The River Bovey rises on the eastern side of Dartmoor in Devon, is the largest tributary to the River Teign. The river has two main source streams, both rising within a mile of each other, either side of the B3212 road between Moretonhampstead and Postbridge, before joining at Jurston; the river flows for about two miles northwards from source before turning to a south easterly direction. It passes the village of North Bovey, flows through the Lustleigh Cleave between the villages of Manaton and Lustleigh, through the town of Bovey Tracey, it joins the River Teign on the boundary between the parishes of Teigngrace and Kingsteignton, about a mile south of the village of Chudleigh Knighton. The catchment of the river runs to the West at Chagford Common, past Hookney Tor, the road from Fordgate to Hound Tor. To the South, the watershed is with the River Lemon and runs from Hemsworthy Gate to Haytor Rocks, past Brimley and to the North of Stover Country Park; the Eastern boundary runs between Chudleigh Knighton to Doccombe, in the North, is runs in a line from just outside Moretonhampstead to Meldon Hill, South of Chagford.
There are two main tributaries, one being the Becka Brook, rising near Hound Tor, flowing through Becky Falls, joining the Bovey just below Trendlebere Down. The second is the Wray Brook which starts North of Moretonhampstead, joins the Bovey to the South of Lustleigh; the river gives its name to the Bovey Formation, a geological sedimentary basin, the major source in England for ball clay. The towns of North Bovey and Bovey Tracey both take their name from the river, as does Bovey Castle, a luxury hotel close to the river outside North Bovey. Environment Agency monitoring of river levels at Bovey Parke
Meldon Quarry is a limestone quarry in Devon, England. It is at the northern edge of Dartmoor, about 2 miles SW of Okehampton, it was developed from 1897 to supply track ballast and other stone products for the London and South Western Railway. It was privatised in 1994. A small quarry was started to supply local railway requirements in 1874, concurrent with the opening of the LSWR's railway extension from Okehampton to Lydford, on which the quarry lies; the railway is described in Exeter to Plymouth railway of the LSWR. The quarry was developed in 1897 to provide the majority of the track ballast requirements of the LSWR, which at the time amounted to about 100,000 tons per annum; the geology is such that the ballast is harder, therefore more long-lasting, than stone available in the more easterly parts of the system. The quarry was further extended in 1902 reaching 200 acres. Further developed over the years, by 1953 it was producing 340,000 tons annually. An internal tramway of short and movable 2-foot gauge tramways was provided.
After nationalisation, the ballast quality was considered to be superior to the more conveniently available limestones, but the cost of haulage from the westerly location counted against it, in the 1980s it proved commercially viable to bring good quality stone from Scotland by coastal shipping to Tilbury, substituting for some of the Meldon output. As part of the process of privatising British Rail, the quarry operation was sold to ECC Quarries Ltd on 4 March 1994; because of the remote location, a staff passenger platform was provided. It is described at Meldon Quarry railway station. Positioning and marshalling of a large flow of mineral wagons was achieved by horse power at first, but in 1927 a Manning Wardle 0-4-0ST locomotive was provided, it had worked at Folkestone Harbour. It became service locomotive 225S at Medlon, it was working there until 1938. A replacement locomotive was required, after trials with a B4 0-4-0T and an O2 0-4-4T, a SECR class T 0-6-0T no 1607 became the regular power unit, being renumbered 500S.
After a period with locomotives being loaned temporarily, a G6 class 0-6-0T no 72 of the former LSWR took over, being renumbered DS3152 and working from November 1949 until July 1960. Another G6 took over then: no. 30238, renumbered DS682 worked there until December 1962. This was followed by USA 0-6-0T no. DS682, which worked at the quarry from until October 1966, after which class 08 diesel shunters provided the power
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture in pre-existing rocks, without the protolith melting into liquid magma. The change occurs due to heat and the introduction of chemically active fluids; the chemical components and crystal structures of the minerals making up the rock may change though the rock remains a solid. Changes at or just beneath Earth's surface due to weathering or diagenesis are not classified as metamorphism. Metamorphism occurs between diagenesis, melting; the geologists who study metamorphism are known as "metamorphic petrologists." To determine the processes underlying metamorphism, they rely on statistical mechanics and experimental petrology. Three types of metamorphism exist: contact and regional. Metamorphism produced with increasing pressure and temperature conditions is known as prograde metamorphism. Conversely, decreasing temperatures and pressure characterize retrograde metamorphism. Metamorphic rocks can change without melting. Heat causes atomic bonds to break, the atoms move and form new bonds with other atoms, creating new minerals with different chemical components or crystalline structures, or enabling recrystallization.
When pressure is applied, somewhat flattened grains that orient in the same direction have a more stable configuration. The temperature lower limit on what is considered to be a metamorphic process is considered to be 100 – 200 °C; the upper boundary of metamorphic conditions is related to the onset of melting processes in the rock. The maximum temperature for metamorphism is 700 – 900 °C, depending on the pressure and on the composition of the rock. Migmatites are rocks formed at this upper limit, which contains pods and veins of material that has started to melt but has not segregated from the refractory residue. Since the 1980s it has been recognized that rocks are dry enough and of a refractory enough composition to record without melting "ultra-high" metamorphic temperatures of 900 – 1100 °C; the metamorphic process has to be over pressure of at least 100 mega pascals but below 300 mega pascals, the depth of 100 mega pascals varies depending on what type of rock is applying pressure. Regional or Barrovian metamorphism covers large areas of continental crust associated with mountain ranges those associated with convergent tectonic plates or the roots of eroded mountains.
Conditions producing widespread regionally metamorphosed rocks occur during an orogenic event. The collision of two continental plates or island arcs with continental plates produce the extreme compressional forces required for the metamorphic changes typical of regional metamorphism; these orogenic mountains are eroded, exposing the intensely deformed rocks typical of their cores. The conditions within the subducting slab as it plunges toward the mantle in a subduction zone produce regional metamorphic effects, characterized by paired metamorphic belts; the techniques of structural geology are used to unravel the collisional history and determine the forces involved. Regional metamorphism can be described and classified into metamorphic facies or metamorphic zones of temperature/pressure conditions throughout the orogenic terrane. Contact metamorphism occurs around intrusive igneous rocks as a result of the temperature increase caused by the intrusion of magma into cooler country rock; the area surrounding the intrusion where the contact metamorphism effects are present is called the metamorphic aureole.
Contact metamorphic rocks are known as hornfels. Rocks formed by contact metamorphism may not present signs of strong deformation and are fine-grained. Contact metamorphism is greater adjacent to the intrusion and dissipates with distance from the contact; the size of the aureole depends on the heat of the intrusion, its size, the temperature difference with the wall rocks. Dikes have small aureoles with minimal metamorphism whereas large ultramafic intrusions can have thick and well-developed contact metamorphism; the metamorphic grade of an aureole is measured by the peak metamorphic mineral which forms in the aureole. This is related to the metamorphic temperatures of pelitic or aluminosilicate rocks and the minerals they form; the metamorphic grades of aureoles are sillimanite hornfels, pyroxene hornfels. Magmatic fluids coming from the intrusive rock may take part in the metamorphic reactions. An extensive addition of magmatic fluids can modify the chemistry of the affected rocks. In this case the metamorphism grades into metasomatism.
If the intruded rock is rich in carbonate the result is a skarn. Fluorine-rich magmatic waters which leave a cooling granite may form greisens within and adjacent to the contact of the granite. Metasomatic altered aureoles can localize the deposition of metallic ore minerals and thus are of economic interest. A special type of contact metamorphism, associated with fossil fuel fires, is known as pyrometamorphism. Hydrothermal metamorphism is the result of the interaction of a rock with a high-temperature fluid of variable composition; the difference in composition between an existing rock and the invading fluid triggers a set of metamorphic and metasomatic reactions. The hydrothermal fluid may be magmatic, circulating ocean water. Convective circulation of hydrothermal fluids in the ocean floor basalts produces extensive hydrothermal metamorphism adjacent to spreading centers and other submarine volcanic areas
Eylesbarrow mine was a tin mine on Dartmoor, England, active during the first half of the 19th century. In its early years it was one of the largest and most prosperous of the Dartmoor tin mines, along with Whiteworks and the Birch Tor and Vitifer mines, its name has several variant spellings, such as Eylesburrow, Ellisborough, Hillsborough etc. It was known as Wheal Ruth for a short period around 1850; the extensive remains lie to the north of the River Plym, less than 1 mile north-east of Drizzlecombe, on the southern shoulder of the hill called Eylesbarrow on top of which are two prominent Bronze Age barrows. The country rock of the mine is granite; the large mining sett is crossed by many tin-bearing lodes which are vertical and trend east-north-east. Most of the mine's excavations were made into just three of these lodes and were shallow; the formation of the lodes was accompanied by extensive metasomatism which converted much of the plagioclase feldspar in the surrounding granite into the soft mineral kaolinite, made excavation easier than it would have been in unaltered rock.
The lodes varied in width up to a maximum of around 2.4 ft and were, at least in the early years of the mine's operation, sometimes of high quality ore, uncontaminated with other unwanted metalliferous ores. The existence of these high quality ores near the surface led the miners to believe that better ore existed deeper down, but the history of the mine suggests that this is not the case and the mineralisation becomes patchy at depth. Streaming and open-cast mining for tin have taken place in this part of Dartmoor for many centuries, it is believed. For instance, in 1168, men from the nearby village of Sheepstor are known to have been "tinners". Around 550 years a document of 1715 stated of Sheepstor Parish that "all the parishioners are tinners", but by this time working for tin on the moor was in decline because of the exhaustion of the accessible deposits. Revival came in the late 1780s, fired by the innovations of the industrial revolution, it is possible that some underground working took place on the site of the mine as early as 1790, but the first documentary evidence is an offer for sale of shares in a mine called "Ailsborough" in 1804, records of tin dues paid from 1806 to 1810.
By 1814 demand had caused the price of tin to rise to about £150 per ton and in that year a mining sett called "Ellisborough Tin Set" was granted. Extraction started at the mine in February 1815 and by 1820, despite several business difficulties, it was sending quantities of black tin to Cornwall for smelting. In 1822 the mine opened its own smelting house on the site—the only one in operation on the moor. There is evidence; the next ten years or so were the mine's most productive period, despite there being a fall in the price of tin from 1826. In addition to tin, some "Forest Clay" was sold. In 1831 the mine employed over sixty men, but at the end of that year the smelter ceased operation and there is a four-year gap in the records. In June 1836, when the price of tin was again at a high, a prospectus for "Dartmoor Consolidated Tin Mines" was published in the founded trade magazine The Mining Journal, offering 7,500 shares at £5 each; the mine operated unsuccessfully on a small scale for the next few years while the price of tin fell again.
In August 1838 the shares on which £3. 10s had been paid were worth only £2. By early 1840 the shares, by fully paid-up were worth just £1. By 1841 only three or four men were employed and in 1844, with the price of tin at an all-time low of just over £60 per ton, the mine closed. In early 1847, with tin back up to around £90 per ton, the mine was again advertised, offering 2,048 shares at £2 each; this resurgence of activity was bolstered with glowing reports on the quality of its ore and the previous high returns, made despite the shafts being of no great depth. It was said that the smelting house "can be made fit for use at a trifling cost" which will make it "a source of great profit". In June 1847 the mine captain, John Spargo, proposed a number of improvements, including the installation of a 50 ft waterwheel and new stamps, the sinking of new shafts, the whole costing a total of nearly £1,000. Much of this work was undertaken, but by October the same year, the first signs that all was not well appeared in The Mining Journal.
The shares had not been well taken up and the lack of money was causing problems. By the following March it was reported that the mine could not continue in operation and a final call of £1 per share was being made to clear the debts of the company, it was clear. Yet another company, calling itself "Aylesborough", was formed during 1848, sold over £50 worth of black tin. In 1849 Captain Spargo reported that the stamps were working well and a shaft had been deepened to 20 fathoms below adit, but problems reappeared and in 1851 it was advertised—for the last time—as "Wheal Ruth" with 2,700 shares offered at £2 each. This new concern employed only a few men, but operated for a time, selling 1 ton 4 cwt 11 lb of ore for £61. 9s in September 1851 and over two tons for more than £107 in the last quarter of the year. However, on 25 September 1852 The Mining Journal ran an advert for the sale of all the mine's equipment by public auction. Since the price of tin was rising again at this time, it is most that the mine had become exhausted of tin, recoverable economically.
Although it was on
Tavistock is an ancient stannary and market town within West Devon, England. It is situated on the River Tavy. At the 2011 census the three electoral wards had a population of 13,028, it traces its recorded history back to at least 961 when Tavistock Abbey, whose ruins lie in the centre of the town, was founded. Its most famous son is Sir Francis Drake; the area around Tavistock, where the River Tavy runs wide and shallow allowing it to be crossed, near the secure high ground of Dartmoor, was inhabited long before historical records. The surrounding area is littered with archaeological remains from the Bronze and Iron Ages and it is believed a hamlet existed on the site of the present town long before the town's official history began, with the founding of the Abbey; the abbey of Saint Mary and Saint Rumon was founded in 961 by Earl of Devon. After destruction by Danish raiders in 997 it was restored, among its famous abbots was Aldred, who crowned Harold II and William I, died Archbishop of York.
In 1105 a Royal Charter was granted by Henry I to the monks of Tavistock to run a weekly "Pannier Market" on a Friday, which still takes place today. In 1116 a three-day fair was granted to mark the feast of Saint Rumon, another tradition, still maintained in the shape of the annual "Goosey" fair on the second Wednesday in October. By 1185 Tavistock had achieved borough status, in 1295 it became a parliamentary borough, sending two members to parliament; the abbey church was rebuilt in 1285. In 1305, with the growing importance of the area as one of Europe's richest sources of tin, Tavistock was one of the four stannary towns appointed by charter of Edward I, where tin was stamped and weighed and monthly courts were held for the regulation of mining affairs; the church of Saint Eustachius was dedicated by Bishop Stapledon in 1318 though there are few remains of that building today. It was rebuilt and enlarged into its current form between 1350 and 1450, at which time the Clothworkers' Aisle was included, an indication of the growing importance of the textile industry to the local economy—the trade was protected by a 1467 statute.
The whole consists of a nave and chancel. It possesses a lofty tower supported on four open arches, one of, reputedly added to accommodate the 19th-century "tinners" or tin miners. Within are monuments to the Glanville and Bourchier families, besides some fine stained glass, one window being the work of William Morris and another of Charles Eamer Kempe, it has a roof boss featuring one of the so-called'Tinners' Hares', a trio of rabbits/hares joined at and sharing three ears between them. The font dates from the 15th century; the greater part of the abbey was rebuilt in 1457-58. In 1552 two fairs on 23 April and 28 November were granted by Edward VI to the Earl of Bedford lord of the manor. In the 17th century great quantities of cloth were sold at the Friday market, four fairs were held at the feasts of Saint Michael, Saint Mark, the Decollation of John the Baptist; the charter of Charles II instituted a Tuesday market, fairs on the Thursday after Whitsunday and at the feast of Saint Swithin.
The town continued to prosper in the charge of the abbots, acquiring one of England's first printing presses in 1525. Tavistock remained an important centre of both trade and religion until the Dissolution of the Monasteries—the abbey was demolished in 1539, leaving the ruins still to be seen around the centre of the town. From that time on, the dominant force in the town became the Russell family and Dukes of Bedford, who took over much of the land following the Dissolution. Tavistock is tied from late medieval times with the Russells, the family name of the Earls of Bedford and since 1694, the Dukes of Bedford; this is seen from the history of the town. The second title of the Duke of Bedford is the Marquess of Tavistock, taken as the courtesy title of the eldest son and heir to the dukedom, illustrates the importance of this Devon town, its hinterland and the minerals beneath it to the family's fortunes, it is believed. Most Robin, the short-lived 14th Duke, as Marquess of Tavistock, was a frequent visitor to the town along with his wife, Henrietta.
Andrew Russell is the 15th Duke of Marquess of Tavistock. It is this Russell family connection through the Bedford Estates which gives the name by ownership to Russell Square and Tavistock Square in London, famously home to the Tavistock Clinic, the bus-bombing of 7 July 2005. Around 1540, Sir Francis Drake was born at Crowndale Farm, just to the west of what is now Tavistock College. A Blue Plaque is mounted on the current farmhouse, behind which Drake is believed to have been born, the original farmhouse having been dismantled and the stone transported for use in Lew Trenchard, he became a prominent figure of his age, a champion of Queen Elizabeth, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world from 1577 to 1580 and one of the English commanders in the famously decisive victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588. The famous statue of Drake on Plymouth Hoe is a copy of that on a roundabout on the A386 at the western end of the town, with panels not replicated on the Hoe copy. Drake made his home at Buckland Abbey, about eight miles away towards Plymouth, jointly owned/run by Plymouth City Council and the National Trust, now a m
Plymouth is a port city situated on the south coast of Devon, England 37 miles south-west of Exeter and 190 miles west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city are the mouths of the river Plym and river Tamar, which are incorporated into Plymouth Sound to form a boundary with Cornwall. Plymouth's early history extends to the Bronze Age; this settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton founded in the ninth century, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony, the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War, the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, exporting local minerals; the neighbouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal Naval dockyard town.
In 1914 three neighbouring independent towns, viz. the county borough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged to form a single County Borough. The combined town took the name of Plymouth; the city's naval importance led to its being targeted by the German military and destroyed by bombing during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other outlying suburbs in 1967; the city is home to 263,100 people, making it the 30th-most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom and the second-largest city in the South West, after Bristol. It is represented nationally by three MPs. Plymouth's economy remains influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to Brittany and Spain, but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s, it has the largest operational naval base in Western Europe, HMNB Devonport, is home to the University of Plymouth.
Upper Palaeolithic deposits, including bones of Homo sapiens, have been found in local caves, artefacts dating from the Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age have been found at Mount Batten, showing that it was one of few principle trading ports of pre Roman Britannia dominating continental trade with Armorica. An unidentified settlement named TAMARI OSTIA is listed in Ptolemy's Geographia and is presumed to be located in the area of the modern city. An ancient promontory fort was located at Rame Head at the mouth of Plymouth Sound with ancient hillforts located at Lyneham Warren to the east, Boringdon Camp and Maristow Camp to the north; the settlement of Plympton, further up the River Plym than the current Plymouth, was an early trading port. As the river silted up in the early 11th century and merchants were forced to settle downriver at the current day Barbican near the river mouth. At the time this village was called meaning south town in Old English; the name Plym Mouth, meaning "mouth of the River Plym" was first mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1211.
The name Plymouth first replaced Sutton in a charter of King Henry VI in 1440. See Plympton for the derivation of the name Plym. During the Hundred Years' War a French attack burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed to get into the town. In 1403 the town was burned by Breton raiders. On 12 November 1439, the English Parliament made Plymouth the first town incorporated. In the late fifteenth century, Plymouth Castle, a "castle quadrate", was constructed close to the area now known as The Barbican; the castle served to protect Sutton Pool, where the fleet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment of Plymouth Dockyard. In 1512 an Act of Parliament was passed for further fortifying Plymouth. A series of fortifications were built, including defensive walls at the entrance to Sutton Pool. Defences on St Nicholas Island date from this time, a string of six artillery blockhouses were built, including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe; this location was further strengthened by the building of a fort in 1596.
During the 16th century, locally produced wool was the major export commodity. Plymouth was the home port for successful maritime traders, among them Sir John Hawkins, who led England's first foray into the Atlantic slave trade, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Mayor of Plymouth in 1581 and 1593. According to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of bowls on the Hoe before engaging the Spanish Armada in 1588. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers set sail for the New World from Plymouth, establishing Plymouth Colony – the second English colony in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War Plymouth sided with the Parliamentarians and was besieged for four years by the Royalists; the last major attack by the Royalists was by Sir Richard Grenville leading thousands of soldiers towards Plymouth, but they were defeated by the Plymothians at Freedom Fields Park. The civil war ended as a Parliamentary win, but monarchy was restored by King Charles II in 1660, who imprisoned many of the Parliamentary heroes on Drake's Is
Warren House Inn
The Warren House Inn is a remote and isolated public house in the heart of Dartmoor, England. It is the highest pub in southern England at 1,425 feet above sea level, it is located on an ancient road across the moor, about 2 miles north east of the village of Postbridge and has been a stopping point for travellers since the middle of the 18th century. In 1905 Robert Burnard wrote: "When packhorses were used on the Moreton track, New House, or as it is now called, Warren House Inn, was on the right side of the road proceeding from Postbridge towards Moreton, it is so shown on Donne's map; this old building was burnt down some years ago and was rebuilt in 1845 by J. Wills on the other side of the present road, here it occupies the site of the ancient packhorse way." As Burnard said, the current building dates from 1845, but the original inn on the southern side of the packhorse track was built in the middle of the 18th century well before the turnpike road was created in 1792. There must have been sufficient packhorse and foot traffic because some time afterwards a small rabbit warren was established nearby to allow the inn to serve rabbit-pie with scrumpy.
The earliest landlord recorded is William Tapper, in 1786. The newly rebuilt inn was first named The Moreton Inn and in 1850 it was owned by William Honey of Tavistock and the host was William Warne. Not long after, Jonas Coaker, the self-styled Dartmoor Poet, born in Postbridge in 1801, became landlord and it was he who renamed the inn. In his day the inn was frequented by miners from the nearby Golden Dagger tin mines. Coaker recounted two incidents that took place while he was landlord: in one he had to take to the moor when a crowd of miners helped themselves to his liquor; the Inn is the subject of much folklore - exaggerated over the generations. For example, one traveller is said to have stayed there overnight and found a body in a chest in his room; when he mentioned this to the landlord, he was told: "'tis only fayther! … the snaw being so thick, making the roads so cledgey-like, when old fayther died, two weeks agon, we couldn't carry un to Tavistock to bury un. The following morning he discovered that the "flock" that he’d been shown by the locals that night was the prehistoric stone circles of Grey Wethers.
The fire in the hearth, it is rumoured, has never been allowed to go out and has itself become part of the folklore of the inn. It is said that when the inn was rebuilt, the glowing embers of the fire were carried across the road on a shovel to the new hearth; the Great Thunderstorm, Widecombe Dartmoor tin-mining Greeves, Tom.