In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of firms and markets. Industrial organization adds real-world complications to the competitive model, complications such as transaction costs, limited information, barriers to entry of new firms that may be associated with imperfect competition, it analyzes determinants of firm and market organization and behavior as between competition and monopoly, including from government actions. There are different approaches to the subject. One approach is descriptive in providing an overview of industrial organization, such as measures of competition and the size-concentration of firms in an industry. A second approach uses microeconomic models to explain internal firm organization and market strategy, which includes internal research and development along with issues of internal reorganization and renewal. A third aspect is oriented to public policy as to economic regulation, antitrust law, more the economic governance of law in defining property rights, enforcing contracts, providing organizational infrastructure.
The extensive use of game theory in industrial economics has led to the export of this tool to other branches of microeconomics, such as behavioral economics and corporate finance. Industrial organization has had significant practical impacts on antitrust law and competition policy; the development of industrial organization as a separate field owes much to Edward Chamberlin, Joan Robinson, Edward S. Mason, J. M. Clark, Joe S. Bain and Paolo Sylos Labini, among others; the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes are one way of representing the range of economics subjects and subareas. There, Industrial Organization, one of 20 primary categories, has 9 secondary categories, each with multiple tertiary categories; the secondary categories are listed below with corresponding available article-preview links of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online and footnotes to their respective JEL-tertiary categories and associated New-Palgrave links. JEL: L1 – Market Structure, Firm Strategy, Market Performance JEL: L2 – Firm Objectives and Behavior JEL: L3 – Non-profit organizations and Public enterprise JEL: L4 – Antitrust Issues and Policies JEL: L5 – Regulation and Industrial policy JEL: L6 – Industry Studies: Manufacturing JEL: L7 – Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction JEL: L8 – Industry Studies: Services JEL: L9 – Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities The common market structures studied in this field are the following: Perfect competition Monopolistic competition Duopoly Oligopoly Oligopsony Monopoly Monopsony Industrial organization investigates the outcomes of these market structures in environments with Price discrimination Product differentiation Durable goods Experience goods Secondary markets, which can affect the behaviour of firms in primary markets.
Collusion Signalling, such as warranties and advertising. Mergers and acquisitions Entry and Exit A 2009 book Pioneers of Industrial Organization traces the development of the field from Adam Smith to recent times and includes dozens of short biographies of major figures in Europe and North America who contributed to the growth and development of the discipline. Other reviews by publication year and earliest available cited works those in 1970/1937, 1972/1933, 1974, 1987/1937-1956, 1968-9. 2009/c. 1900, 2010/1951. Paul Belleflamme and Martin Peitz, 2010. Industrial Organization: Markets and Strategies. Cambridge University Press. Summary and Resources Cabral, Luís M. B. 2000. Introduction to Industrial Organization. MIT Press. Links to Description and chapter-preview links. Shepherd, William, 1985; the Economics of Industrial Organization, Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-231481-9 Shy, Oz, 1995. Industrial Organization: Theory and Applications. Description and chapter-preview links. MIT Press. Vives, Xavier, 2001.
Oligopoly Pricing: Old Ideas and New Tools. MIT Press. Description and scroll to chapter-preview links. Jeffrey Church & Roger Ware, 2005. "Industrial Organization: A Strategic Approach", ”, Free Textbook Nicolas Boccard, 2010. "Industrial Organization, a Contract Based approach ”, Open Source Textbook International Journal of the Economics of Business and issue preview links International Journal of Industrial Organization and issue-preview links Journal of Industrial Economics and Scope, issue-preview links. Journal of Law and Organization and issue-preview links. Review of Industrial Organization Quotations related to Industrial organization at Wikiquote
Cupronickel or copper-nickel is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese. The copper content varies from 60 to 90 percent. Despite its high copper content, cupronickel is silver in colour. Cupronickel is resistant to corrosion by salt water, is therefore used for piping, heat exchangers and condensers in seawater systems, as well as for marine hardware, it is sometimes used for the propellers, propeller shafts, hulls of high-quality boats. Other uses include military equipment and chemical and electrical industries. Another common modern use of cupronickel is silver-coloured coins. For this use, the typical alloy has 3:1 copper to nickel ratio, with small amounts of manganese. In the past, true silver coins were debased with cupronickel. Aside from cupronickel and copper-nickel, several other terms have been used to describe the material: the tradenames Alpaka or Alpacca, Argentan Minargent, the registered French term cuivre blanc, the romanized Chinese term Paktong.
Cupronickel alloys are used for marine applications due to their resistance to seawater corrosion, good fabricability, their effectiveness in lowering macrofouling levels. Alloys ranging in composition from 90% Cu–10% Ni to 70% Cu–30% Ni are specified in heat exchanger or condenser tubes in a wide variety of marine applications. Important marine applications for cupronickel include: Shipbuilding and repair: Cupronickel alloys are used in seawater cooling and ballast, fire fighting, inert gas and pneumatic chiller systems. Desalination plants: Cupronickel alloys are used in brine heaters, heat rejection and recovery, in evaporator tubing. Offshore oil and gas platforms and processing and FPSO vessels: Cupronickel alloys are used in systems and splash zone sheathings. Power generation: Cupronickel alloys are used in steam turbine condensers, oil coolers, auxiliary cooling systems and high pressure pre-heaters at nuclear and fossil fuel power plants. Seawater system design: Cupronickel alloys are used in tubular heat exchangers and condensers and high pressure systems.
Seawater system components: Cupronickel alloys are used in condenser and heat exchanger tubes, piping, fittings and water boxes. Hulls of boats and ships The successful use of cupronickel in coinage is due to its corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, malleability, low allergy risk, ease of stamping, antimicrobial properties and recyclability. In Europe, Switzerland pioneered the nickel billon coinage with the addition of silver. In 1968, Switzerland adopted the far cheaper 75:25 copper to nickel ratio being used in Belgium, the United States, Germany. From 1947 to 2012, all "silver" coinage in the UK was made from cupronickel, but from 2012 onwards the two smallest cupronickel denominations were replaced with lower-cost nickel-plated steel coins. In part due to silver hoarding in the Civil War, the United States Mint first used cupronickel for circulating coinage in three-cent pieces starting in 1865, for five-cent pieces starting in 1866. Prior to these dates, both denominations had been made only in silver in the United States.
Cupronickel is the cladding on either side of United States half-dollars since 1971, all quarters and dimes made after 1964. Some circulating coins, such as the United States Jefferson nickel, the Swiss franc, the South Korean 500 and 100 won are made of solid cupronickel. Single-core thermocouple cables use a single conductor pair of thermocouple conductors such as iron-constantan, copper constantan or nickel-chromium/nickel-aluminium; these have the heating element of constantan or nickel-chromium alloy within a sheath of copper, cupronickel or stainless steel. Cupronickel is used in cryogenic applications, its combination of good ductility retention and thermal conductivity at low temperatures is advantageous for low-temperature processing and storage equipment as well as for heat exchangers at cryogenic plants. Beginning around the turn of the 20th century, bullet jackets were made from this material, it was soon replaced with gilding metal to reduce metal fouling in the bore. Cupronickel and nickel silver remain the basic material for silver-plated cutlery.
It is used for mechanical and electrical equipment, medical equipment, jewelry items, both for strings for instruments in the violin family, for guitar frets. Fender Musical Instruments used "CuNiFe" magnets in their "Wide Range Humbucker" pickup for various Telecaster and Starcaster guitars during the 1970s. For high-quality cylinder locks and locking systems, cylinder cores are made from wear-resistant cupronickel. Cupronickel has been used as an alternative to traditional steel brake lines. Since cupronickel is much softer than steel, it bends and flares easier, the same property allows it to form a better seal with hydraulic components; the loss of the copper color due to nickel's high electronegativity causing copper's d-shell electron loss. Important properties of cupronickel alloys include corrosion resistance, inherent resistance to macrofouling, good tensile strength, excellent ductility when annealed, thermal conductivity and expansion characteristics amenable for heat exchangers and condensers, good thermal conductivity and ductility at cryogenic temperatures and beneficial antimicrobial touch su
The Astra modelo 400 was a Spanish service pistol produced by weapons manufacturer Astra-Unceta y Cia SA. as a replacement for the Campo-Giro 1913/1916, chambered in 9mm Largo. It was the standard issue sidearm in the Spanish Army during the Spanish Civil War and saw service in Germany during World War II; the pistol was mass-produced and many examples still exist today. The Spanish Navy, along with the German Luftwaffe and the Chilean Navy use the smaller variant Astra 300 and the Wehrmacht altered the Astra 400 into the Astra 600 to better handle the 9mm Luger; the 400 was considered heavy as in order to handle the power of the 9mm Largo round in a blowback action the 400 had a reinforced slide and tough spring. The Spanish War Ministry of King Alfonso XIII began tests in 1919 to replace the Campo Giro pistol as the standard military sidearm; the 9mm Largo Astra modelo 400, patented by Pedro Careaga, was selected for the Spanish Army in August 1921, was adopted by other Spanish Armed forces.
Astra pistols were supplied to Republican Spain and to the Basque government which controlled the plant until the Bombing of Guernica in April, 1937. Astra pistols were subsequently produced for Nationalist troops, while Republican forces made 22,000 copies of the pistol in Terrassa and Valencia. Astra production after the civil war was for Nationalist troops except serial numbers 92851 to 98850 for Nazi Germany. Astra continued private production until 1950 though in 1946 the Spanish military adopted the Star Model A as the standard sidearm. Spanish military inventories were sold to civilian wholesalers between 1956 and 1965. A total of around 106,175 pistols were produced; the Astra 400 is heavy compared to many contemporary service pistols of the time like the Tokarev TT-33 but is similar in weight and length to the Colt 1911. The Astra 400 was designed to be safe to fire with a simple blowback action unaided by any breech-locking devices; this is only possible with strong recoil spring. It was fitted with an internal hammer, considered hard to cock.
The pistol featured grooved finger grips and left sided combined slide lock/safety behind the trigger guard. The original design was chambered in 9mm Largo, but variants would be chambered differently so as to better fulfill different military needs. Astra made some experimental variants of the 400 chambered in.30 Luger. 9mm Largo rounds were in short supply outside of Spain. Though several other 9mm cartridges like the 9mm Luger and.380ACP could feed, be fired, eject this was a capability of questionable use where 9mm Largo ammunition was available as chronograph tests show higher muzzle velocities and thus energies with the 9mm Largo than 9mm Luger and.380. The 9×23mm Steyr cartridge is more similar in dimension to the 9mm Largo than both the 9mm Luger and.380 and performs better as well. The Astra 600, a shorter and lighter version of the Astra 400, chambered in 9mm Luger, was developed for export sales to Nazi Germany. A smaller variant for both domestic and export sales, the Astra 300, was offered in.32 ACP and.380 ACP.
By the end of 1947 171,300 were made and were issued to security forces of the Spanish Navy and the German Luftwaffe. Algeria: Astra Models 300 and 400 Chile Finland: Astra Model 300 used by Finnish Civil Guard during World War 2. France Germany Spain