Camel case is the practice of writing phrases such that each word or abbreviation in the middle of the phrase begins with a capital letter, with no intervening spaces or punctuation. Common examples include "iPhone" and "eBay", it is sometimes used in online usernames such as "johnSmith", to make multi-word domain names more legible, for example in advertisements. Camel case is used for variable names in computer programming; some programming styles prefer camel case with the first letter capitalised, others not. For clarity, this article calls the two alternatives lower camel case; some people and organizations, notably Microsoft, use the term camel case only for lower camel case. Pascal case means only upper camel case. Camel case is distinct from Title Case, which capitalises all words but retains the spaces between them, from Tall Man lettering, which uses capitals to emphasize the differences between similar-looking words such as "predniSONE" and "predniSOLONE". Camel case is distinct from snake case, which uses underscores interspersed with lowercase letters.
The combination of "upper camel case" and "snake case" is known as "Darwin case". Darwin case uses underscores between words with initial uppercase letters, as in "Sample_Type"; the original name of the practice, used in media studies and the Oxford English Dictionary, was "medial capitals". Other synonyms include: The earliest known occurrence of the term "InterCaps" on Usenet is in an April 1990 post to the group alt.folklore.computers by Avi Rappoport. The earliest use of the name "CamelCase" occurs in a post by Newton Love. Love has since said, "With the advent of programming languages having these sorts of constructs, the humpiness of the style made me call it HumpyCase at first, before I settled on CamelCase. I had been calling it CamelCase for years.... The citation above was just the first time I had used the name on USENET." The use of medial capitals as a convention in the regular spelling of everyday texts is rare, but is used in some languages as a solution to particular problems which arise when two words or segments are combined.
In Italian, pronouns can be suffixed to verbs, because the honorific form of second-person pronouns is capitalized, this can produce a sentence like non ho trovato il tempo di risponderLe. In German, the medial capital letter I, called Binnen-I, is sometimes used in a word like StudentInnen to indicate that both Studenten and Studentinnen are intended simultaneously. However, mid-word capitalisation does not conform to German orthography. In Irish, camelcase is used when an inflectional prefix is attached to a proper noun, for example i nGaillimh, from Gaillimh. In recent Scots Gaelic orthography, a hyphen has been inserted: an t-Albannach; this convention is used by several written Bantu languages and several indigenous languages of Mexico. In Dutch, when capitalizing the digraph ij, both the letter I and the letter J are capitalized, for example in the countryname IJsland. In English, medial capitals are only found in Scottish or Irish "Mac-" or "Mc-" names, where for example MacDonald, McDonald, Macdonald are common spelling variants of the same name, in Anglo-Norman "Fitz-" names, where for example both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald are found.
In their English style guide The King's English, first published in 1906, H. W. and F. G. Fowler suggested that medial capitals could be used in triple compound words where hyphens would cause ambiguity—the examples they give are KingMark-like and Anglo-SouthAmerican. However, they described the system as "too hopelessly contrary to use at present." In the scholarly transliteration of languages written in other scripts, medial capitals are used in similar situations. For example, in transliterated Hebrew, ha'Ivri means "the Hebrew person" or "the Jew" and b'Yerushalayim means "in Jerusalem". In Tibetan proper names like rLobsang, the "r" stands for a prefix glyph in the original script that functions as tone marker rather than a normal letter. Another example is tsIurku, a Latin transcription of the Chechen term for the capping stone of the characteristic Medieval defensive towers of Chechenia and Ingushetia. Medial capitals are traditionally used in abbreviations to reflect the capitalization that the words would have when written out in full, for example in the academic titles PhD or BSc.
In German, the names of statutes are abbreviated using embedded capitals, e.g. StGB for Criminal Code, PatG for Patent Act, BVerfG for Federal Constitutional Court, or the common GmbH for Company with Limited Liability. In this context, there can be three or more "CamelCase" capitals, e.g. in TzBfG for Teilzeit- und Befristungsgesetz. In French, camel case acronyms such as OuLiPo were favored for a tim
Mazda Motor Corporation referred to as Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. In 2015, Mazda produced 1.5 million vehicles for global sales, the majority of which were produced in the company's Japanese plants, with the remainder coming from a variety of other plants worldwide. In 2015, Mazda was the fifteenth biggest automaker by production worldwide; the name Mazda came into existence with the production of the company's first three-wheeled trucks. Other candidates for a model name included Tenshi-Go and more; the company states that The name was associated with Ahura Mazda, with the hope that it would brighten the image of these compact vehicles. The company website further notes that the name derives from the name of the company's founder, Jujiro Matsuda; the other proposed names mean "god" and "angel". The Mazda lettering was used in combination with the corporate emblem of Mitsubishi, responsible for sales, to produce the Toyo Kogyo three-wheeled truck registered trademark.
Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co. Ltd, founded in Hiroshima, Japan, 30 January 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd. in 1927. In the late 1920s the company had to be saved from bankruptcy by Hiroshima Saving Bank and other business leaders in Hiroshima. In 1931 Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles with the introduction of the Mazda-Go autorickshaw. Toyo Kogyo produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War, most notably the series 30 through 35 Type 99 rifle; the company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the beginning bore that name. The Mazda R360 was introduced in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962. Beginning in the 1960s, Mazda was inspired by the NSU Ro 80 and decided to put a major engineering effort into development of the Wankel rotary engine as a way of differentiating itself from other Japanese auto companies; the company formed a business relationship with German company NSU and began with the limited-production Cosmo Sport of 1967, continuing to the present day with the Pro Mazda Championship, Mazda has become the sole manufacturer of Wankel-type engines for the automotive market by way of attrition This effort to bring attention to itself helped, as Mazda began to export its vehicles.
Both piston-powered and rotary-powered models made their way around the world. The rotary models became popular for their combination of good power and light weight when compared to piston-engined competitors that required heavier V6 or V8 engines to produce the same power; the R100 and the RX series led the company's export efforts. During 1968, Mazda started formal operations in Canada although Mazdas were seen in Canada as early as 1959. In 1970, Mazda formally entered the American market and was successful there, going so far as to create the Mazda Rotary Pickup for North American buyers. To this day, Mazda remains the only automaker to have produced a Wankel-powered pickup truck. Additionally, it is the only marque to have offered a rotary-powered bus or station wagon. After nine years of development, Mazda launched its new model in the U. S. in 1970. Mazda's rotary success continued until the onset of the 1973 oil crisis; as American buyers turned to vehicles with better fuel efficiency, the thirsty rotary-powered models began to fall out of favor.
Combined with being the least-efficient automaker in Japan, inability to adjust to excess inventory and over-reliance on the U. S. market, the company suffered a huge loss in 1975. An heavily indebted Toyo Kogyo was on the verge of bankruptcy and was only saved through the intervention of Sumitomo keiretsu group, namely Sumitomo Bank, the companies subcontractors and distributors. However, the company had not turned its back on piston engines, as it continued to produce a variety of four-cylinder models throughout the 1970s; the smaller Familia line in particular became important to Mazda's worldwide sales after 1973, as did the somewhat larger Capella series. Mazda refocused its efforts and made the rotary engine a choice for the sporting motorist rather than a mainstream powerplant. Starting with the lightweight RX-7 in 1978 and continuing with the modern RX-8, Mazda has continued its dedication to this unique powerplant; this switch in focus resulted in the development of another lightweight sports car, the piston-powered Mazda MX-5 Miata, inspired by the concept'jinba ittai'.
Introduced in 1989 to worldwide acclaim, the Roadster has been credited with reviving the concept of the small sports car after its decline in the late 1970s. From 1974 to 2015, Mazda had a partnership with the Ford Motor Company, which acquired a 24.5% stake in 1979, upped to a 33.4% ownership of Mazda in May 1995. Under the administration of Alan Mulally, Ford divested its stake in Mazda from 2008 to 2015, with Ford holding 2.1% of Mazda stock as of 2014 and severing most production as well as development ties. This partnership with Ford began owing to Mazda's financial diff
Indy Lights is an American developmental automobile racing series sanctioned by IndyCar known as Indy Lights Presented by Cooper Tires for sponsorship reasons. Indy Lights is the highest step on the Road to Indy, a programme of racing series leading up to the IndyCar Series; the Indy Lights series has been promoted by Anderson Promotions since 2014, which manages the Road to Indy programme. A similar series named Indy Lights filled the developmental role for the CART series, ran from 1986 to 1993 as the American Racing Series and Dayton Indy Lights from 1991 to 2001; the current IndyCar sanctioned series was founded in 2002 as the Infiniti Pro Series as a way to introduce new talent to IndyCar, with the moniker Indy Lights returning in 2008 when CART and IndyCar unified. The Indy Lights champion is awarded a $1M scholarship toward the IndyCar Series, guaranteed three races including the Indianapolis 500. During the early 1960s, open wheel cars were front engined roadsters; the primary ladder series included midgets.
By the end of the decade, into the 1970s, the cars evolved into rear-engine formula-style machines. The feeder series began to follow the same mold; when USAC became the primary sanctioning body for top-level Indy car racing, the ladder of progression began to change. The SCCA Super Vee and Formula Atlantic series were among the first formula-based ladder series. However, neither had any direct tie to USAC. In 1977, USAC started the "Mini-Indy" series; the series ended after 1980. Following the end of the "Mini Indy" series, the driver pool in the early 1980s to CART and the Indy 500 was drawn in a unorganized fashion amongst Super Vees, Atlantics, SCCA, former Can-Am drivers, sprints and stock cars and off-road racing. In addition, a number of CART series drivers during the 1980s and early 1990s were former Formula 1 competitors, most of whom had climbed the European-based ladder series; the original Indy Lights series was formed as an open-wheeled racing series that acted as a developmental circuit for CART from 1986 to 2001.
It was founded in 1986 as the American Racing Series. The series was renamed Indy Lights in 1991; the CART-sanctioned series became popular and secured the title sponsorship of Firestone. Firestone's subsidiary Dayton Tires took over as tire supplier and title sponsor. A spec-series, CART Indy Lights used March chassis from 1986 to 1992. In 1992 Lola became primary chassis constructor to the series. In 1997, a newly-updated and modern looking chassis was introduced based on an F3000 design, it would remain through 2001. Buick V6 engines were used for its entire existence; the ARS/Indy Lights series' championship winners included two CART champions, two IndyCar Series champions, seven CCWS race-winners and two Formula One drivers. The Indy Lights schedule followed that of the CART series, had a gap of up to a month while the primary CART teams raced at the Indy 500; the races were held the morning of the CART series races, as an undercard event. In early years, the Indy Lights series skipped superspeedway races such as Michigan, but found its way to race there.
In some rare occasions, the Indy Lights ran at non-CART tracks as a support race to a series other than CART. In 2001 Indy Lights ran at Road Atlanta the weekend of the Petit Le Mans, ran at Kansas with the IRL. By the late 1990s and early 2000s, CART was suffering from financial problems. Meanwhile, in 1996, the rival Indy Racing League was formed. CART canceled the minor league outright after the 2001 season. By this time, the Toyota Atlantic series was effective in providing CART with new drivers. In addition, the Atlantics served as a springboard for such drivers as Greg Ray, Sam Hornish, Jr. and Richie Hearn to enter the IRL. The Atlantics became CART's primary feeder system, became Champ Car World Series' official in-house feeder championship for a time; the Infiniti Pro Series was founded by the Indy Racing League and began racing in 2002, the year after the CART-sanctioned Indy Lights series' demise. It was a spec series using a TWR developed 3.5L version of the V8 engine used in the Infiniti Q45 combined with Dallara chassis producing 420 horsepower.
The series struggled to attract drivers and some races have had fewer than 10 entrants. However, with the introduction of a number of road-course races to the schedule in 2005, many of America's top prospects like Marco Andretti and Phil Giebler were attracted to the series to run part-time schedules on road courses. In 2006, a boost in prize money further increased car counts to 16 or more, with an six oval and six road course mix; the selected races being double races, a stand-alone race were scheduled on the USGP weekend. The series was called the Menards Infiniti Pro Series until 2006 when both Menards and Nissan dropped their sponsorship of the series, it was known as the Indy Pro Series. On March 26, 2008, the series announced a changing of names, when the historical records and proprietary information of Champ Car were acquired by the IRL; the series became known as Firestone Indy Lights. The centerpiece of the Indy Lights schedule is the Freedom 100, contested at Indianapolis Motor Speedway on the Friday prior to the Indianapolis 500.
The series held a support race for the U. S. Grand Prix, the Liberty Challenge, from 2005 to 2007, it was the series' only event, not a support race to an IndyCar event. On September 9, 2007, during the Ch
The IndyCar Series known as the NTT IndyCar Series under sponsorship, is the premier level of open-wheel racing in North America. Its parent company began in 1996 as the Indy Racing League, created by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony George as a competitor to CART. In 2008, the IndyCar Series merged with the Champ Car World Series; the series is self-sanctioned by IndyCar. The series' premier event is the Indianapolis 500. Due to the legal settlement with CART, the Indy Racing League was unable to utilize the name IndyCar until the beginning of the 2003 season. For 1996–1997, the series was referred to as the Indy Racing League, with no genre designation. For 1998–1999, the series garnered its first title sponsor, was advertised as the Pep Boys Indy Racing League; the contract was not renewed after the second year. In 2000, the series sold its naming rights to Internet search engine Northern Light for five seasons, the series was named the Indy Racing Northern Light Series. After only two seasons, the sponsorship agreement ended when Northern Light reevaluated its business plan and ended all sponsorships.
The league reverted with no title sponsor. The IndyCar Series name was adopted beginning in 2003, as the series was now entitled to use it. In 2006, IndyCar forged an alliance with Simmons-Abramson Marketing, promising to be "actively engaged in the league's marketing, public relations, sponsorship and branding efforts—from its IndyCar Series to the venerable Indianapolis 500". Simmons co-authored the new IndyCar theme song, "I Am Indy". For the 2008 season, DirecTV served as a presenting sponsor, although this deal only lasted one year due to objections by the series' new cable broadcaster Versus, as it was owned by competitor Comcast. Izod was announced as the series title sponsor beginning on November 5, 2009. Exact financial terms were not disclosed but the deal was reported to be worth at least $10 million per year for 5 years, but ran only 4 of the announced 5 seasons, as Izod ended its sponsorship after the 2013 season. In 2014, Verizon Communications became title sponsor of the series through 2018.
Verizon declined to renew the deal. In January 2019, it was announced that Japanese communications company NTT would become title sponsor and official technology partner of the IndyCar Series, its U. S. subsidiary NTT Data has been a sponsor of Chip Ganassi Racing since 2013. Since the series inception, IndyCar Series events have been broadcast in the United States on several networks, including ABC, CBS, ESPN, Fox Sports Networks, TNN. Beginning in 2009, Versus began a 10-year deal to broadcast 13 IndyCar races per season, whereas the remaining races, including the Indianapolis 500, would remain on ABC through 2018; as of the 2018 season, ABC aired 5 races per-season, with NBCSN or other NBCUniversal networks airing the remainder of the schedule. On March 21, 2018, it was announced that NBC Sports would become the sole U. S. rightsholder under a new three-year contract. NBCSN will continue as the primary broadcast outlet for most races, overflow content will be available through its subscription service NBC Sports Gold.
Eight races per-season will be televised by NBC—including the Indianapolis 500, marking the first time in 54 years that the race will not be televised by ABC. In the United Kingdom, since the launch of BT Sport in August 2013 races are shown on one of the BT branded channels or ESPN. Previous to August 2013, the IndyCar Series races were broadcasts on the Sky Sports family of networks, with the viewing figures of the IndyCar races in the UK outnumbering those of NASCAR races; the IndyCar Series had highlights of all the races on the channel Five British terrestrial channel and Five USA, but has since been discontinued since the 2009 season. In Portugal, all of the IndyCar Series are broadcast on Sport TV. In February 2013, Sportsnet announced that it would become the official Canadian broadcaster of the IndyCar Series beginning in the 2013 season in a five-year deal with the series; the new contract will include broadcasts on the Sportsnet regional networks, Sportsnet One, City, along with mobile coverage and French rights sub-licensed to TVA Sports.
Additionally, Sportsnet would originate coverage from the Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg, Indianapolis 500, Honda Indy Toronto with Bill Adam, Todd Lewis, Rob Faulds. Canadian driver Paul Tracy joined Sportsnet as an analyst. Rede Bandeirantes and DAZN serve as the Brazilian broadcast partners in that country since 1986 and 2019, respectively. Grupo Bandeirantes sports channel BandSports show live races and race highlights. ESPN has been the international broadcast partner of IndyCar Series in Latin America. Eurosport has been the international broadcast partner of IndyCar in most of Europe. In the late 2000s, the official website streamed online all races and practice sessions unrestricted; that service is now limited in the United States to television subscribers of the respective television network broadcasters. The IndyCar Series is not an open formula motor sport archetype. A spec-series, the league mandates chassis and engine manufacturers which teams must use each season; the league mandates horsepower level, aerodynamic configuration, maximum engine speed to which all entrants must adhere.
The league mandates direct control over all drivers, with an designated race boss in race con
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or inside fenders. Open-wheel cars are built for road racing with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are scarce as they are impractical for everyday use. American racecar driver and constructor Ray Harroun was an early pioneer of the concept of a lightweight single-seater, open-wheel "monoposto" racecar. After working as a mechanic in the automotive industry, Harroun began competitive professional racing in 1906, winning the AAA National Championship in 1910, he was hired by the Marmon Motor Car Company as chief engineer, charged with building a racecar intended to race at the first Indianapolis 500, which he went on to win. He developed a revolutionary concept which would become the originator and forefather of the single-seater racecar design.
Harroun has been credited by some as pioneering the rear-view mirror which appeared on his 1911 Indianapolis 500 winning car, though he himself claimed he got the idea from seeing a mirror used for a similar purpose on a horse-drawn vehicle in 1904. A typical open-wheeler has a minimal cockpit sufficient only to enclose the driver's body, with the head exposed to the air. In the Whelen Modified Tour and other short track modified series, the driver's head is contained in the car. In modern cars the engine is located directly behind the driver, drives the rear wheels. Depending on the rules of the class, many types of open-wheelers have wings at the front and rear of the vehicle, as well as a low and flat undertray that helps achieve additional aerodynamic downforce pushing the car onto the road; some major races, such as the Singapore Grand Prix, Monaco Grand Prix and the Long Beach Grand Prix, are held on temporary street circuits. However, most open-wheel races are on dedicated road courses, such as Watkins Glen International in the US, Nürburgring in Germany, Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium and Silverstone in Great Britain.
In the United States some top-level open-wheel events are held on ovals, of both short track and superspeedway variety, with an emphasis being placed more on speed and endurance than the maneuverability inherently required by road and street course events. The Whelen Modified Tour is the only opened wheeled race car series endorsed by NASCAR; this series races on most of NASCAR's most famous tracks in the United States. Other asphalt modified series race on short tracks in the United States and Canada, such as Wyoming County International Speedway in New York; the most well-attended oval race in the world is the annual Indianapolis 500 in Speedway, sanctioned by IndyCar. Open-wheeled racing is among the fastest in the world. Formula 1 cars can reach speeds in excess of 360 kilometres per hour. At Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Antônio Pizzonia of BMW Williams F1 team recorded a top speed of 369.9 kilometres per hour in the 2004 Italian Grand Prix. Since the end of the V10 era in 2006 speeds like this have not been reached, with contemporary machinery reaching around 360 kilometres per hour.
It is difficult to give precise figures for the absolute top speeds of Formula 1 cars, as the cars do not have speedometers as such and the data are not released by teams. The'speed traps' on fast circuits such as Monza give a good indication, but are not located at the point on the track where the car is travelling at its fastest. BAR Honda team recorded an average top speed of 400 kilometres per hour in 2006 at Bonneville Salt Flats with unofficial top speed reaching 413 kilometres per hour using modified BAR 007 Formula 1 car. Speeds on ovals can range in constant excess of 210–220 miles per hour, at Indianapolis in excess of 230 miles per hour; some sources claim that in 1996, Paul Tracy recorded a trap speed of 256.948 miles per hour at Michigan International Speedway. In 2000, Gil de Ferran set the one-lap qualifying record of 241.428 miles per hour at California Speedway. On tight non-oval street circuits such as the Grand Prix of Toronto, open-wheel Indy Cars attain speeds of 190 miles per hour.
Driving an open-wheel car is different from driving a car with fenders. All Formula One and Indycar drivers spent some time in various open-wheel categories before joining either top series. Open-wheel vehicles, due to their light weight, aerodynamic capabilities, powerful engines, are considered the fastest racing vehicles available and among the most challenging to master. Wheel-to-wheel contact is dangerous when the forward edge of one tire contacts the rear of another tire: since the treads are moving in opposite directions at the point of contact, both wheels decelerate, torquing the chassis of both cars and causing one or both vehicles to be and powerfully flung upwards An example of this is the 2005 Chicagoland crash of Ryan Briscoe with Alex Barron; the lower w
Tatuus is an Italian chassis manufacturer for a series of formula racing series, being first founded in 1980. The company is known for its association with Renault Sport for its production of the Formula Renault chassis; the Tatuus company was founded by Artico Sandonà in 1980. The first cars were manufactured for the 1000cc Formula Monza championship. Founder Sandona was one of the drivers in the Formula Monza championship. Luca Melgrati won the first championship for Tatuus in 1983 in the Formula Panda Monza championship. Sandona achieved a second place in the championship. Tatuus were the chassis to beat. Melgrati won the championship again in 1985 and 1986. For the 1988 season the Italian manufacturer was contracted to build the cars for the new Formula König; the car was a tube framed and slicks racecar. The first season was won by seven-time Formula 1 champion Michael Schumacher. Although not a Formula 3 constructor, Tatuus entered the Italian Formula Three as a team in 1989. Driver Fabrizio Bettini took the rookie of the year title in their inaugural season.
Bettini drove a Alfa Romeo powered Dallara 389 chassis and achieved one podium finish in seven races. Niko Palhares represented Tatuus in their 1991 campaign. Palhares scored one pole position and one podium finish in the Italian championship. Tatuus entered the Monaco Grand Prix Formula Three support race for the first time. Palhares achieved a 16th place, he was the last running driver, their 1992 campaign ended in a second place in the championship for Brazilian driver Niko Palhares. Palhares had less luck in the annual Monaco F3 Grand Prix, he failed to finish. Tatuus made their first appearance in the Masters of Formula 3. Palhares finished in 14th place during the second edition of this Formula 3 classic; the following year Fiat appointed Tatuus as their official factory team. The team had little success in the Italian championship, but Pacchioni achieved a win at the prestigious Monaco F3 Grand Prix. At the Masters of Formula 3 at Circuit Park Zandvoort local Formula Ford 1600 driver Tom Coronel joined the team.
Pacchioni scored a seventh-place finish. The team improved for the following season; the team fielded Pacchioni, considered one of the favorites, rookie Simone Rebai. Pacchioni managed to finish third in the standings. For the Masters of Formula 3 Rebai was replaced by Roberto Colciago. Coming over from RC Motorsport Colciago managed to beat regular driver Pachioni by placing seventh compared to Pachioni's 25th place. After winning the Formula Alfa Boxer championship in a Tatuus chassis Tony Kanaan joined the Tatuus Formula 3 team. Kanaan scored one win and was the best foreign driver in the Italian championship finishing fifth in the final standings. After this season, Tatuus focused on Formula Renault. In 1993 Gianfranco De Bellis became co-proprietor. Tatuus then-on focused on producing Formula Renault cars; the Tatuus RC95 was the first Formula Renault car made by Tatuus. The Tatuus factory team fielded three drivers, Italian Rino Mastronardi, Norwegian Tommy Rustad and Brazilian Enrique Bernoldi.
The team competed in the Eurocup Formula Renault, Tommy Rustad won three races during the inaugural season for the team. The first title for the Tatuus factory team and chassis came in 1996. Enrique Bernoldi took the title. Teammate Danilo Cascio was places seventh. David Cook entered a Tatuus customer car in the British Formula Renault championship. In this competitive championship Cook beat Darren Turner to the 1996 title. Other customer Tatuus chassis were entered in the French Formula Renault, Antoine Brousseau achieved a second place in the championship. A Tatuus chassis took the title in the German Formula Renault with driver Alexander Müller. 1997 was a successful for the team and the chassis. The team scored a one-two finish in the European championship. Jeffrey van Hooydonk and Max Busnelli were a class on their own securing the first and second place in the championship; the top ten were three Martini cars. Three Tatuus customer entries filled the podium in the German championship. Robert Lechner won the title in front of Michael Schröter.
Marc Hynes, driving a customer Tatuus, won the British title. The French championship, was a different story. France, home of Mygale and Renault, had the most competitive Formula Renault championship. Benoît Tréluyer driving a Tatuus was placed sixth in the championship standings, scoring one win and four podium finishes out of 17 races. Tatuus again was the chassis to beat in the European and German championships. Lucas Lasserre managed to achieve a third place in the French championship, behind two factory entered Mygales. Tatuus again dominated the British championship in 1999 with Tatuus chassis winning 12 out of 13 races, Antônio Pizzonia took the title. Tatuus customer entries won the European and German championships. Lucas Lasserre now took the title in the prestigious French championship. In heavy competition between Mygale and Tatuus, Tatuus prevailed winning 14 out of 21 races. For the 1997 racing season Tatuus made its debut in the USF2000. Rino Mastronardi won the second race of the season in the streets of St. Petersburg.
Starting third, Mastronardi managed to finish in front of Buddy Rice. This, was the only outing of Mastronardi; the rest of the season the team fielded Giuliano Losacco. Tatuus finished second in the manufacturer standings scoring 40 points, behind Van Diemen who scored 93 points. For the following season Tatuus supplied other teams with race cars as well as running the factory team. Factory driver Ryan Hampt