will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat; the captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat. In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides; the captain is consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match the captain may refuse.
As well as decisions taken either before or during a match, captains often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, for how long. In professional cricket the captain has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, may decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, how members of the squad who are not selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice. Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches; the captain may be assisted in some instances joint vice-captains. This is useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding; some teams allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, dis