An industry is a sector that produces goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is an indicator of what industry it should be classified in; when a large corporate group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. The manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies; this came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the development of steam power and the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution a third of the economic output came from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries depend on manufacturing industry. Slavery, the practice of utilizing forced labor to produce goods and services, has occurred since antiquity throughout the world as a means of low-cost production.
It produces goods for which profit depends on economies of scale those for which labor was simple and easy to supervise. International law has declared slavery illegal. Guilds, associations of artisans and merchants, oversee the production and distribution of a particular good. Guilds have their roots in the Roman Empire as collegia Membership in these early guilds was voluntary; the Roman collegia did not survive the fall of Rome. In the early middle ages, guilds once again began to emerge in Europe, reaching a degree of maturity by the beginning of the 14th century. While few guilds remain today, some modern labor structures resemble those of traditional guilds. Other guilds, such as the SAG-AFTRA act as trade unions rather than as classical guilds. Professor Sheilagh Ogilvie claims that guilds negatively affected quality and innovation in areas that they were present; the industrial revolution saw the development and popularization of mechanized means of production as a replacement for hand production.
The industrial revolution played a role in the abolition of slavery in North America. In a process dubbed tertiarization, the economic preponderance of primary and secondary industries has declined in recent centuries relative to the rising importance of tertiary industry, resulting in the post-industrial economy. Specialization in industry and in the classification of industry has occurred, thus a record producer might claim to speak on behalf of the Japanese rock industry, the recording industry, the music industry or the entertainment industry - and any formulation will sound grandiose and weighty. The Industrial Revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production with consequent changes in society; the factories were steam-powered, but transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process; this led to significant increases in efficiency.
Automation was used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the robot. Certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society; this is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturers relocate to more profitable locations through a process of off-shoring. Measurements of manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect are not stable. Traditionally, success has been measured in the number of jobs created; the reduced number of employees in the manufacturing sector has been assumed to result from a decline in the competitiveness of the sector, or the introduction of the lean manufacturing process.
Related to this change is the upgrading of the quality of the product being manufactured. While it is possible to produce a low-technology product with low-skill labour, the ability to manufacture high-technology products well is dependent on a skilled staff. An industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Today, industry is an important part of nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution and industrial labour. In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population; this occurs in the manufacturing sector. A labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages and other working conditions; the trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers.
This movement first rose among industrial workers. The Industrial Revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War and the American Civil War, but its full pot
"Der Kommissar" is a song first recorded by Falco in Austria in 1981, covered a year by After the Fire. Written by Robert Ponger and Falco, the Falco version reached the top of the charts in many countries. After the Fire's version featured English lyrics by the band's Andy Piercy; the song peaked at No. 5 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts. "Der Kommissar" was written by producer Robert Ponger for Reinhold Bilgeri. Bilgeri rejected it, as he felt the song was too soft, so Falco reworked the song for himself instead. Falco wanted to release "Helden von heute" as the main side, but the record company wanted "Der Kommissar" to be released, because they felt it had more potential; the record company decided upon a double A-side release and was vindicated when "Der Kommissar" reached No. 1 in German-speaking countries in January 1982. After this success, Falco's management decided to release "Der Kommissar" in other countries as well. In the United States and the United Kingdom, Falco's version did not perform as well, despite topping charts throughout Europe and Scandinavia in early 1982.
In mid-1982, the British rock band After the Fire recorded an English version called "Der Kommissar", released it as a single, but the record floundered. Coming off a tour opening for Van Halen, After the Fire was working on material for a new album when in December 1982 the group announced onstage during a concert that they were disbanding. Both the After the Fire and Falco versions were rising on the Canadian charts at the time, but neither had cracked the US pop charts. Around that time, American pop singer Laura Branigan began working on her second album, she recorded "Deep in the Dark", a new song written over the melody and arrangement of "Der Kommissar", prepared for release; the After the Fire version hit the US charts on 22 February 1983, started rising. Though its version nicked their home country's Top 50, in 1983 the song's music video received extensive airplay on MTV propelling its popularity on US radio; the song entered the American Top 40 on 5 March 1983. 5, remained in the Top 40 for a total of 14 weeks.
The single was released under the Epic label, with a catalog number of 03559. Amidst all this renewed attention to the composition, Falco's own version, which had done well in some US markets but not charted nationally, was re-released, but the German-language record remained a novelty hit there, charting concurrently with the After the Fire version but not rising above No. 78. In Canada, Falco's version had peaked at No. 11 the same late-January week that After the Fire's version peaked at No. 12. After the Fire's record company, CBS, to no avail. While UK promos for "Deep in the Dark" were pressed, Branigan's record company, Atlantic released "Solitaire" in the U. S. where that song went to No. 7. "Der Kommissar" / "Helden von heute" is a double-A-side single by Falco released in Austria and Germany in December 1981. "Der Kommissar" reached the top of the charts in many countries. The song recorded for other side of the record, the pop-rock "Helden von heute", is a tribute to David Bowie's "Heroes".
It was recorded in Germany. In the official music video for Falco's German language version of "Der Kommissar", Falco is shown in front of a blue screen while stock footage of police cars driving the streets at night play behind him. Falco runs in place. Another music video for the Falco single released in Europe exists."Der Kommissar" only reached No. 74 in the US Cash Box Charts in 1983 and did not chart in the UK, but Falco would break through with major hits in those countries two albums with "Rock Me Amadeus" and "Vienna Calling" in 1986. Updated remixes of "Der Kommissar" were released by Falco in 1991, 1998, posthumously in 2008. After the Fire recorded a 1982 English-language version of "Der Kommissar" which peaked at No. 5 in the U. S. Pink Project sampled the guitar riff and chorus, mixed it with their electronic version of "Da Da Da" and launched it as "Der Kommissar" in 1982. Laura Branigan's "Deep in the Dark" from Branigan 2 is a 1983 English-language song written over the melody and hooks of Falco and Ponger's "Der Kommissar" Dale Bozzio, the lead singer of Missing Persons, recorded "Der Kommissar" in 2007 for her solo project.
John Garrett Underhill Jr. known as Garrett Underhill and Gary Underhill, was Captain General Staff G2 World War II and received the Army Commendation Medal for meritorious service. He was a Harvard graduate and self-taught military affairs expert. For five years he was a military correspondent for Life magazine and helped to make their Foreign News Department one of the most knowledgeable centers of military intelligence in the world. John Garrett Underhill Jr. was born the son of John Garrett Underhill Sr. and Louisa Man Wingate, on August 7, 1915. His mother Louisa Man Wingate was the daughter of General George Wood Wingate, who played a role in forming the National Rifle Association, his mother died in 1927. Underhill went on to study and graduate from Harvard College in 1937. In 1940 it was announced that Underhill was to wed Miss Patricia Semple Dunkerson, a graduate of Vassar College, they were married on June 12 that year at St. Bartholomew's Protestant Episcopal Church. Underhill served as a Technical Editor and Chief Editor of the War Department's Military Intelligence Division between July 6, 1943 and May 1946.
He was an expert in photography, enemy weapons, related technical specialities. His role was recognized in a publication of the Memorial Church of All Angels in Twilight Park, Haines Falls, New York. "Report on the Red Army" was a lengthy report written by John Garrett Underhill Jr. under the pseudonym Garrett Underhill. The report was published on October 16, 1949. In the report it was noted how Garrett Underhill was a writer and editor, served for 3 1/2 years on the War Department General Staff, it noted how he "is owner of a large private collection of Soviet small arms, acquired during a fifteen-year interest in foreign armaments."From late 1949 to the mid-1950s Underhill was an infrequent contact with the office of the Domestic Contact Service of the CIA. In 1951 he wrote a 6500 word essay with Ronald Schiller entitled The Tragedy of the US Army for Look magazine, published February 13, 1951. After writing the article the Harvard Alumni Bulletin printed Underhill's own words of how he "Got recalled to brown suit service just after finishing a 6500 word article".
Following World War II, Underhill volunteered and served as Deputy Director for the Civil Defense of Washington, D. C. An exercise meant to simulate an evacuation in the event of a hydrogen bomb attack called "Operation Alert" was carried out in 1955. Underhill was outspoken in his criticism of the exercise, stating in the press it was not a "drill but a show". During the exercise he declined heading to the command post for the exercise claiming, it was "so inadequate it couldn't cope with a brushfire threatening a doghouse in a backyard." Samuel Spencer, one of the commissioners who govern the District of Columbia, upon hearing Underhill's criticism ordered his dismissal just as "Operation Alert" began. Underhill took an active interest in family organizations. One letter from November 1950 expressed his interest in "the revival of the three Underhill organizations." He would have ample opportunity to play a hand in that revival between 1954 and 1956 when he served as President of the Underhill Society of America.
Underhill served as a military affairs editor at Life magazine for five years and as a CIA Informant. Jim Garrison, District Attorney from Louisiana conducted an investigation into the assassination of Kennedy. In an interview that Garrison gave for Playboy magazine, he referred to a CIA agent with valuable information pertaining to his investigation; the name of Gary Underhill was used interchangeably in sources with John Garrett Underhill. A Memorandum from the CIA to the Justice Department in 1967 referred to the interview and John Garrett Underhill Jr. in some detail: 15. Who is the J. Garrett UNDERHILL referred to in Garrison's Playboy interview as a former CIA agent? UNDERHILL was born 7 August 1915 in Brooklyn, was graduated from Harvard in 1937, committed suicide on 8 May 1964, he served with the Military Intelligence Service from 6 July 1943 to May 1946 as an expert in photography, enemy weapons, related technical specialities. He was in infrequent contact with the New York office of the Domestic Contact Service, of CIA from late 1949 to the mid-'50s.
The contact was routine. Mr. UNDERHILL was not an employee of CIA. CIA agent Gary Underhill, again, a name used interchangeably with John Garrett Underhill Jr. was said to have a connection with Harold Isaacs who in turn knew Oswald's cousin Marilyn Murret. Prior to Garrison being able to meet and interview Underhill, he was found in bed with a bullet wound behind his left ear on May 8, 1964. Sources differ on whether the cause of his death was suicide or if people or groups had motivations to see him removed because he had secret information that he threatened to divulge, his Death Certificate from the District of Columbia Department of Public Health listed the cause of death as "shot self in head with automatic pistol."He died on May 8, 1964, at his home on 3035 M St, NW in Washington, D. C. Surviving him were his wife Patricia D. Underhill, one son John Garrett Underhill III, a sister Mrs. Ernest Eltinge of Warwick, New York. After his death he was buried in the Underhill Burying Ground in New York.
His wife Patricia D. Underhill died on December 15, 1973. A memorial service was held in her memory at Christ Church, Washington, D. C. John Garrett Underhill III lived at 10220 Memorial Dr. in Texas. An obituary for him ran in the March 22, 1987 issue of the Houston Chronicle, Section 2, Page 15