Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, in mining. Irrigation is studied together with drainage, the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States. Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture.
The earliest known use of the technology dates to the 6th millennium BCE in Khuzistan in the south-west of present-day Iran. Irrigation was used as a means of manipulation of water in the alluvial plains of the Indus valley civilization, the application of it is estimated to have begun around 4500 BC and drastically increased the size and prosperity of their agricultural settlements; the Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, an early canal irrigation system from c. 2600 BCE. Large-scale agriculture was practiced, with an extensive network of canals used for the purpose of irrigation. Farmers in the Mesopotamian plain used irrigation from at least the third millennium BCE, they developed perennial irrigation watering crops throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field. Ancient Egyptians practiced basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots, surrounded by dykes.
The flood water remained until the fertile sediment had settled before the engineers returned the surplus to the watercourse. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during dry seasons; the lake swelled annually from the flooding of the Nile. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennia BCE, it depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting. Evidence of terrace irrigation occurs in pre-Columbian America, early Syria and China. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists have found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon-dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
These canals provide the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th-millennium canal. Ancient Persia used irrigation as far back as the 6th millennium BCE to grow barley in areas with insufficient natural rainfall; the Qanats, developed in ancient Persia about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in the Middle East and North Africa; the system comprises a network of vertical wells and sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and of steep hills to tap groundwater. The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream, first came into use at about this time among Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water; the irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE in the reign of King Pandukabhaya, under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world.
In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build artificial reservoirs to store water. These reservoirs and canal systems were used to irrigate paddy fields, which require a lot of water to cultivate. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering; the system was further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu. The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water. By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese used chain pumps which lifted water from a lower elevation to a higher one.
These were powered by manual foot-pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. The water was used for public works, providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, bu
Timeline of human prehistory
This timeline of human prehistory comprises the time from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa 300,000 years ago to the invention of writing and the beginning of historiography, after 5,000 years ago. It thus covers the time from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginnings of the world history. All dates are approximate subject to revision based on new analyses. See Timeline of human evolution, Timeline of natural history for earlier evolutionary history.315,000 years ago: approximate date of appearance of Homo sapiens. 270,000 years ago: age of Y-DNA haplogroup A00. 250,000 years ago: first appearance of Homo neanderthalensis 250,000–200,000 years ago: modern human presence in West Asia 230,000–150,000 years ago: age of mt-DNA haplogroup L 195,000 years ago: Omo remains. 170,000 years ago: humans are wearing clothing by this date. 160,000 years ago: Homo sapiens idaltu 150,000 years ago: Peopling of Africa: Khoisanid separation, age of mtDNA haplogroup L0 125,000 years ago: peak of the Eemian interglacial period.
120,000–90,000 years ago: Abbassia Pluvial in North Africa—the Sahara desert region is wet and fertile. 120,000–75,000 years ago: Khoisanid back-migration from Southern Africa to East Africa. 100,000 years ago: Earliest structures in the world built in Egypt close to Wadi Halfa near the modern border with Sudan. 82,000 years ago: small perforated seashell beads from Taforalt in Morocco are the earliest evidence of personal adornment found anywhere in the world. 80,000–70,000 years ago: Recent African origin: separation of sub-Saharan Africans and non-Africans. 75,000 years ago: Toba Volcano supereruption that may have contributed to human populations being lowered to about 15,000 people. 70,000 years ago: earliest example of abstract art or symbolic art from Blombos Cave, South Africa—stones engraved with grid or cross-hatch patterns. "Epipaleolithic" or "Mesolithic" are terms for a transitional period between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic Revolution in Old World cultures. 67,000–40,000 years ago: Neanderthal admixture to Eurasians 50,000 years ago: earliest sewing needle found.
Made and used by Denisovans. 50,000–30,000 years ago: Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa. The Sahara desert region is fertile. Stone Age begins in Africa. 45,000–43,000 years ago: European early modern humans. 45,000–40,000 years ago: Châtelperronian culture in France. 42,000 years ago: Paleolithic flutes in Germany. 42,000 years ago: earliest evidence of advanced deep sea fishing technology at the Jerimalai cave site in East Timor—demonstrates high-level maritime skills and by implication the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands, as they were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea fish such as tuna. 41,000 years ago: Denisova hominin lives in the Altai Mountains. 40,000 years ago: extinction of Homo neanderthalensis. 40,000 years ago: Aurignacian culture begins in Europe. 40,000 years ago: oldest known figurative art the zoomorphic Löwenmensch figurine. 40,000–30,000 years ago: First human settlement in Sydney and Melbourne. 40,000–20,000 years ago: oldest known ritual cremation, the Mungo Lady, in Lake Mungo, Australia.
35,000 years ago: oldest known figurative art of a human figure as opposed to a zoomorphic figure. 33,000 years ago: oldest known domesticated dog skulls show they existed in both Europe and Siberia by this time. 31,000–16,000 years ago: Last Glacial Maximum. 30,000 years ago: rock paintings tradition begins in Bhimbetka rock shelters in India, which presently as a collection is the densest known concentration of rock art. In an area about 10 km2, there are about 800 rock shelters of. 29,000 years ago: The earliest ovens found. 28,500 years ago: New Guinea is populated by colonists from Australia. 28,000 years ago: oldest known twisted rope. 28,000–24,000 years ago: oldest known pottery—used to make figurines rather than cooking or storage vessels. 28,000–20,000 years ago: Gravettian period in Europe. Harpoons and saws invented. 26,000 years ago: people around the world use fibers to make baby carriers, bags and nets. 25,000 years ago: a hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolní Věstonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic.
This is the oldest human permanent settlement. 21,000 years ago: artifacts suggests early human activity occurred in Canberra, the capital city of Australia. 20,000 years ago: Kebaran culture in the Levant: beginning of the Epipalaeolithic in the Levant 20,000 years ago: oldest pottery storage/cooking vessels from China. 20,000–10,000 years ago: Khoisanid expansion to Central Africa. 20,000 -- 19,000 years ago: earliest pottery use, in China. 16,000–14,000 years ago: Minatogawa Man in Okinawa, Japan 16,000–13,000 years ago: first human migration into North America. 16,000–11,000 years ago: Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer expansion to Europe. 16,000 years ago: Wisent sculpted in clay deep inside the cave now known as Le Tuc d'Audoubert in the French Pyrenees near what is now the border of Spain. 15,000–14,700 years ago: Earliest supposed date for the domestication of the pig. 14,800 years ago: The Humid Period begins in North Africa. The region that would become the Sahara is wet and fertile, the aquifers are full.
14,500–11,500: Red Deer Cave people in China, possible late survival of archaic or archaic-modern hybrid hum
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane, cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping is therefore called terracing. Graduated terrace steps are used to farm on hilly or mountainous terrain. Terraced fields decrease both erosion and surface runoff, may be used to support growing crops that require irrigation, such as rice; the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras have been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of the significance of this technique. Terraced paddy fields are used in rice and barley farming in east and southeast Asia, as well as the Mediterranean and South America. Drier-climate terrace farming is common throughout the Mediterranean Basin, where they are used for vineyards, olive trees, cork oak, etc. In the South American Andes, farmers have used terraces, known as andenes, for over a thousand years to farm potatoes and other native crops.
Terraced farming was developed by the Wari culture and other peoples of the south-central Andes before 1000 AD, centuries before they were used by the Inca, who adopted them. The terraces were built to make the most efficient use of shallow soil and to enable irrigation of crops by allowing runoff to occur through the outlet; the Inca built on these, developing a system of canals and puquios to direct water through dry land and increase fertility levels and growth. These terraced farms are found, they provided the food necessary to support the populations of great Inca cities and religious centres such as Machu Picchu. Terracing is used for sloping terrain. At the seaside Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the villa gardens of Julius Caesar's father-in-law were designed in terraces to give pleasant and varied views of the Bay of Naples. Terraced fields are common in islands with steep slopes; the Canary Islands present a complex system of terraces covering the landscape from the coastal irrigated plantations to the dry fields in the highlands.
These terraces, which are named cadenas, are built with stone walls of skillful design, which include attached stairs and channels. In Old English, a terrace was called a "lynch". An example of an ancient Lynch Mill is in Lyme Regis; the water is directed from a river by a duct along a terrace. This set-up was used in steep hilly areas in the UK. In Japan, some of the 100 Selected Terraced Rice Fields, from Iwate in the north to Kagoshima in the south, are disappearing, but volunteers are helping the farmers both to maintain their traditional methods and for sightseeing purposes. Anden Banaue Rice Terraces Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras Satoyama Terrace garden Terrace Fields around the World
A sickle, bagging hook or reaping-hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay. Falx was a synonym but was used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade, sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. Since the beginning of the Iron Age hundreds of region-specific variants of the sickle have evolved of iron and steel; this great diversity of sickle types across many cultures can be divided into smooth or serrated blades, both of which can be used for cutting either green grass or mature cereals using different techniques. The serrated blade that originated in prehistoric sickles still dominates in the reaping of grain and is found in modern grain-harvesting machines and in some kitchen knives; the development of the sickle in Mesopotamia can be traced back to times that pre-date the Neolithic Era. Large quantities of sickle blades have been excavated in sites surrounding Israel that have been dated to the Epipaleolithic era.
Formal digs in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan have unearthed various forms of early sickle blades. The artifacts possessed a jagged edge; this intricate ‘tooth-like’ design showed a greater degree of design and manufacturing credence than most of the other artifacts that were discovered. Sickle blades found during this time were made of flint and used in more of a sawing motion than with the more modern curved design. Flints from these sickles have been discovered near Mt. Carmel, which suggest the harvesting of grains from the area about 10,000 years ago; the sickle had a profound impact on the Agricultural Revolution by assisting in the transition to farming and crop based lifestyle. It is now accepted that the use of sickles led directly to the domestication of Near Eastern Wild grasses. Research on domestication rates of wild cereals under primitive cultivation found that the use of the sickle in harvesting was critical to the people of early Mesopotamia; the narrow growing season in the area and the critical role of grain in the late Neolithic Era promoted a larger investment in the design and manufacture of sickle over other tools.
Standardization to an extent was done on the measurements of the sickle so that replacement or repair could be more immediate. It was important that the grain be harvested at the appropriate time at one elevation so that the next elevation could be reaped at the proper time; the sickle provided a more efficient option in collecting the grain and sped up the developments of early agriculture. The sickle remained common both in the Ancient Near East and in Europe. Numerous sickles have been found deposited in hoards in the context of the European Urnfield culture, suggesting a symbolic or religious significance attached to the artifact. In archaeological terminology, Bronze Age sickles are classified by the method of attaching the handle. E.g. the knob-sickle is so called because of a protruding knob at the base of the blade which served to stabilize the attachment of the blade to the handle. The sickle played a prominent role in the Druids' Ritual of oak and mistletoe as described from a single passage in Pliny the Elder's Natural History: Due to this passage, despite the fact that Pliny does not indicate the source on which he based this account, some branches of modern Druidry have adopted the sickle as a ritual tool.
The sickle has been discovered in southwest North America with a unique structure. These sickles are said to have originated from the Far East. There is evidence that Kodiak islanders had for cutting grass “sickles made of a sharpened animal shoulder blade”; the artifacts found in present-day Arizona and New Mexico resemble curved tools that were made from the horns of mountain sheep. A similar site discovered sickles made from other material such as the Caddo Sickle, made from a deer mandible. Scripture from early natives document the use of these sickles in the cutting of grass; the instruments ranged from 13 to 16 inches tip to tip. Several other digs in eastern Arizona uncovered wooden sickles that were shaped in a similar fashion; the handles of the tools help describe how the tool was held in such a way so that the inner portion that contained the cutting surface could serve as a gathering surface for the grain. Sickles were sharpened by scraping a shape beveled edge with a coarse tool; this action has left marks on artifacts.
The sharpening process was necessary to keep the cutting edge from being dulled after extended use. The edge is seen to be quite polished, which in part proves that the instrument was used to cut grass. After collection, the grass was used as material to create bedding; the sickle in general provided the convenience of cutting the grass as well as gathering in one step. In South America, the sickle is used as a tool to harvest rice. Rice clusters are left to dry in the sun; the genealogy of sickles with serrated edge reaches back to the Stone Age, when individual pieces of flint were first attached to a “blade body” of wood or bone. Teeth have been cut with hand-held chisels into iron, steel-bladed sickles for a long time. In many countries on the African continent and South America as well as the Near and Far East this is still the case in the regions within these large geographies where the traditional village blacksmith remains alive and well. En
Debitage is all the material produced during the process of lithic reduction and the production of chipped stone tools. This assemblage includes, but is not limited to, different kinds of lithic flakes and lithic blades and production debris, production rejects. Debitage analysis, a sub-field of lithic analysis, considers the entire lithic waste assemblage; the analysis is undertaken by investigating differing patterns of debris morphology and shape, among other things. This allows researchers to make more accurate assumptions regarding the purpose of the lithic reduction. Quarrying activities, core reduction, biface creation, tool manufacture, retooling are believed to leave different debitage assemblages. Lithic manufacture from a quarried source, or from found cobbles leave different signatures; some claim. Others feel it is possible to estimate the work-hours represented, or the skill of the workers based on the nature of the debitage. Debitage analysis of biface reduction can be used to determine what stage of reduction is represented in waste.
Stahle and Dunn found that, as waste flake size decrease from initial to final stages in biface production, systematic changes in flake size can be used to identify stages of reduction in anonymous debitage samples through comparison with experimental assemblages. Use of Weibull distributions and least square analysis helped Stahle and Dunn confirm that this method can be used backward to estimate reduction stages of particular debitage frequencies. Other studies comparing the debitage of bifacial reduction during different stages has not yielded such positive results. Patterson was unable to distinguish between the stages of initial edging and secondary thinning using statistical analysis of 14 experimental assemblages; the typological approach groups together lithics with similar manufacturing histories in order to emphasize patterns of manufacturing behavior. To use Sheets’ example and prismatic blades were separated on the basis of their manufacture, in that the former was removed by percussion, while the latter was removed by a pressure technique.
Casual, informal tools from unstandardized cores should be given scrutiny equal to that of formal tools from standardized core reduction. The presence of cortex needs to be noted for all tool categories in all materials; the presence of cortex indicates the importation of an unworked nodule, with the first flakes both preparing the core by shaping and removing the roughened exterior of the cortex. The percentage frequency of cortex is an important statistic to help identify lithic production areas. A low incidence of cortex would indicate quarry preforming. One specific type of debitage analysis is mass analysis. Mass analysis is based on analyzing debitage populations based on their size distribution across specified size grades. Ahler conducted an experimental replication under some technological settings and classified debitage into five groups according to their size, Discriminant analysis was applied to compare mass analysis data sets for these five experimental data groups, he compared the counts and weights of experimental samples with debris from two prehistoric workshop sites in western North Dakota.
The result shows the experimental data sets can explain the technological composition of archaeological samples. Samples from several other sites are applied this method and derive clear discriminant results. In a specific function site, such as Legacy site a Late Woodland age camp in the Missouri breaks, associated with bison kill/butchering, the low frequency of cortex and a specific flake ratio data indicate that a soft hammer small flake tool production, similar with experiment result. Although this process has been used in many studies, Andrefsky warns of the potential problems associated with the many assumptions made while employing this analysis. One in particular that he draws attention to is the possibility of differences in debitage populations based on individual variation of the artifact maker; these differences indicate that individual variation can be influential in the size distribution of debitage and should be kept in mind if mass analysis is being employed. The reason for which Andrefsky believes mass analysis have become so popular is due to the process's ease of use and speed.
Andrefsky quotes Ahler that between individual specimen analysis and mass analysis, mass analysis has the advantage because of four reasons: 1) biases are eliminated because mass analysis looks at the entire assemblage. 2) Because mass analysis doesn't require looking at each artifact, it is rapid and efficient. 3) debitage biases based on the sample's size are reduced since it captures different specimen sizes. 4) the method is objective and can be trained by anyone. In addition, various attributes can be used for statistical and numerical methods which are used for debitage analysis; the attributes divides in the two ways and non-metric. In the metric attributes, mid width, max width, platform length, platform width, bulb thickness, other point of thickness, platform angle and weight are included, and for the non-metric attributes, platform configuration, platform facet count, % dorsal cortex, dorsal scar count, remained portion, size grade can be chosen. Bradbury and Carr point to the continuum model to analy