Regions of Denmark
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state. The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has an area of 42,924 square kilometres. The country consists of a peninsula, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea, Denmark and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit the Faroe Islands, beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden.
In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy, the government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nations capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs, Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948, in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs, it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE.
The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix Dan and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning land, related to German Tenne threshing floor. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as districts vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, in Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are almost 400 districts in the country, electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were used in several states as cadastral units for land titles, some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century, in Austria, a district is an administrative division normally encompassing several municipalities, roughly equivalent to the Landkreis in Germany. The administrative office of a district, the Bezirkshauptmannschaft, is headed by a Bezirkshauptmann, while there are matters of administrative law the municipalities themselves are in charge of, or where there are special bodies, the district is the basic unit of general administration in Austria.
Officials on the level are not elected, but appointed by the state government. There are independent cities in Austria and they are called Statutarstadt in Austrian administrative law. These urban districts do have the same tasks as a normal district, the State of Vienna, which is at the same time a municipality, is subdivided in twenty-three districts, however, have a somewhat different function than in the rest of the country. Legally, the Magistratisches Bezirksamt is an office of the municipalitys administration. However, representatives on the level are elected, and they in turn elect the head of the district. Those representative bodies are supposed to serve as immediate contacts for the locals on the political, in practice, they have some power, e. g. concerning matters of traffic. Bangladeshi districts are administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh, there were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts, each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali.
In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts. The Belgian arrondissements, a level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog
Midtbyen, known as Aarhus Center or City, is the inner part of Aarhus. Midtbyen is part of district Aarhus C, with postal code 8000, together with Vesterbro, Nørre Stenbro and Frederiksbjerg, Midtbyen is characterized by narrow, cobbled streets and a busy street life, with many small squares, cafés and shops. A large part of the area is carfree and the neighborhood has been increasingly pedestrianised, the square of Store Torv in front of the cathedral, forms a natural centre of the large pedestrian zone. The stream of Aarhus Å flows through Midtbyen and adds to the areas distinct charm, the waterway was covered by roads for many decades, but has recently been opened up again. Midtbyen comprise the oldest part of the city of Aarhus and was where the town itself originated more than a thousand years ago, Midtbyen dates back to at least late 700 AD, at the beginning of the Viking Age and was originally and previously confined by fortifications and walls. A similar naming structure can be observed in many older Danish towns, the canal of the Aarhus River runs through Midtbyen, along the street of Åboulevarden and was important to the development of the early settlements, that sprawled around it.
The streets in Midtbyen are mostly narrow and layed out in a chaotic pattern. Many are closed to motorized traffic, instead serving as pedestrian zones with a street life. Outside of these areas, a lot of the roads are one way directed and it can be difficult to navigate or find a parking spot. Midtbyen has some heavy traffic during rush hours and it can be a problem, to guide the traffic and take of the pressure, the inner city of Aarhus is surrounded by a number of ring roads. There are several car parks in or just outside the city centre, including Magasin du Nord, Dokk1, Aarhus City Tower, Brunns Galleri. Most of the city buses in Aarhus pass through Midtbyen, while the blue regional. The street of Park Allé next to the City Hall, serves as a bus hub. Even though the situation can be difficult for motorized vehicles, it is fairly easy. Major roads has bike paths next to them and some streets are dedicated bike roads and it is not allowed to bike in the pedestrianised zones. Afdeling, Den Indre By - Århus Kommuneatlas, Aarhus Municipality
Aarhus University is a prestigious public university located in Aarhus, Denmark. Founded in 1928, it is Denmarks second oldest university and the largest, with a total of 44,500 enrolled students as of 1 January 2013, in most prestigious ranking lists of the worlds best universities, Aarhus University is placed in the top 100. The university belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities, the business school within Aarhus University, called Aarhus BSS, holds the EFMD Equis accreditation, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and the Association of MBAs. This makes the school of Aarhus University one of the few in the world to have the so-called Triple Crown accreditations. Aarhus University was founded on 11 September 1928 as Universitetsundervisningen i Jylland with a budget of 33,000 Dkr and an enrollment of 64 students, the university was founded as a response to the increasing number of students at the University of Copenhagen after World War I. Classrooms were rented from the Technical College and the corps consisted of one professor of philosophy and four associate professors of Danish, German.
In 1929, the municipality of Aarhus gave the university land with a landscape of rolling hills. The design of the university buildings and 12 ha campus area was assigned to architects C. F. Møller, Kay Fisker and Povl Stegmann, who won the architectural competition in 1931. The first buildings housed the Departments of Chemistry and Anatomy and were opened on 11 September 1933, the construction of the buildings was funded solely by donations which totaled 935,000 Dkr and the buildings covered an area of 4, 190m2. One of the most generous contributors was De Forenede Teglværker i Aarhus led by director K. Nymark. Forenede Teglværker decided to donate 1 million yellow bricks and tiles worth c.50,000 Dkr, on 23 April 1934, Aarhus University was given permission to hold examinations by the king and on 10 October 1935, Professor Dr. phil. Ernst Frandsen was appointed the first rector of the university, since 1939, C. F. Aarhus University had offered courses in basic medical subjects from 1933 and on 10 October 1935 the Faculty of Medicine was formally established.
The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine in Aarhus was met some opposition from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Copenhagen. The professors thought that the state should not establish a new Faculty until the shortcomings of the old one had been solved, in the end, the professors agreed to sign a recommendation for the new Faculty as long as improvements to the old one were not delayed. In 1992, the Faculty of Medicine merged with the dental school, the Committee approved and by declaration of the king on 5 November 1937, the faculty could hold examinations in economics and law. Courses had been offered in theology since 1932 at the Faculty of Humanities, already on 22 June 1928, Reverend Balslev of Aarhus had proposed that Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus taught basic courses in theology. At this time, Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus did not have the means to meet these criteria so the case was shelved for the time being. In April 1931, the case reopened, this time by Bishop Skat Hoffmeyer who proposed free teaching in the required subjects, on 5 September 1932 Reverend Asmund held the first lecture in theology
Aarhus C is a postal district in the city of Aarhus, consisting of the Inner city, University of Aarhus, Langenæs and Aarhus Ø, with postal code 8000. The district is defined as the area enclosed by the ring road of Ring 1. Aarhus C is an abbreviation of Aarhus Centrum, which means the centre of Aarhus and is home to around 55,000 citizens, is the oldest part of Aarhus and was where the city originated, and is therefore known as the citys historical center. It is characterized by narrow, cobbled streets and many small shops, the square of Store Torv in front of the cathedral forms a natural centre of the pedestrian zone. The main walking route through Midtbyen, is the pedestrian street of Strøget. Apart from the boutiques, Midtbyen presents large department stores. The main routes by car in Midtbyen, are via one of the three roads, Nørre Allé, Vestre Allé and Søndre Allé and this part should not be confused with Vesterbro in the capital, Copenhagen. Aarhus Vesterbro is newer than Midtbyen, and was originally the entrance to the town.
The main square of Vesterbro Torv, used to be a square for pigs. Now it is the busiest junction in Vesterbro, half a mile west of Vesterbro Torv, is one of the citys most famous landmark, Den Gamle By, located within Aarhus Botanical Gardens. Right next to Den Gamle By, is the now defunct Ceres Brewery from 1856, the site of the old brewery is currently being transformed and rebuild into a new neighbourhood of Vesterbro, presenting educational institutions, residential apartments and businesses. Frederiksbjerg is located south of Midtbyen and the central station and its name literally means Frederiks hill or mountain. Separated by a railway yard, it is connected to the inner city by three bridges. It is inhabited by approximately 20.000 people, Frederiksbjerg has around 400 shops mainly located in the three large shopping streets Bruunsgade, Jægergårdsgade, Frederiks Allé. Frederiksbjerg is a part of Aarhus C, with most buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century. This is the newest part of Aarhus C, the area is founded on both newly constructed land and wharfs bought by the municipality from the Port of Aarhus company in 2007 and is not yet fully developed.
There have been many ambitious development projects here, including the proposition of a 144m tall Light House building, parts of this project were postponed due to the 2008 financial crisis. The city plans to develop Aarhus Docklands as a new neighbourhood with canals, parks
National Romantic style
The National Romantic style was a Nordic architectural style that was part of the National Romantic movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is often considered to be a form of Art Nouveau, the National Romantic style spread across Finland, the Scandinavian countries of Denmark and Sweden, the Baltic countries of Estonia and Latvia, as well as Russia. Unlike much nostalgic Gothic Revival style architecture elsewhere, National Romantic architecture expressed progressive social and political ideals, designers turned to early medieval architecture and even prehistoric precedents to construct a style appropriate to the perceived character of a people. The style can be seen as a reaction to industrialism and an expression of the same Dream of the North nationalism that gave impetus to renewed interest in the eddas and sagas
Aarhus Municipality, until 2011 formerly known as Århus Municipality, is a municipality in the Central Region, on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in central Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 470.95 km2, and has a population of 331,332, the main town and the site of its municipal council is the city of Aarhus. Neighbouring municipalities are Syddjurs to the north, Favrskov to the northwest, Skanderborg to the southwest and it forms part of the East Jutland metropolitan area. Aarhus Municipality was not merged with other municipalities in the nationwide Kommunalreformen due to its relatively large size. Aarhus City Council is the municipal government, the city council consists of 31 members elected for four-year terms. Administratively the municipality is divided into six minor agencies which together constitute the magistrate led by a mayor and it is the only Danish city with a magistrate structure. The current Mayor of Aarhus municipality is Jacob Bundsgaard of the Social Democrats, Wammen wanted to focus on the upcoming election for Parliament.
The gender composition of the city council has risen steadily in favour of women through the 20th century, the first publicly elected mayor of Aarhus was appointed in 1919. In the 1970 Danish Municipal Reform the current Aarhus municipality was created by merging 20 municipalities, Aarhus Municipality has 45 electoral wards and polling stations in four electoral districts for the folketing. The diocese of Aarhus has four deaneries composed of 60 parishes within Aarhus municipality, Aarhus municipality contains 21 postal districts and some parts of another 9. The urban area of Aarhus and the suburbs are divided into the districts Aarhus C, Aarhus N, Aarhus V, Viby J, Højbjerg. Aarhus is segmented into districts on different levels often containing several distinct neighbourhoods within them, the historical centre, known as Indre By, includes the neighbourhoods Centralværkstedet, the Latin Quarter and the areas around the Central Station and Aarhus Concert Hall. Districts and suburbs further out are Brabrand, Egå, Hasselager, Kolt, Rosenhøj, Skæring, Skåde, Stavtrup and Tranbjerg.
Statistics Denmark defines towns or cities as areas more than 200 residents in a continuous settlement with no more than 200 meters between residential structures. The city of Aarhus is the second largest urban area in Denmark, the port on the east coast of Jutland. In 2013 Beder and Malling was officially counted as an urban area for the first time. Towns in the municipality are generally considered satellites of Aarhus, population figures from Statistics Denmark,1
Latinerkvarteret in Aarhus, is the oldest part of the city and is itself part of the inner city. The quarter comprise the streets of Badstuegade, Volden, Borggade, Rosensgade and Graven, the name Latinerkvarteret was officially adopted in the 1990s and reflects the areas similarities with the Latin Quarter of Paris. Some of the oldest houses date back to the 16th century, Latinerkvarteret is a busy center for shopping, there are many cafés and restaurants here and it has an active night life. The businesses of the area, has organised themselves in the association of Latinerkvarteret Aarhus. Latinerkvarteret has a cultural life with stages for live music, educations for dance and street performance and studios, galleries. The milieu here, has given birth to prominent enterprises such as the KaosPilots, Aarhus City Aarhus City Forening Latinerkvarteret i Aarhus Latinerkvarteret Aarhus
Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the centre of Denmark,187 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres north of Hamburg. The inner urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the population is 330,639. Aarhus is the city in the East Jutland metropolitan area. The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century, the city was founded on the northern shores of a fjord at a natural harbour and the primary driver of growth was for centuries seaborne trade in agricultural products. Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades, in the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest in the country by the 20th century, today Aarhus is at the cultural and economic core of the region and the largest centre for trade and industry in Jutland.
The city ranks as the 92nd largest city in the European Union and it is a top 100 conference city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling. Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and it is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavias largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park. Aarhus is notable for its musical history, in the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the music scene diversified into rock and other genres, in the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmarks rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags. Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus International Jazz Festival, the SPoT Festival, in 2017 Aarhus are European Capital of Culture. In Valdemars Census Book the city was called Arus, and in Icelandic it was known as Aros and it is a compound of the two words ār, genitive of ā, and ōss.
The name originates from the location around the mouth of Aarhus Å. The spelling Aarhus is first found in 1406 and gradually became the norm in the 17th century, aarhus/Århus spelling With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, Aa was changed to Å. Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg, Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness. In 2010, the city voted to change the name from Århus to Aarhus in order to strengthen the international profile of the city
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton