George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Civil Affairs is a term used by both the United Nations and by military institutions, but for different purposes in each case. Civil affairs officers in UN peace operations are civilian staff members who are at the forefront of a mission’s interaction with local government officials, civil society, other civilian partners in the international community. "Civil Affairs components work at the social and sub-national political levels to facilitate the countrywide implementation of peacekeeping mandates and to support the population and government in strengthening conditions and structures conducive to sustainable peace.",Civil affairs components are deployed in most peacekeeping missions led by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations and are a feature of many special political missions led by the Department of Political Affairs. Civil Affairs Officers are deployed at the local level, where they serve as the link between the UN mission and local authorities and communities. Civil affairs components work countrywide to strengthen the social and civic conditions necessary to consolidate peace processes and are a core function of multi-dimensional peacekeeping operations.
As of mid-2013, there were 700 Civil Affairs Officers in 13 UN Peacekeeping Operations worldwide. Civil Affairs components perform one or more of three core roles, depending on the UN Security Council mandate given to a particular peacekeeping mission. In each role the work of Civil Affairs intersects with and draws upon the work of a variety of other actors. Depending on the mandate, the three core roles are 1) Cross-mission representation and facilitation at the local level. There were precursors for what was termed civil affairs in Central America and in Cambodia during the 1991 to 1993 period. For example, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia ’s civil administration component was responsible for the supervision of administrative structures in Cambodia, ranging from public security to finance and information. However, the first component known as ”civil affairs” was formed in 1992, with the United Nations Protection Force ’s mandate in the former Yugoslavia; the development and growth of civil affairs work has been a critical element of the development and growth of multidimensional peace operations.
With the end of the cold war and the increase in peace operations required to respond to intra-state conflict, the UN was asked to tackle complex civilian tasks. These went beyond the quite limited role of liaising with political actors and the “good offices” work that had characterized civilian peacekeepers until that point. Cedric Thornberry, the first Director of Civil Affairs in a UN mission, described this new broader role as follows: To understand the UN’s meaning of “civil affairs” it is first important to appreciate that most of the missions created between 1989 and 1992 were qualitatively different from those which had preceded, it is not just that most were a lot bigger … they were to fulfil many roles additional to the archetypal ones of the 1947-1988 period. The task of the UN became, not to observe, but itself, to bring about peace In a rapid sequence of major operations – principally in Namibia, Central America and Cambodia – the UN was required not only to make peace, but to conduct nationwide processes of reconstruction and national reconciliation.
Their task was, in broad terms, to harmonize or unify divided societies, long racked by war, to establish democracy where there had been tyranny. These key themes of helping to unify divided societies and helping states to exert legitimate authority are central to the continuing role of civil affairs today. During the 1990s small civil affairs components were included in a number of missions, including those in Cyprus and Georgia. At the end of that decade, major civil affairs components were deployed to Kosovo and East Timor, to implement the executive mandates that were given to peacekeeping operations at that time. In these cases civil affairs components found themselves mandated to establish effective administrations and to support capacity-building for self-government; the start of the 2000s saw a surge in the deployment of large civil affairs components to peacekeeping missions. Each one had its own unique focus and contribution to make in implementing peace mandates at the local level, but each was there to strengthen links to ordinary citizens, as well as to support the development of social conditions conducive to peace and provide an overall facilitation role locally.
In 2008, for the first time, the UN Departments of Peacekeeping Operations and Field Support developed and disseminated a policy directive that defines and conceptualizes the diverse work of civil affairs. This has provided the foundation for the development of this Handbook, as well as training and recruitment profiles to ensure that civil affairs components are strong, well-trained and well planned, ready to address the challenges ahead; this institutional framework will need to continue to evolve and develop in response to analysis of the ongoing shifts in the global security environment. The World Bank's World Development Report 2011, for example, found that many countries are caught in a mutually reinforcing cycle of violence and poverty, it found that more and more people are suffering from violence, linked to lack of governance and rule of law, rather than to outright war. These changes in the global security environment have resulted in mandates requir
Battle Assembly is the term used by the United States Army Reserve to describe monthly training, where soldiers practice and perfect their military skills and maintain individual and unit readiness in the event of mobilization and deployment. These training activities were referred to as "drill" or "weekend drill", but according to former Chief of the Army Reserve, Lieutenant General James R. Helmly, the term was changed in 2005 to emphasize the need for Army Reserve soldiers' training to focus on continued preparation for fighting the Global War on Terrorism. During the Korean War, the United States Congress made significant changes to the structure and role of the Army Reserves; these changes transformed the former Organized Reserve Corps into the United States Army Reserve, dividing it into a Ready Reserve, Standby Reserve, Retired Reserve. Members of the Ready Reserve were authorized 24 inactive duty training sessions per year with their respective reserve unit; this translated into two duty days per month for twelve months and the commencement of regular "monthly drills" for reservists.
US Army Reserve soldiers sign an initial eight-year service contract upon entry into the military. However, in past eras, most enlistment contracts were for different terms which have been adjusted for different terms and lengths; the enlistment contract specifies that some of the service contract be served in the Regular Army, or "active component", with the rest of the service to be served in the reserve component. In such case, the soldier or enlistee enters directly into the Army Reserve; those soldiers who serve a period of years in the active component and choose not to re-enlist in the active component are sometimes transferred afterwards to the reserve component to complete their initial service obligation. After the expiration of the initial service contract, soldiers who elect to continue their service may sign subsequent contracts consecutively until they are formally discharged from the military; the soldiers that attend battle assembly are compensated at a higher rate than active duty components.
A four-hour block of service is compensated at an active duty single day of compensation. Thus, a reserve component soldier who performs two 8-hour days in a month will receive the equivalent of an active soldier compensation of four days. However, during the annual training, the compensation will be at the rate afforded to active duty pay. Hence, the heightened pay received by active reserve will only occur during the 24 8-hour days for battle assembly during the normal weekend battle assemblies. While in the Army Reserve, soldiers may belong to the active Army Reserve, or the Individual Ready Reserve; the key difference is that active Army Reserve soldiers attend Battle Assembly one weekend a month, twelve months a year, attend a statutory two-week period of active duty every year, referred to as Annual Training. Conversely, members of the Individual Ready Reserve are not required to attend Battle Assembly or Annual Training, but remain committed to military service obligations and may be recalled to active duty as directed by the President or U.
S. Congress. Although National Guard troops may be trained by the US Army and attend the same basic training and advanced individual training as US Army Reserve troops, the ultimate authority for the National Guard troops are under the control and authority of the individual states in which they serve. Thus, subsequently they may be called for individual state emergencies as authorized by their respective state governors; the reserves used to use a recruiting slogan, "One weekend a month and two weeks a year", but has since dropped that slogan due to the Iraq War, where commitments are much longer than that time. Once per month, soldiers report to their unit in uniform very early on a Saturday morning but sometimes on a Friday morning or evening, their duties continue until Sunday evening, but may end earlier at the direction of the unit's commanding officer. During battle assembly, the unit may move to a field training environment to conduct field training. Most battle assemblies are conducted in garrison, unless the unit is a combat arms unit such as infantry and as a result more to spend most battle assemblies in the field.
During any given battle assembly, soldiers may: Go to a weapons range to qualify with their individual weapon or a crew served weapon. Be evaluated taking an Army Physical Fitness Test, or participate in group physical training. Receive military training and practice common soldier skills, such as first aid. Practice specific vocational tasks related to their Military Occupational Specialty. Maintain their individual military equipment, such as their chemical protective mask. Maintain their unit's organizational equipment, such as military vehicles and generators. Conduct a movement exercise, such as military vehicle convoy operations. Undergo a Soldier Readiness Program event if preparing to deploy. Receive health and dental screenings including preventative immunizations. Once per year, most units will have a "Family Day," where family members can attend and see firsthand what the unit and the soldier does; the family members usually receive briefings on benefits and services available to reserve soldiers and their families while attending a unit social event, which helps strengthen family ties to the unit and encourages family m
Military Police Corps (United States)
The Military Police Corps is the uniformed law enforcement branch of the United States Army. Investigations are conducted by Military Police Investigators or the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command, both of which report to the Provost Marshal General. U. S. Army MP units have combat zone responsibilities in addition to their law enforcement duties; these responsibilities include mounted and dismounted patrols, response force operations, area damage control, route reconnaissance and search operations, convoy and personnel escorts. Operationally, these duties fall under the "security and mobility support" discipline of the Military Police Corps. Since the beginning of the Global War on Terror, military police have become a valuable asset to combat operations due to the versatility of the MOS; the Army's Military Police provide an important function in the full spectrum of Army operations as a member of the Maneuver and Effects division. The Military Police Corps provides expertise in police and stability operations in order to enhance security and enable mobility.
The Army's Military Police can be utilized during peacetime. DisciplinesThe Military Police tasks can separated into three disciplines and one integrated function: Security and mobility support operations Police operations Detention operations Police intelligence operations CareerThe Military Police Corps has six career paths within the Army, one for commissioned officers, one for warrant officers, four for enlisted soldiers: Currently 31 series the 95 series, before that, 1677. 31A Military Police Officer 311A Criminal Investigations Warrant Officer. It was established on 26 September 1941; the Military Police Corps traces its history back to the American Revolution. General George Washington requested that the staff position of Provost Marshal be created to deal with disciplinary issues. In January 1776, William Maroney was appointed as the first Provost Marshal of the Continental Army; the Provost Marshals relied on soldiers temporarily drawn from other units, had difficulty enforcing discipline.
On 20 May 1778, Congress established the Provost Corps, which General Washington referred to as the "Marechaussee." This name was from the French: "maréchaussée," from the Old French "mareschaucie," meaning "the marshalcy." Captain Bartholomew von Heer, a German-speaking officer from Pennsylvania, was appointed as the first commander of the Marechaussee on 1 June 1778. Under the new organization, the Provost Marshal was responsible for soldiers under custody and for punishments, while the Marechaussee was tasked with the enforcement of order within the Continental Army; the Marechaussee Corps would be formed as a police organization, was organized and equipped as light dragoons, utilizing their speed to aid in troop movements and moving prisoners from the battlefield. The Marechaussee protected the Army's rear and flanks during troop movements, searched for stragglers, guarded river crossings, engaged in combat when needed, as in the Battle of Springfield; the Provost Corps was disbanded in November 1783.
In 1863, the Office of the Provost Marshal General was established and oversaw the Veterans Reserve Corps. In the US Civil War, the VRC maintained law and order at garrison areas, while other provost guard units served on the front lines. After the war, the Office of the Provost Marshal General was discontinued as the Union Army disbanded. During the Moro Rebellion following the Spanish–American War, the United States founded the Philippine Constabulary. Training began in 1902, Brigadier General Harry Hill Bandholtz was appointed as chief of the Constabulary in 1907; the complexity of warfare during World War I required a corps of specially-trained soldiers to handle massive numbers of prisoners of war and control the movement of troops and supplies in the zones of operation. The Military Police Training Department was established 9 September 1918 at Caserne Changarnier in Autun, France. Following the war, Brigadier General Harry Hill Bandholtz, who had served as Provost Marshal of the American Expeditionary Forces, proposed the establishment of a permanent Military Police Corps.
Although Congress failed to act upon this recommendation, it allowed for the permanent organization of Army military police units in the National Defense Act Amendment of 1920. In 1917, CPL Charles W. Baltimore, a black MP soldier stationed at Camp Logan in Texas, inquired into the beating of a black soldier by Houston police and was himself beaten and arrested afterwards; the racial tension which followed led to the Houston Riot, which killed four soldiers and sixteen civilians, 60 black soldiers were executed or sentenced to life in prison. During World War II, Military Police schools were established at Camp Gordon, Fort Benjamin Harrison, with the Military Police Replacement Center established at Fort Custer, MPs trained for port security at Fort McHenry. Military Police soldiers moved traffic along the Burma Road, supported amphibious operations on Normandy beachheads, managed enemy prisoners of war from Italy to the South Pacific; when the Red Ball Express was established in August 1944, MP performed route reconnaissance and security to keep the trucks and supplies flowing.
This was the 793rd Military Police Battalion's first mission in theater and commemorated this in their coat of arms and unit insignia.
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U. S; the Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U. S. military is second only to that of the Congress, respectively. This position corresponds to what is known as a Defense Minister in many other countries; the Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, the general provision in 10 U. S. C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority and control over the Department of Defense", is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.
Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force — as well as the U. S. Coast Guard when its control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments and the 10 Combatant Commands; because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury are regarded as heading the four most important departments. Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity.
His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U. S. troops from Syria. A few days Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December. An Army and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution; the War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more manage the large combined military establishment; the Army favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was a compromise between these divergent viewpoints; the Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment, presided over by the Secretary of Defense.
The Act separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status; the first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department; the position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was created at this time. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them.
The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", has "authority and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military a
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom was the official name used by the U. S. government for the Global War on Terrorism. On October 7, 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced that airstrikes targeting Al Qaeda and the Taliban had begun in Afghanistan. Operation Enduring Freedom refers to the War in Afghanistan, but it is affiliated with counterterrorism operations in other countries, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara. After 13 years, on December 28, 2014, President Barack Obama announced the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom most refers to the U. S.-led combat mission in Afghanistan, a NATO military alliance between the United States, United Kingdom and Afghanistan. OEF is affiliated with counter-terrorism operations in other countries targeting Al Qaeda and remnants of the Taliban, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara through government funding vehicles.
Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, 7 October 2001 – 31 December 2014. Succeeded by Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, 15 January 2002 – 24 February 2015 Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Operation Enduring Freedom – Pankisi Gorge Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara Operation Enduring Freedom – Caribbean and Central America Operation Enduring Freedom – Kyrgyzstan, 18 December 2001 – 3 June 2014 The U. S. government used the term "Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan" to describe the War in Afghanistan, from the period between 7 October 2001 and 31 December 2014. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel; the operation was called "Operation Infinite Justice", but as similar phrases have been used by adherents of several religions as an exclusive description of God, it is believed to have been changed to avoid offense to Muslims who are the majority religion in Afghanistan.
In September 2001, U. S. President George W. Bush's remark that "this crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while", which prompted widespread criticism from the Islamic world, may have contributed to the renaming of the operation; the term "OEF-A" refers to the phase of the War in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. Other operations, such as the Georgia Train and Equip Program, are only loosely or nominally connected, such as through government funding vehicles. All the operations, have a focus on counterterrorism activities. Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, a joint U. S. U. K. and Afghan operation, was separate from the International Security Assistance Force, an operation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization nations including the U. S. and the U. K; the two operations ran in parallel. In response to the attacks of 11 September, the early combat operations that took place on 7 October 2001 to include a mix of strikes from land-based B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress bombers, carrier-based F-14 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet fighters, Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from both U.
S. and British ships and submarines signaled the start of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan. The initial military objectives of OEF-A, as articulated by President George W. Bush in his 20 September Address to a Joint Session of Congress and his 7 October address to the country, included the destruction of terrorist training camps and infrastructure within Afghanistan, the capture of al-Qaeda leaders, the cessation of terrorist activities in Afghanistan. In January 2002, over 1,200 soldiers from the United States Special Operations Command Pacific deployed to the Philippines to support the Armed Forces of the Philippines in their push to uproot terrorist forces on the island of Basilan. Of those groups included are Abu Sayyaf Group, al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah; the operation consisted of training the AFP in counter-terrorist operations as well as supporting the local people with humanitarian aid in Operation Smiles. In October 2002, the Combined Task Force 150 and United States military Special Forces established themselves in Djibouti at Camp Lemonnier.
The stated goals of the operation were to provide humanitarian aid and patrol the Horn of Africa to reduce the abilities of terrorist organizations in the region. Similar to OEF-P, the goal of humanitarian aid was emphasized, ostensibly to prevent militant organizations from being able to take hold amongst the population as well as reemerge after being removed; the military aspect involves coalition forces searching and boarding ships entering the region for illegal cargo as well as providing training and equipment to the armed forces in the region. The humanitarian aspect involves building schools and water wells to enforce the confidence of the local people. Since 2001, the cumulative expenditure by the U. S. government on Operation Enduring Freedom has exceeded $150 billion. The operation continues, with military direction coming from United States Central Command. Seizing upon a power vacuum after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after their invasion, the Taliban had the role of government from 1996–2001.
Their extreme interpretation of Islamic law prompted them to ban music, television and dancing, enforce harsh judicial penalties. Amputation was an accepted form of punishment for stealing, public exe
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country. While veterans benefits have been provided since the American Revolutionary War, an veteran-focused federal agency, the Veterans Administration, was not established until 1930, became the cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989; the VA employs 377,805 people at hundreds of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, benefits offices, cemeteries. In Fiscal Year 2016, net program costs for the department were $273 billion, which includes VBA Actuarial Cost of $106.5 billion for compensation benefits. The long-term actuarial accrued liability is $2.491 trillion for compensation benefits. The agency is led by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, who—being a cabinet member—is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. In May 2014, it was revealed that veterans died while waiting for their appointments during extended delays in getting care at the Veterans Health Administration.
An investigation found that VA personnel falsified scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met scheduling targets. The Continental Congress of 1776 encouraged enlistments during the American Revolutionary War by providing pensions for soldiers who were disabled. Direct medical and hospital care given to veterans in the early days of the U. S. was provided by the individual communities. In 1811, the first domiciliary and medical facility for veterans was authorized by the federal government, but not opened until 1834. In the 19th century, the nation's veterans assistance program was expanded to include benefits and pensions not only for veterans, but their widows and dependents. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, many state veterans' homes were established. Since domiciliary care was available at all state veterans homes, incidental medical and hospital treatment was provided for all injuries and diseases, whether or not of service origin. Indigent and disabled veterans of the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, Mexican Border period as well as discharged regular members of the Armed Forces were cared for at these homes.
Congress established a new system of veterans benefits when the United States entered World War I in 1917. Included were programs for disability compensation, insurance for service persons and veterans, vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. By the 1920s, the various benefits were administered by three different federal agencies: the Veterans Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions of the Interior Department, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers; the establishment of the Veterans Administration came in 1930 when Congress authorized the president to "consolidate and coordinate Government activities affecting war veterans". The three component agencies became bureaus within the Veterans Administration. Brigadier General Frank T. Hines, who directed the Veterans Bureau for seven years, was named as the first Administrator of Veterans Affairs, a job he held until 1945; the close of World War II resulted in not only a vast increase in the veteran population, but a large number of new benefits enacted by Congress for veterans of the war.
In addition, during the late 1940s, the VA had to contend with aging World War I veterans. During that time, "the clientele of the VA increased five fold with an addition of nearly 16,000,000 World War II veterans and 4,000,000 World War I veterans". Prior to World War II, in response to scandals at the Veterans Bureau, programs that cared for veterans were centralized in Washington, D. C; this centralization caused delays and bottlenecks as the agency tried to serve the World War II veterans. As a result, the VA went through a decentralization process, giving more authority to the field offices; the World War II GI Bill was signed into law on 22 June 1944, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt."The United States government began serious consolidated services to veterans in 1930. The GI Bill of Rights, passed in 1944, had more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation - with the possible exception of the Homestead Act."The VA health care system has grown from 54 hospitals in 1930 to include 153 medical centers.
VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and benefits programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades. Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean War, the Vietnam Era, the introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the 1970s, the Persian Gulf War, those who served following the attacks of September 11, 2001; the Department of Veterans Affairs Act of 1988 changed the former Veterans Administration, an independent government agency established in 1930 to see to the needs of World War I veterans, into a Cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 October 1988, but came into effect under the term of