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Indonesian football league system

The Indonesian football league system is a series of league system for association football clubs in Indonesia. Since 1994, Liga Indonesia is the league competition featuring association football clubs, as a result of two existing top-flight football leagues merger: Perserikatan and Galatama. Liga Indonesia is managed by the Indonesian national football federation. There are three levels of competition in the hierarchy recently; the top two in the hierarchy are professional competitions. Liga 1 is the highest level of football in Indonesia; until 2017, it was known as Indonesian Super League. Below Liga 1 is Liga 2 Premier Division. Liga 1 and 2 are professional league and governed by PT. Liga Indonesia Baru; the amateur leagues are Liga 3. Liga 3 consists of an unlimited number of amateur teams; every province, in total 34 provinces in Indonesia, holds its own provincial league and the number of teams per province may vary. The winners of the provincial leagues will advance to national round. From 1914 to 1930, Indonesia featured an amateur national football league organized by the Nederlandsch Indische Voetbal Bond, called the Dutch East Indies city championship.

Beginning in 1931, the Perserikatan was founded as a separate amateur national football league system consisting of several levels of competition. It was the first Indonesian football league competition organized by PSSI. From 1932 to 1950, the DEI Championship competition ran in conjunction with the Perserikatan as a competition for the Dutch and other European players, while the Tiong Hoa Championship was held for players of Chinese descent. In 1979/80, a semi-professional league was founded, namely Galatama, which consisted of only one level of competition. Therefore, since 1979, both Galatama and Perserikatan had their own league systems. In 1994, PSSI merged both competitions into a new competition system, namely the Liga Indonesia. All clubs from both top level leagues were merged into the Liga Indonesia Premier Division, the new system's top-flight league. Furthermore, since Galatama did not have lower-level leagues, Liga Indonesia's lower leagues took all clubs from the same level in Perserikatan.

In 2008, PSSI created a new level, the Indonesia Super League, as the system's new top-flight league. Hence, the Premier Division was relegated to the second and so on; this new league was created to introduce full professionalism in Indonesian football. In parallel with this league, U-21 teams from each participating ISL clubs compete in the ISL U-21. In 2011, PSSI replaced the ISL with the Indonesian Premier League. After the extraordinary congress on 17 March 2013, Premier League and Super League are in PSSI supervision prior to incorporation in 2014 under the name of Indonesia Super League. Before that the two leagues still running, respectively. In 2014, PSSI divided into four level leagues competition include Super League, Premier Division, First Division and Amateur League/Province League called Liga Nusantara. Started in 2015 league planned just divided into three level leagues competition include Super League, Premier Division and Liga Nusantara, after first division merged with Liga Nusantara.

In 20 January 2017, PSSI announced to replace three previous league with three new leagues, namely the Liga 1, Liga 2 and Liga 3. From the 1994–1995 to 2004–2005 season, Liga Indonesia's structure changed every year. For some seasons, there were two divisions within the top flight; the number of clubs in the top flight wavered from 18–28, seasons would last from 34–38 games. The top four clubs in each division qualified for a group stage "Final Eight Championship Playoff." Winners of the group faced off for the championship. During the 2004–2005 season, 18 clubs comprised the Indonesian top flight. A season lasted 34 games; the three teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into Division Satu, the second level of the Indonesian league system, while the three teams of Division Satu that won promotion replace them. The top two finishers in the league qualify for the AFC Champions League. Starting with the 2003–2004 season, the championship was decided a double round-robin league system involving the top clubs of each division.

Beginning with the 2005–2006 season, 28 clubs will comprise Liga Indonesia. Clubs compete in two divisions of 14 clubs each; each club plays against each other on a home-and-away basis. The league's popularity has grown so much that the 2006–2007 season will see another big expansion of the league from 28 to 36 clubs with both divisions comprising 18 clubs each. In 2008, 18 top ranked clubs in the previous Premier Division were'promoted' to a new highest level of competition, the Indonesia Super League, the rest stayed in the same division; the PSSI examined those 18 clubs for their readiness to join the ISL, considering many aspects, like the stadium, financial condition and other requirements for full professional football clubs. Liga 1: the bottom three teams are relegated. Liga 2: the champions, runner-up and third-place teams are promoted to Liga 1; the bottom three teams of each region are relegated to Liga 3. Liga 3: Six-best teams are promoted to Liga 2. Being members of a league at a particular level affects eligibility for Cup, or single-elimination, competitions.

Piala Indonesia: 128 teams from level 1, level 2 and level 3 enter in the first round. Piala Indonesia Indonesian Community Shield Piala Presiden S

The Clancy Brothers' Greatest Hits

The Clancy Brothers' Greatest Hits is an original studio album of some of The Clancy Brothers' most popular hits re-recorded with Louis Killen. The Clancys had performed each of these songs with different arrangements with their former partner Tommy Makem in the 1960s; this was the group's first of three albums for Vanguard Records, their last album with Killen, the final album they would release for a decade. The recording was released as a double album. A backing musician on a few of the tracks is Don McLean, best known for his song "American Pie". In 2000, Vanguard re-released the album on a CD entitled The Best of the Vanguard Years. In addition to including the entirety of the Greatest Hits album, the CD included four unreleased tracks from the Clancy Brothers' follow-up album Live!. "Maid of Fife" – 2:19 "Jug of Punch" – 2:55 "Gallant Forty-Twa" – 2:15 "Whistling Gypsy" – 3:11 "The Leaving of Liverpool" – 3:50 "Mountain Dew" – 1:45 "The Nightingale" – 3:27 "Roddy McCorley" – 3:11 "Castle of Dramore" – 2:46 "Father's Grave" – 2:08 "Johnny McAdoo" – 1:39 "The Irish Rover" – 2:58 "Old Woman from Wexford" – 1:59 "Bonnie Charlie" – 4:35 "Jolly Tinker" – 1:52 "Haul Away Joe" – 2:18 "The Shoals of Herring" – 3:32 "The Mermaid" – 2:41 "Kelly-The Boy from Killarn" – 2:31 "Rosin the Bow" – 2:48 "Whiskey is the Life of Man" – 2:44 "MacPherson's Lament" – 3:08 "Whiskey You're the Devil" – 2:12 "Holy Ground" – 2:02

Montastruc, Lot-et-Garonne

Montastruc is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in south-western France. It is an old fortified castle. A agricultural village, with dairy and breeding cattle and cereals. Montastruc and its surroundings offer history, historic buildings, gastronomy amidst a beautiful landscape with rolling hills and sunny climate; the Town Hall of Montastruc is situated in the middle of the village. It is housed in the old fortified structure of the castle and the view from its windows is breathtaking; the city council is headed by mayor Clément Gleize, assisted by 2 deputy mayors M. Chèze and M. Lamy and 8 council members Sport and other activities abound, beautiful trails, for hiking, riding or biking are everywhere. A golf course, "Golf de Barthe" in Tombeboeuf at 5 min. you find, next to the "Bastides" route, the Lot riversides and the "Route of the Prune", you can go boating or hire a houseboat, play tennis and discover the historical buildings and sites in the area and the gascon gastronomy. Not forgetting all the different wineries of the famous wines: Bergerac, Cahors Duras and Bordeaux wines.

Vacation houses and bed-and-breakfast in various categories, but always in quiet and green surroundings. Communes of the Lot-et-Garonne department Information about Montastruc

Safuwan Baharudin

Muhammad Safuwan bin Baharudin is a Singaporean footballer who plays as a defender or midfielder for Selangor. He is known for being a technical player with good pace, excellent reading of the game and ball-playing capabilities, he has a knack for scoring goals. Starting off his professional career as a centre-back, Safuwan's attributes and versatility allow him to play as a midfielder or forward when required. Safuwan started out playing as a striker during his Institute of Technical Education years and subsequently as a midfielder at the National Football Academy. Salim Moin, his NFA Under-17 coach, was credited with switching him to the centre-back position he plays in. Safuwan began his professional football career with S. League club Young Lions in July 2009, after he was promoted from the National Football Academy Under-18s. Safuwan was one of the Young Lions players that got involved in an on-pitch fight with several Beijing Guoan Talent players in their S. League match on 7 September 2010.

He was charged by the FAS for gross misconduct and bringing the game into disrepute, was fined S$2,000 for his part in the brawl. In December 2011, the FAS announced that Safuwan will join the newly formed LionsXII in the 2012 Malaysia Super League; the LionsXII finished runners-up in their debut season. Safuwan formed a strong understanding with Baihakki Khaizan in central defence as LionsXII won the 2013 Malaysia Super League with the competition's best defensive record, he contributed. Amid interest from Thai and rival Malaysia Super League sides including T-Team, he put pen to paper in a new two-year deal with LionsXII in November 2013. Safuwan capped off his league performances by becoming the first male recipient of the annual Straits Times Athlete of the Year award in 2013. Following the departure of regular defensive partner Baihakki in 2014, Safuwan formed a new partnership with new LionsXII recruit Afiq Yunos, he showed his versatility with lauded displays in advanced midfield and attacking roles.

Safuwan's performances up front and LionsXII's poor goal scoring form led to head coach Fandi Ahmad having to consider playing him as a forward in more games. Safuwan started in an advanced midfield role behind striker Khairul Amri in a Malaysia Super League match away to Sarawak on 15 March. On 25 March, he scored a late winner over Perak to send LionsXII up to 5th in the league table, he scored his second goal in as many games four days as LionsXII drew 1–1 with T-Team and followed it up with the opener off a Shahfiq Ghani cross against Sime Darby on 5 April. On 29 January 2015, Safuwan signed a 3-month loan contract with A-League team Melbourne City. Safuwan earned the contract after his standout performance at a MCFC's training camp in Abu Dhabi, held from 10 January 2015 to 19 January 2015, he attended the training camp as part of a development opportunity arranged with the FAS. The club substantiated the decision to take Safuwan on loan with his impressive performances during the training camp, both as a centre back and as a full-back during the club's two friendly matches in the UAE.

In the friendly matches, he was pitted against several notable players, such as former Juventus striker Mirko Vučinić. He played as a substitute in the side's second friendly match with Ukrainian Premier League outfit FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk, with the match concluding in a 1–1 result. Safuwan made his debut for Melbourne City in the A-League on 7 February 2015 for the Melbourne Derby against Melbourne Victory. Safuwan scored his first goal for the club against Adelaide United on 27 February 2015, he scored his second goal just a couple of weeks against Western Sydney Wanderers to hand his side a 1-0 lead although they could not hang onto the lead and crash to a 3–2 defeat in the end. Following a spine injury that he sustained in a competitive match against Wellington Phoenix, Safuwan's loan contract was allowed to lapse and was not renewed, despite earlier rumours stating that the club was interested in offering him a permanent contract. After his release, Safuwan returned to play for the LionsXII in the 2015 Malaysia Super League season.

In July 2015, it was reported that there was interest from J. League club Yokohama F Marinos to sign Safuwan on loan for the rest of the season. Although Safuwan stated that he was open to a second move overseas if it was on a short-term contract, the move did not materialise, Safuwan remained with the LionsXII. Upon the dismissal of LionsXII from the Malaysia Super League following the end of the 2015 season, Safuwan was linked with multiple Malaysian and Thai football clubs upon noting his potential availability. Safuwan signed a one-year loan deal with PDRM FA for the 2016 Malaysia Super League season; the transfer fee was estimated as being about S$45,000, but was found to be closer to S$32,000. This deal was extended for a year despite PDRM FA's relegation into the Malaysian Premier League. In 2018, Safuwan signed a contract with Malaysian Super League runners up Pahang FA and was presented alongside Malaysian forward, Norshahrul Idlan, he scored his first goal in a 2-1 victory against ATM FA in the 2018 Malaysia FA Cup.

During his time with Pahang, he helped the club win the 2018 Malaysia FA Cup Final before being released at the end of the 2019 Malaysia Super League season despite being contracted until 2020. Safuwan signed for Selangor FA for the 2020 Malaysia Super League season, ensuring that he will be playing in Malaysia for the 9th season. Safuwan made his debut for Selangor FA in the opening match of the 2020 Malaysia Super League season against his former club, Pahang FA. Safuwan was part of the Singapore national under-23 football team that won the bronze medal at the 2009 and 2013 Southeast A

Victor Neumann

Victor Neumann is a Romanian historian, political analyst, professor at the West University in Timişoara. He is a well-known specialist in the recent cultural and intellectual histories of Eastern and Central Europe. Much of his work deals with Conceptual History, the Jewish-Romanian history, the history of antisemitism, as well as various topics connected with nationalism; as of October 2013, he is Director of the Timişoara Museum of Arts. Born in Lugoj from a Christian mother and a Jewish father, Victor Neumann graduated from the University of Cluj-Napoca in 1976, earned his PhD in History from the University of Bucharest in 1992, he was a visiting professor at the Université Catholique de l'Ouest in Angers, Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia State University in Athens, the National Foreign Affairs Training Center din Washington, D. C. and the University of Vienna. In 1995-1997, he was the recipient of a NATO Scholarship, and, in 2000-2001, of a Fulbright Scholarship. Neumann was head of research at the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris, a lecturer at several higher learning institutions.

The Temptation of Homo Europaeus, East European Monographs, Colorado, 1993 Istoria evreilor din România. Studii documentare și teoretice, Amarcord Publishing House, Timișoara, 1996 Identități multiple în Europa regiunilor. Interculturalitatea Banatului, Hestia Publishing House, Timișoara, 1997 The End of a History: The Jews of Banat from the Beginning to Nowadays, translated by Simona Neumann, The University of Bucharest Publishing House, Bucharest, 2006 Ideologie și fantasmagorie. Perspective comparative asupra istoriei gîndirii politice în Europa Est-Centrală, Polirom Publishing House, Iassy, 2001 Between Words and Reality. Studies on the Politics of Recognition and Changes of Regime in Contemporary Romania, translated by Simona Neumann, Council for Research of Values and Philosophy, The Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D. C. 2001 Neam, Popor sau Națiune? Despre Identitățile Politice Europene, 1st edition, Curtea Veche Publishing House, Bucharest, 2003; the second edition Center for Advanced Studies in History Timisoara and Institutul European Publishing House, Iassy, 2013 Sinntausch/Sinntauschungen.

Nationalismus und Ethnische Vielfalt in Mitteleuropa, translated by Patrick Lavrits, Dresden Universitaet Verlag, 2009 Iskusenia Homo Europaeusa, translation by Milisav Firulovič, Pešič I Sinovi, Beograd, 2011 Interculturalitatea Banatului, Art Press – Institutul European Publishing House, Timisoara - Iassy, 2012Edited and coordinated by: Identitate și Cultură. Studii privind istoria Banatului, Romanian Academy of Sciences Publishing House, Bucharest, 2009 Istoria Romaniai prin concepte. Perspective alternative asupra limbajelor social-politice, Polirom Publishing House, Iassy, 2010 Key concepts of Romanian history: alternative approaches to socio-political languages, translated by Dana Mihailescu, Central European University Press, Budapest-New York, 2013Translations: Reinhart Koselleck, Conceptul de istorie, Introduction by Victor Neumann, translated into Romanian by... together with Patrick Lavrits, Al. I. Cuza University Publishing House, Iassy, 2005 Kenneth Cushner, International Perspectives on Intercultural Education, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, 1998 Dario Castiglione, Iain Hampsher-Monk, The History of Political Thought in National Context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001 ”Peculiarities of the Translation and Adaptation of the Concept of Nation in East-Central Europe.

The Hungarian and Romanian Cases in the Nineteenth Century” in Contributions to the History of Concepts, vol. 7, N. 1, Summer 2012, p.72-101. "Reinhart Koselleck şi Şcoala de Istorie Conceptuală de la Timişoara", in Timpul, N. 4/2012, p.12-13. ”The Concept of Totalitarianism in the Romanian Social-Political Languages” in Divinatio. Studia Culturologica Series, N. 31, Sofia, 2010, p.145-161. “Timisoara: A multi- and intercultural city” in Transylvanian Review, vol. 17, N. 3, Sept. 2008, p.29-37. Researching the Nation: The Romanian File. Studies and Selected Bibliography on Romanian Nationalism, Edited by Sorin Mitu, International Book Access, Cluj, 2008, 307p. + 165p. ”Istoria conceptuală şi deconstrucţia limbajelor social-politice. O contribuţie la înnoirea metodologică a istoriografiei române”, in Memoriile Secţiei de Ştiinţe Istorice şi Arheologie, Series IV, Tome XXXII, 2007, p.179-191. “Multiculturality and Interculturality: The

Andrea Fischbacher

Andrea Fischbacher is a retired alpine ski racer from Austria. Born in Schwarzach im Pongau, Fischbacher now lives in Eben im Pongau, she made her World Cup debut in March 2004 in Sestriere, where she would claim her first World Cup victory four years a dead-heat tie with Fabienne Suter. Fischbacher competed for Austria at the Winter Olympics in 2006 and again in 2010, where she won the gold medal in the Super-G, ahead of Tina Maze and Lindsey Vonn. In the Downhill on February 17, she finished 4th. Left off the Austrian team for the 2014 Winter Olympics, Fischbacher responded with a victory in the first race after the games, her first World Cup podium in over four years. 3 wins – 10 podiums – ^ Tie for first with Fabienne Suter. Fischbacher is a second cousin of Hermann Maier, a multiple Olympic, World Cup, world champion. Andrea Fischbacher at the International Ski Federation Andrea Fischbacher World Cup standings at the International Ski Federation Andrea Fischbacher at Ski-DB Alpine Ski Database Andrea Fischbacher at Olympics at Official website Austrian Ski team – official site – Andrea Fischbacher –