Indoor American football

Indoor American football is a variation of gridiron football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varying in details from league to league, the rules of indoor football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena, it is a distinct discipline and not be confused with traditional American/Canadian football played in larger domed or open-air stadiums, as is done by some teams at the college and professional levels. The first documented indoor football games were those played at the Chicago Coliseum in the late 1890s; the first such game matched Michigan against Chicago on Thanksgiving Day 1896. The match was "the first collegiate game of football played under a roof." Adding to the novelty, as daylight turned to darkness, the field inside the Coliseum was lit with electric lighting. With seven acres of floor space, the sprawling Coliseum is believed to have not needed any compromises to accommodate an American football field. According to a newspaper account, the field grew dark in the second half, play was halted for ten minutes to discuss whether play should continue.

Play was resumed, the lights were turned on after Michigan scored a touchdown. The press proclaimed the experiment in indoor football to be a success: One thing at least was settled by the game, that is, that indoor football is and figuratively speaking a howling success; the men had no trouble in catching punts, football was played on its merits, without the handicaps of a wet field or a strong wind. Toward the end of the second half it got dark, the spectators were treated to a novelty in the shape of football by electric light." Although both critically and commercially successful, the Coliseum was destroyed in a fire less than two years after its opening, its replacement could not accommodate an American football field. At Madison Square Garden in 1902 and 1903, there were games known as the "World Series of Pro Football." The games were otherwise adhered to outdoor rules. Poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years; the Chicago Bears of the National Football League hosted an experimental game against their crosstown rivals, the Cardinals, after the 1930 NFL season, at the indoor Chicago Stadium.

Two years poor weather conditions led to the Bears hosting the 1932 NFL Playoff Game against the Portsmouth Spartans at the stadium. A dirt and tanbark field measuring 80 yards long and 45 yards wide was constructed on the arena's floor; the Chicago Stadium games were notable for introducing several rule changes, including the introduction of hash marks to keep play away from spectators who were seated next to the field, while goal posts were moved to the goal line. To compensate for the smaller field, teams were "penalized" 20 yards upon crossing midfield. In 1930, the Atlantic City Convention Center constructed a full-size indoor football field, used it for one to three games a year during the 1930s. In the 1960s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the convention center; the Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a year-round resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one. The Atlantic Coast Football League played its inaugural championship game at the convention center in 1962, but the game only drew 2,000 fans and the game would thereafter move to the home stadium of the team with the best regular season record.

The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, played at Municipal Stadium from 1959–1963, was moved into the Convention Center in 1964 for the contest between Utah and West Virginia. The game drew just over 6,000 fans and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, where it has remained. Unlike modern indoor football, the size of the playing surface and hence the rules were the same as in the standard outdoor game, with rules updated to deal with contingencies for what could happen indoors, such as a punt striking the ceiling; the end zones were shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten. While several attempts to create a true indoor football game have been made since shortly after American football was developed, the first version to meet with widespread success and acceptance is Arena football, devised by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League, he devised his game while watching another game derived from a sport played outdoors.

He worked on the game in the early 1980s, but put any plans for full development of it on hold while the United States Football League, an attempt to play traditional American football in a non-traditional season, was in operation in 1983–1985. When the USFL ceased operations, Foster saw his opportunity, he staged a "test" game in Rockford, Illinois in 1986 and put together a four-team league for a "demonstration season" in the spring of 1987, with games televised on ESPN. Foster had to adopt a field that would fit within the smaller playing surfaces found in most arenas and thus created a field, identical in size to a standard professional ice hockey rink, 200 by 85 feet; this resulted in the field being 50 yards long with eig

Viking (band)

Viking is an American thrash metal band in Los Angeles, which had existed for four years, between 1986 and 1990. However, they reformed in 2011. To date, Viking has released Do or Die, Man of Straw and No Child Left Behind. Viking was formed in Los Angeles in the spring of 1986 and held the same personnel until they broke up in 1990; the band signed a record contract with Metal Blade Records after their second live appearance and went on to record two full-length albums and open up for bands like Dark Angel, Megadeth and Sacred Reich as well as headlining many other shows. In 1988, they released their debut album called Die. Although the brutality of the songs was appreciated by thrash metal fans, the frenetic tempos and bad production were not well received by the critics. Following Do or Die, they moved to a new level of musicianship. Adding half-time mosh bridges and more technical riffs, the songs for Man of Straw demonstrated a marked improvement over the previous offering. Shortly before they started to record Man of Straw, Ron Eriksen became a born-again Christian and changed some of the lyrics to avoid blasphemies.

Before embarking on a tour with Texas-based Helstar in 1990, Ron felt that his new faith could not endure the tour, he left the band, which broke up upon his departure. Prior to their breakup, Viking demoed new material for their third album for a 1990 release, one song, "Abortuary", was released as a bonus track on the 2006 reissue of Man of Straw. Ron and drummer Matt Jordan soon after moved to Oregon, Brett Eriksen joined Dark Angel full-time and bassist James Lareau pursued a career in sculpture. Before Viking, Ron and James were in Tracer and released a 3-song demo entitled Sudden Death with vocalist Tony Vargas. Following a temporary split, Brett began jamming with the band, Ron began singing. After the release of Man of Straw, Matt Jordan converted to Christianity. Ron has said; some years after the band broke up, Ron became a Bible teacher. In early 2011, Ron Eriksen resurrected Viking after a 20-year hiatus. Ron recruited Dark Angel members Gene Hoglan and Mike Gonzalez and Justin Zych to record Viking's first release in over 20 years titled, No Child Left Behind.

In 2013, Viking played its first shows in over 20 years with the addition of Matt Jordan on drums. They headlined the Childhood Hero's Festival in Ragnarokkr in Chicago. No Child Left Behind was released on March 4, 2015. Current members Ron Eriksen - guitar, vocals Mike Gonzalez - bass Justin Zych - guitar Matt Jordan - drums Former members James Lareau - bass Brett Eriksen - guitar Gene Hoglan - drums Glenn Rogers - guitar Metal Massacre VIII Do or Die The Best of Metal Blade, Volume 3 Man of Straw Metallic Overdrive No Child Left Behind Official website Viking on Facebook

List of birds of Wallis and Futuna

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Wallis and Futuna. The avifauna of Wallis and Futuna include a total of 39 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and three are rare or accidental. Two species are globally threatened; this list's taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Futuna; the following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories; those that do not are occurring native species. Accidental - a species that or accidentally occurs in Wallis and Futuna Introduced - a species introduced to Wallis and Futuna as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions Order: Procellariiformes Family: Procellariidae The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.

Herald petrel, Pterodroma heraldica Mottled petrel, Pterodroma inexpectata Black-winged petrel, Pterodroma nigripennis Gould's petrel, Pterodroma leucoptera Collared petrel, Pterodroma brevipes Tahiti petrel, Pseudobulweria rostrata Wedge-tailed shearwater, Ardenna pacifica Buller's shearwater, Ardenna bulleri Sooty shearwater, Ardenna grisea Newell's shearwater, Puffinus newelli Tropical shearwater, Puffinus bailloni Order: Phaethontiformes Family: Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. Red-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon rubricauda White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus Order: Suliformes Family: Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium to large coastal seabirds. Red-footed booby, Sula sula Brown booby, Sula leucogaster Order: Suliformes Family: Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large seabirds found over tropical oceans, they are large and white or black, with long wings and forked tails.

The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They can not take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. Great frigatebird, Fregata minor Lesser frigatebird, Fregata ariel Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long legs. Bitterns tend to be more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks and spoonbills. Pacific reef heron, Egretta sacra Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans; these birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. Pacific black duck, Anas superciliosa Order: Accipitriformes Family: Accipitridae Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, kites and Old World vultures.

These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. Swamp harrier, Circus approximans Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes and gallinules, they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds. Most species have long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces, they tend to be weak fliers. Buff-banded rail, Gallirallus philippensis Australasian swamphen, Porphyrio melanotus Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae The family Charadriidae includes the plovers and lapwings, they are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, thick necks and long pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide in habitats near water. Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, godwits, tattlers, snipes and phalaropes.

The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat on the coast, without direct competition for food. Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus Bristle-thighed curlew, Numenius tahitiensis Wandering tattler, Tringa incana Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls and skimmers. Gulls are grey or white with black markings on the head or wings, they have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of medium to large seabirds with grey or white plumage with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Greater crested tern, Thalasseus bergii Black-naped tern, Sterna sumatrana Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus Black noddy, A