The Duan Albanach is a Middle Gaelic poem found with the Lebor Bretnach, a Gaelic version of the Historia Brittonum of Nennius, with extensive additional material. Written during the reign of Mael Coluim III, it is found in a variety of Irish sources, and it follows on from the Duan Eireannach, which covers the earlier mythological history of the Gael. It is a poem of 27 stanzas, probably sung at court to a musical accompaniment by the harp. If performed in a context, it is possible that the audience would have participated in the performance. The Duan recounts the kings of the Scots since the eponymous Albanus came to Alba, the poem begins with the following stanzas. In the final stanzas it is seen that the dates from the time of Malcolm III. Duan Albanach - English Trans. by William F. Skene Duan Albanach at CELT
Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain, Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Northumbrian and West Saxon. It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule, Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.
Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms. The oldest Old English inscriptions were using a runic system. Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is a process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections. Perhaps around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, Old English is a West Germanic language, developing out of Ingvaeonic dialects from the 5th century. It came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England and this included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century, the oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmons Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries. The Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century, with the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, a literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, and was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. This form of the language is known as the Winchester standard and it is considered to represent the classical form of Old English
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 local government council areas. Located in Lothian on the Firth of Forths southern shore, it is Scotlands second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The 2014 official population estimates are 464,990 for the city of Edinburgh,492,680 for the authority area. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and it is the largest financial centre in the UK after London. Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, the sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, was placed 17th in the QS World University Rankings in 2013 and 2014. The city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe. The citys historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdoms second most popular tourist destination after London, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.
Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, Edinburghs Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin, the poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort in the territory of the Gododdin. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English burh, the first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline. In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann, the earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c.8500 BC. Traces of Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have found on Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat, Craiglockhart Hill. When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, at some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably descendants of the Votadini, built the hill fort of Din Eidyn or Etin.
Although its location has not been identified, it likely they would have chosen a commanding position like the Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat. In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria and it thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, in 1638, King Charles Is attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the 17th century, Edinburghs boundaries were defined by the citys defensive town walls
Find a Grave
Find a Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry. com, the worlds largest for-profit genealogy company, the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of celebrities. He added an online forum, Find a Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000. The site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find a Grave to Ancestry. com, burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history. In a September 30,2013, press release, Ancestry, as of March 2017, Find a Grave contained over 159 million burial records and 75 million photos. The website contains listings of cemeteries and graves from around the world, american cemeteries are organized by state and county, and many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites.
Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information, Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, and other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, the submitter becomes the manager of the listing but may transfer management. Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the features to send correction requests to the listings manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses, members may post requests for photos of a specific grave, these requests will be automatically sent to other members who have registered their location as being near that grave. Find a Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their claim to fame, such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, Find a Grave exercises editorial control over these listings.
Canadian Headstones Interment. net National Cemetery Administrations Nationwide Gravesite Locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Colker, web site answers grave concerns about stars. Web site attracts millions of grave-seekers, Find VIPs who R. I. P. through online cemetery. Genealogy, Find a Grave tremendous on many different levels, terre Haute, Community Newspaper Holdings Inc. Archived from the original on May 14,2011, Find a Grave has info youre dying to know. Tracking Down Relatives, Visiting Graves Virtually, media related to Images from Find A Grave at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Constantine II of Scotland
Constantine, son of Áed was an early King of Scotland, known by the Gaelic name Alba. The Kingdom of Alba, a name which first appears in Constantines lifetime, was in northern Great Britain, the core of the kingdom was formed by the lands around the River Tay. Its southern limit was the River Forth, northwards it extended towards the Moray Firth and perhaps to Caithness, Constantines grandfather Kenneth I of Scotland was the first of the family recorded as a king, but as king of the Picts. This change of title, from king of the Picts to king of Alba, is part of a transformation of Pictland. His reign, like those of his predecessors, was dominated by the actions of Viking rulers in the British Isles, particularly the Uí Ímair. During Constantines reign the rulers of the kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, the Kingdom of England. At first allied with the southern rulers against the Vikings, Constantine in time came into conflict with them, in 943 Constantine abdicated the throne and retired to the Céli Dé monastery of St Andrews where he died in 952.
He was succeeded by his predecessors son Malcolm I, during his reign the words Scots and Scotland are first used to mean part of what is now Scotland. The earliest evidence for the ecclesiastical and administrative institutions which would last until the Davidian Revolution appears at this time, compared to neighbouring Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England, few records of 9th- and 10th-century events in Scotland survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, the list survives in the Poppleton Manuscript, a 13th-century compilation. Originally simply a list of kings with reign lengths, the details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added in the 10th and 12th centuries. In addition to this, king lists survive, for narrative history the principal sources are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Irish annals. The evidence from charters created in the Kingdom of England provides occasional insight into events in northern Britain, while Scandinavian sagas describe events in 10th-century Britain, their value as sources of historical narrative, rather than documents of social history, is disputed.
The dominant kingdom in eastern Scotland before the Viking Age was the northern Pictish kingdom of Fortriu on the shores of the Moray Firth, by the 9th century, the Gaels of Dál Riata were subject to the kings of Fortriu of the family of Constantín mac Fergusa. Constantíns family dominated Fortriu after 789 and perhaps, if Constantín was a kinsman of Óengus I of the Picts and these deaths led to a period of instability lasting a decade as several families attempted to establish their dominance in Pictland. By around 848 Kenneth MacAlpin had emerged as the winner, the same style is used of Kenneths brother Donald I and sons Constantine I and Áed. The extent of Kenneths nameless kingdom is uncertain, but it extended from the Firth of Forth in the south to the Mounth in the north. Whether it extended beyond the spine of north Britain—Druim Alban—is unclear
Malcolm I of Scotland
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill was king of Scots, becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk. He was the son of Domnall mac Causantín, since his father was known to have died in the year 900, Malcolm must have been born no than 901. By the 940s, he was no longer a young man, but others say that Constantine made this raid, asking of the king, that the kingship should be given to him for a weeks time, so that he could visit the English. In fact, it was Malcolm who made the raid, but Constantine incited him, woolf suggests that the association of Constantine with the raid is a late addition, one derived from a now-lost saga or poem. He died in the wall next to his men. In 945, Edmund I of England, having expelled Amlaíb Cuaran from Northumbria, devastated Cumbria and it is said that he let or commended Strathclyde to Máel Coluim in return for an alliance. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that Máel Coluim took an army into Moray, Cellach is not named in the surviving genealogies of the rulers of Moray, and his identity is unknown.
Máel Coluim appears to have kept his agreement with the late English king, the Annals of Ulster for 952 report a battle between the men of Alba and the Britons and the English against the foreigners, i. e. the Northmen or the Norse-Gaels. This battle is not reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and it is whether it should be related to the expulsion of Amlaíb Cuaran from York or the return of Eric Bloodaxe. The Annals of Ulster report that Máel Coluim was killed in 954, other sources place this most probably in the Mearns, either at Fetteresso following the Chronicle, or at Dunnottar following the Prophecy of Berchán. Máel Coluims sons Dub and Cináed were kings, for primary sources see External links below. Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A. D 500–1286, the Kingship of the Scots 842–1292, Succession and Independence. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8 Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men, most are translated into English, or translations are in progress. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle XML Edition by Tony Jebson and translated at the OMACL
St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland,10 miles southeast of Dundee and 30 miles northeast of Edinburgh. The town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world, according to some rankings, it is ranked as the third best university in the United Kingdom, behind Oxbridge. The University is an part of the burgh and during term time students make up approximately one third of the towns population. St Andrews has a population of 16,800, the town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 8th century, the settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the capital of Scotland, a position which was held until the Scottish Reformation. The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins, St Andrews is known worldwide as the home of golf. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches.
The Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, the civil parish has a population of 18,421. The earliest recorded name the area is Muckross, after the founding of a religious settlement in Muckross in around 370 AD, the name changed to Cennrígmonaid. This is Old Gaelic and composed of the elements cenn, ríg and this became Cell Rígmonaid and was anglicised Kilrymont. The modern Gaelic spelling is Cill Rìmhinn, the name St Andrews derives from the towns claim to be the resting place of bones of the apostle Andrew. According to legend, St Regulus brought the relics to Kilrymont and this is the origin of a third name for the town Kilrule. The first inhabitants who settled on the fringes of the rivers Tay. This was followed by the people who settled around the modern town around 4,500 BC as farmers clearing the area of woodland. In AD877, king Causantín mac Cináeda built a new church for the Culdees at St Andrews and the same year was captured and executed after defending against Viking raiders.
In AD906, the became the seat of the bishop of Alba. In 940 Constantine III abdicated and took the position of abbot of the monastery of St Andrews, the establishment of the present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill, possibly on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, a monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. These may include a hospice, a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing such as a barn. In English usage, the monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics, historically, a convent denoted a house of friars, now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in specific ways. The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, in England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community.
Most cathedrals were not monasteries, and were served by canons secular, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a time a cathedral, and was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St Georges Chapel, in most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a more specific definition of the term. Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara, viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple, in Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are often called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat, in Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be an abbey, or a priory and it may be a community of men or of women.
A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order, in Eastern Christianity, a very small monastic community can be called a skete, and a very large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra. The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the life of an anchorite. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most commonly an ashram, jains use the Buddhist term vihara
Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England. In the early 7th century, it merged with its neighbour, Deira, to form the kingdom of Northumbria. Bernicia occurs in Old Welsh poetry as Bryneich or Brynaich and in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum and this was most likely the name of the native Brittonic kingdom, whose name was adopted by the Anglian settlers who rendered it in Old English as Bernice or Beornice. Local linguistic evidence suggests continued political activity in the area before the arrival of the Angles, analysis of a potential derivation has not produced a consensus. The most commonly cited etymology gives the meaning as Land of the Mountain Passes or Land of the Gaps, an earlier derivation from the tribal name of the Brigantes has been dismissed as linguistically unsound. The Brythonic kingdom of the area was formed from what had once been the lands of the Votadini. This northern realm is referred to by Welsh scholars as Yr Hen Ogledd or, the kingdom may have been ruled from the site that became the English Bamburgh, which certainly features in Welsh sources as Din Guardi.
Near this high-status residence lay the island of Lindisfarne, which became the seat of the Bernician bishops and it is unknown when the Angles finally conquered the whole region, but around 604 is likely. There are several Old Welsh pedigrees of princely Men of the North that may represent the kings of the British kingdom in the area, some of the Angles of Bernicia may have been employed as mercenaries along Hadrians Wall during the late Roman period. Others are thought to have migrated north from Deira in the early 6th century, the first Anglian king in the historical record is Ida, who is said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. His sons spent many years fighting a force from the surrounding Brythonic kingdoms until their alliance collapsed into civil war. Ida’s grandson, Æthelfrith, united Deira with his own kingdom by force around the year 604 and he ruled the two kingdoms until he was defeated and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia around the year 616. The early part of Edwins reign was spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from the Brythonic exiles of the old British kingdom.
After he had defeated the remaining Brythonic population of the area, Bernicia was briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Æthelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed. Eanfriths brother Oswald raised an army and finally defeated Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634, after this victory, Oswald appears to have been recognised by both Bernicians and Deirans as king of a properly united Northumbria. The kings of Bernicia were thereafter supreme in that kingdom, although Deira had its own sub-kings at times during the reigns of Oswiu and History in Early Britain. The Gododdin, The Oldest Scottish poem, the Gododdin of Aneurin and context from Dark-Age North Britain. ISBN 0-7083-1374-4 Rollason, David W. Northumbria, 500–1100, Creation and Destruction of a Kingdom, Leslie and Warriors, Craftsmen and Priests in Northern Britain AD 550–850
Cullen is a village and former royal burgh in Moray, Scotland, on the North Sea coast 20 miles east of Elgin. The village now has a population of 1,327, Cullen is noticeably busier in summer than winter due to the number of holiday homes owned. The organs of the wife of Robert the Bruce are said to have buried in its old kirk after her death in Cullen Castle. Robert the Bruce made a payment to the village in gratitude for the treatment of his wifes body. A recent non-payment of this sum by the government was challenged and settled to the villages favour, the village is noted for Cullen Skink and its former railway bridges, two of which are now part of the national cycle network. These bridges were required, at considerable cost, due to resistance to the line being routed any closer to Cullen House. The most westerly viaduct is highly photogenic, and often features in tourist guides, near Cullen is the peak Bin Hill, visible from some distance, such as from Longman Hill. Cullen has a long history, and a remarkably well-documented one thanks to the survival of a number of sources.
These are summarised in two key books, the Annals of Cullen by W Crammond and the Church Annals of Cullen by W Robertson, the first deals primarily with the civil governance and the latter with church governance up to the disruption. Cullen received royal burgh status between 1153 and 1214 AD during the reigns of Malcolm IV and William I and it is known to have received a charter in 1455 AD from James II. The burgh was abolished in 1975 by the Local Government Act 1973, writing in around 139–161, Ptolemy in his Geography mentions the River Celnius in the North East of Scotland. Both William Forbes Skene and George Chalmers identified the Celnius with Cullen Burn, the first mention of Cullen in Scottish history was in 962 when King Indulf was killed by the Norwegians at the mouth of the river Cullen and referred to as the Battle of the Bauds. Atween Coedlich and the sea, There lies Kings sons three, legend has it that within the vicinity, a Scots, a Danish and a Norwegian King are buried, marked by the three isolated rocks within Cullen Bay and named the Three Kings.
However, it is possible that these rocks derive their name from the similarity of the name Cullen with Culane as in the mystery play The Three Kings of Culane. The church was founded as a chapel by King Robert Bruce, the organs of the wife of Robert the Bruce are said to have been buried in its old kirk after her death in the area. Robert the Bruce made a payment to the village in gratitude for the treatment of his wifes body. A recent non-payment of this sum by the government was challenged and settled to the villages favour, Robert Burns stayed overnight at, what was then, the old town of Cullen in 1787 during his tour of the Highlands. Travelling from the west to the east he remarked that up to this point, the old town of Cullen was demolished in 1822 and its remains are next to Cullen House
University College Cork
University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland. The university is located in Cork, the university was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges located in Belfast and Galway. It became University College, under the Irish Universities Act of 1908, amongst other rankings and awards, the university was named Irish University of the Year by the Sunday Times on five occasions, most recently in 2017. UCC became the first university to achieve the ISO50001 standard in management in 2011. Queens College, was founded by the provisions of an act which enabled Queen Victoria to endow new colleges for the Advancement of Learning in Ireland, under the powers of this act, the three colleges of Belfast and Galway were incorporated on 30 December 1845. The college opened in 1849 with 23 professors and 181 students, the original site chosen for the college was appropriate in that it is believed to have had a connection with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr.
This association is reflected in the College motto Where Finbarr Taught. Adjacent to Gillabbey and overlooking the valley of the river Lee, the Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane and Benjamin Woodward. Queens College Cork officially opened its doors in 1849, with further buildings added later, as of 2013, the university had over 20,000 full-time students, of which approximately 14,000 were undergraduate degree candidates. This student base is supported by approximately 2,800 staff, there are approximately 1153 non-academic staff and 832 research staff. The university is one of Irelands leading research institutes, with the highest research income in the state, the universitys internal research reputation spans all of its faculties where it offers over 120 degree and professional programmes through seven schools and 27 departments. The university had seven faculties in Arts and Celtic Studies, Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Medicine, UCC is home to the Irish Institute of Chinese Studies, which allows students to study Chinese culture as well as the language through Arts and Commerce.
The department won the European Award for Languages 2008, Student numbers, at over 20,000 in 2013, increased from the late 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus by the acquisition of adjacent buildings and lands. The subsequent inquiry found there was no evidence of financial mismanagement. Also in 2006, the University re-opened the Crawford Observatory, a built in 1880 on the grounds of the university by Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of the Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed the observatory, the University paid for an extensive restoration and conservation program of the building and the three main telescopes, the Equatorial, the Transit Circle and the Sidereostatic telescope. In October 2008, the body of the university announced that UCC would be the first institution in Ireland to use embryonic stem cells in research. In November 2009, many UCC buildings were damaged by flooding, the floods affected other parts of Cork City, with many students being evacuated from accommodation
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for four centuries and is renowned for its tranquility. It is a popular tourist destination and a place for retreats and its modern Gaelic name means Iona of Columba. The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of languages since the Iron Age. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the now known in English as Iona. The earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like yew-place. The element Ivo-, denoting yew, occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and it is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning man of the yew. The possible confusion results from ì, despite its original etymology, eilean Idhe means the isle of Iona, known as Ì nam ban bòidheach.
The modern English name comes of yet another variant, iouas change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of n and u in Insular Minuscule. Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull and it is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125. The geology of the island consists mainly of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side, like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees, most of them are near the parish church. Ionas highest point is Dùn Ì,101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD200. Ionas geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, the main settlement, located at St. Ronans Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as The Village. The primary school, post office, the two hotels, the Bishops House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north, port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, in the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The island was the site of an important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. Columba and twelve companions went into exile on Iona and founded a monastery there, many satellite institutions were founded, and Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland