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Industry classification

Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy that organizes companies into industrial groupings based on similar production processes, similar products, or similar behavior in financial markets. Many are used by international statistical agencies to summarize economic conditions, they are used by securities analysts to understand common forces acting on groups of companies, to compare companies' performance to their peers', to construct either specialized or diversified portfolios. Industries can be classified in a variety of ways. At the top level, industry is classified according to the three-sector theory into sectors: primary and tertiary; some authors add quaternary or quinary sectors. Over time, the fraction of a society's industry within each sector changes. Below the economic sectors are more detailed classifications, they divide industries according to similar functions and markets and identify businesses producing related products. Industries can be identified by product, such as: construction industry, chemical industry, petroleum industry, automotive industry, electronic industry, power engineering and power manufacturing, meatpacking industry, hospitality industry, food industry, fish industry, software industry, paper industry, entertainment industry, semiconductor industry, cultural industry, poverty industry.

Market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used in finance and market research. A wide variety of taxonomies is in use, sponsored by different organizations and based on different criteria. 1The NAICS Index File lists 19745 rubrics beyond the 6 digits. Besides the used taxonomies above, there are more specialized proprietary systems: First Research taxonomy, used by Hoover's WAND, Inc.'s Product and Service Taxonomy Zacks Sustainable Industry Classification System 12/38/77 Economic sector Product classification Michael E. Porter. Competitive Strategy. Free Press, New York. ISBN 978-0743260886. Michael E. Porter. Competitive Advantage. Free Press, New York. ISBN 978-0743260879. Bernard Guibert, Jean Laganier, Michel Volle, "An Essay on Industrial Classifications", Économie et statistique 20 full text


Mohanamico is an extinct genus of New World monkeys from the Middle Miocene. Its remains have been found at the Konzentrat-Lagerstätte of La Venta in the Honda Group of Colombia; the type species is M. hershkovitzi. Due to the few material found of Mohanamico, the placement of the genus is not certain and three possible families have been proposed by different authors, Pitheciidae or Aotidae. Mohanimico hershkovitzi is named after the river god Mohan of the Magdalena River, in which valley the fossils were found and to honor Philip Hershkovitz for his contributions to the study of Colombian and other South American primates. Fossils of Mohanamico were discovered in the "Monkey Beds" of the Honda Group, dated to the Laventan, about 12.5 Ma. Mohanamico was about the size· of the living squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, its molars are low-crowned and the molar crests are not pronounced suggesting a frugivorous diet like Aotus. The lateral incisor is high-crowned, which foreshadows living Pitheciidae.

The canines and Pz were sharp like Callimico. Analysis of the mandible and teeth suggest that Mohanamico] is a primitive member of the Pitheciidae; some similarities with Callimico and Saguinus are noted raising the possibility that pithecines and callitrichids are monophyletic. The estimated weight of Mohanamico was 1,000 grams, similar in size to Aotus dindensis found in the same location; the Argentinian genus Homunculus had smaller molars than Mohanamico. Some authors place Mohanamico in the Callitrichidae related to the Callimico clade, based on its taller incisors and canines, large p2, broader and longer trigonid in proportion to the talonid. Other authors dispute this and consider the genus more a Pitheciidae, or an Aotidae. If placed within the Pitheciidae, the primate would be at the base of the evolutionary radiation because of the large incisors and the structure of its canines and premolars; the Honda Group, more the "Monkey Beds", are the richest site for fossil primates in South America.

It has been argued that the monkeys of the Honda Group were living in habitat, in contact with the Amazon and Orinoco Basins, that La Venta itself was seasonally dry forest. From the same level as where Mohanamico has been found fossils of Cebupithecia, Saimiri annectens, Saimiri fieldsi and Stirtonia have been uncovered. From the same location, a fossil specimen of the fish tambaqui was recovered. List of primates of Colombia Canaanimico Lagonimico Patasola Defler, Thomas. 2004. Historia natural de los primates colombianos, 1–613. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Accessed 2017-09-24. Gebo, Daniel L.. 1990. New platyrrhine tali from Colombia. Journal of Human Evolution 19. 737–746. Accessed 2017-09-24. Luchterhand, Kubet. 1986. Mohanamico hershkovitzi, gen. et sp. nov. un primate du Miocene moyen d' Amerique du Sud. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences 303. 1753–1758. Accessed 2017-09-24. Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W.. 2015. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82.

518–529. Accessed 2017-09-24. Rosenberger, Alfred L. and Walter Carl Hartwig. 2001. New World Monkeys. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences _. 1–4. Accessed 2017-09-24. Setoguchi, Takeshi. Primate fauna from the Miocene La Venta, in the Tatacoa Desert, Department of Huila, Colombia. Caldasia XV. 761–773. Accessed 2017-09-24. Silvestro, Daniele. 2017. Evolutionary history of New World monkeys revealed by fossil data. BioRxiv _. 1–32. Accessed 2017-09-24. Takai, Masanaru. 2001. A New Platyrrhine from the Middle Miocene of La Venta and the Phyletic Position of Callicebinae. Anthropological Science, Tokyo 109.4. 289–307. Accessed 2017-09-24. Tejedor, Marcelo F. 2013. Sistemática, evolución y paleobiogeografía de los primates Platyrrhini. Revista del Museo de La Plata 20. 20–39. Accessed 2017-09-24. Wheeler, Brandon. 2010. Community ecology of the Middle Miocene primates of La Venta, Colombia: the relationship between ecological diversity, divergence time, phylogenetic richness. Primates 51.2. 131–138. Accessed 2017-09-24. Croft, Darin A. 2016.

Horned Armadillos and Rafting Monkeys: The Fascinating Fossil Mammals of South America, 1–320. Indiana University Press ISBN 9780253020949. Accessed 2017-10-21. Fleagle, John G. and Alfred L. Rosenberger. 2013. The Platyrrhine Fossil Record, 1–256. Elsevier ISBN 9781483267074. Accessed 2017-10-21. Hartwig, W. C. and D. J. Meldrum. 2002. The Primate Fossil Record - Miocene platyrrhines of the northern Neotropics, 175–188. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-08141-2. Accessed 2017-09-24


Sisu is a Finnish concept described as stoic determination, tenacity of purpose, bravery and hardiness and is held by Finns themselves to express their national character. It is considered not to have a literal equivalent in English. Sisu is a grim, white-knuckle form of courage, presented in situations where success is against the odds, it expresses itself in taking action against the odds and displaying courage and resoluteness in the face of adversity, in other words, deciding on a course of action and sticking to that decision despite repeated failures. It is in some ways similar with the addition of a grim kind of stress management. "Gutsy" is a close translation that uses the same metaphor, as the word derives from sisus, which means "interior" and "entrails, guts". A concept related to sisu is grit, which shares some of its denoting elements with sisu, save for "stress management" and passion for a long-term goal. Sisu may have an element of passion but it is not always present, unlike in the case of grit as defined by Dr. Angela Duckworth.

Sisu is a term which dates back hundreds of years and is described as being integral to understanding Finnish culture. It is a term for going beyond one's mental or physical capacity, is a central part of the country's culture and collective discourse. However, hardly any empirical research has been done to explore the meaning of this construct as a possible psychological strength resource, it has long seemed to have a somewhat elusive nature, it has been studied as a cultural component among Finns and Finnish Americans, but as a psychological construct has remained under-researched and poorly defined. As early as the 1940s, attempts were made to grasp the essence of sisu; the Finnish newspaper Uusi Suomi reached out to its audience for their definition of sisu, conducted a contest. Uusi-Suomi wrote: "All of us somewhat know what sisu is... has for long been a topic for discussion here in Finland and abroad. But how do we describe and define what sisu is?". The quest for putting the essence of sisu into a definitive form has evidently been around for a century.

More William R. Aho, professor emeritus of sociology at Rhodes College, raised questions about sisu, stated that "we need a good deal of organized, systematic scientific research to discover the scope and depth of sisu and situationally, the depth and strength of both the beliefs and behaviors surrounding and emanating from sisu."A study aimed to fill in that gap, offer a more precise language for discussing the term. While examining sisu within the psychological framework, it sought to render it less elusive as a construct by giving it an citable definition rooted within the field of positive psychology. Sisu as a psychological power potential was introduced for the first time in the 3rd World Congress on Positive Psychology in Los Angeles on 29 June 2013. In the study, sisu is described as a psychological key competence which enables extraordinary action to overcome a mentally or physically challenging situation. Sisu contributes to what has been named the action mindset. A related on-line survey tracked the cultural representations of sisu among contemporary Finns and revealed that sisu is still valued, that there is public interest for cultivating this strength capacity as well.

All in all, the study received 1,060 responses. Among the main findings was the perception of sisu as a reserve of power, which enables extraordinary action to overcome mentally or physically challenging situations. To elaborate on the function of sisu: it is a powerful psychological potential which enables the individual to tap into mental strength beyond their pre-conceived resources. Wielding sisu in the face of adversity helps individuals push through what first seemed like the boundaries of their mental or physical capacities. Furthermore, sisu is an action mindset which equips the individual to choose to take on challenges beyond their observed capacities, it provides the final empowering push. Sisu can be conceptualized as taking action against the odds. Additionally though 53% of the respondents believed some people innately have more sisu, a majority of 83% of the respondents believed that sisu is a flexible quality which can be cultivated through conscious practice, the majority of respondents were interested in developing this capacity.

Sisu is not always an positive quality. In Finnish, pahansisuinen translated means one possessing bad sisu, a description of a hostile and malignant person. Furthermore, the answers from the sisu survey indicate that there can be too much sisu, according to the survey answers this leads to bull-headedness, self-centeredness and inflexible thinking; the study suggests that sisu should be informed by cultivated with self-compassion. Like any trait or psychological capacity, sisu is the complex product of genetic, psychological and social factors, its comprehensive understanding will require studies from multiple scientific perspectives. Finland may have the initial monopoly on sisu as a cultural construct, but it is a universal capacity and the potential for it exists within all individuals; the transformative power of narrative is acknowledged Through the process of social transfer of narratives, values become embedded

The Ghoul (2016 film)

The Ghoul is a 2016 British thriller film written, directed and co-produced by Gareth Tunley and starring Tom Meeten. The film was released on October 14, 2016, at the London Film Festival and received good reviews from critics. A detective decides to go undercover to investigate a psychotherapist who, he thinks, is responsible for a murder. Tom Meeten as Chris Alice Lowe as Kathleen Rufus Jones as Coulson Niamh Cusack as Fisher Geoffrey McGivern as Morland On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, The Ghoul has an approval rating of 77% based on 22 reviews. Stephen Dalton from The Hollywood Reporter gave it a good review, writing: "A British micro-budget nerve-jangler that keeps viewers guessing to the final frame, The Ghoul is a noir-flavored mood piece with grand ambitions beyond its minimal means." Peter Bradshaw writing for The Guardian gave the film 2 out of 5 stars, stating: "Initially interesting but heartsinkingly pointless, this brooding Brit indie takes us on a journey to nowhere." Catherine Bray from the Variety liked the film and said: "“The Ghoul” isn’t the midnight horror romp its title may suggest and as such might disappoint a crowd with an appetite for shock and gore — it needs to be positioned subtly by distributors and festival programmers who may wish to lean more on the apt Lynch comparisons from early reactions.

Its twisty-turny psychological gymnastics should satisfy fans of oblique, “Lost Highway”-style material more than full-on horror-heads." The Ghoul was nominated for the 71st British Academy Film Awards in the category of Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Director or Producer. However, it lost to I Am Not a Witch; the film was nominated for a "Discovery Award" at the 2016 British Independent Film Awards, but lost to The Greasy Strangler. The Ghoul on IMDb The Ghoul at Rotten Tomatoes

Chor Minar

Chor Minar or'Tower of Thieves' is a 13th-century minaret with 225 holes, situated just off Aurobindo Marg in the Hauz Khas area, in New Delhi. It was built under the rule of the Khalji dynasty in the thirteenth century. According to local legends, it was a'tower of beheading', where the severed heads of thieves were displayed on spear through its 225 holes, to act as a deterrent to thieves, though some historian suggest that the Khalji king slaughtered a settlement of Mongol people, nearby, to stop them from joining with their brethren in another Mongol settlement in Delhi, the present day locality of'Mongolpuri'. During the raid of Ali Beg and Targhi, 8,000 Mongol prisoners were executed and their heads displayed is the towers around Siri Image of Chor Minar

Shlomo Zalman Shragai

Shlomo Zalman Shragai was an Israeli politician and Jerusalem's first elected mayor. Shragai was born into a Polish Orthodox Jewish family in Gorzkowice in 1899, he became active in the religious Zionist movement and settled in Palestine in 1924 playing an important political role before Israel's founding in 1948. In 1950, Shragai was elected mayor of a position he held for two years, he became the head of immigration of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. This was a time of extensive immigration to Israel from Muslim countries, so he went on clandestine trips to these countries to obtain the release of the Jews living there, he served as honorary world president of Hapoel HaMizrachi movement. "Shlomo Zalman Schragai, Former Jerusalem Mayor, 96" in New York Times, September 4, 1995. Retrieved October 15, 2006