Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
If Mateu Morral’s attempt to assassinate King Alfonso XIII of Spain had succeeded, Infante Alfonso would have become at that moment the King of Spain. Raised from infancy side-by-side with his king, Juan Carlos I. The school was the site of a house, Las Jarillas, located 10 miles north of Madrid. The princes obtained their bacs from the Colegiata de San Isidro de Madrid, Carlos lived in Madrid with his family. Their assets included agricultural properties in Toledo and Ciudad Real and he held investments in major companies, including Repsol and Telefonica. In April 1961 Carlos met his wife, Princess Anne of Orléans in Madrid, at the wedding of his elder sister, Princess Teresa, with Don Iñigo Moreno. Two months Anne was invited to and visited the home of Carloss parents at Toledana, by the end of 1963 the secret was out, French news media pictured the couple together and speculated about the date when the engagement of the royal couple would be announced publicly. Carloss father, Infante Alfonso, had asserted himself as heir because his late father.
The Comte de Paris withheld his consent, thus plans for the marriage were dropped. Carloss father died in 1964, and with patience and compromise from afar, michele Carrelli Palombi dei Marchesi di Raiano Nob. Teresa Carrelli Palombi dei Marchesi di Raiano Nob, blanca Carrelli Palombi dei Marchesi di Raiano Princess Victoria of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, married Greek shipowner Markos Nomikos in 2003. Following marriage and his wife remained for sometime guests of the Marquès de Decio, in 1966 the couple took up residence in a large apartment in the heart of Madrid. Carlos launched a professional specialization in law and banking. After his fathers death in 1964 he managed his familys large agricultural holdings in Spain, Infante Carlos was one of two claimants of the dignity of Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies. The other claimant was his second cousin Prince Carlo of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Prince Carlo of Bourbon, grandfather of the Infante, is alleged to have renounced his rights by signing the Act of Cannes.
While Duke of Castro is a title that belongs to the Head of the Royal House along with Duke of Parma, Duke of Calabria is a title of the Crown Prince, corresponding to the Spanish Prince of Asturias or the British Prince of Wales. He died on 5 October 2015 at the age of 77 and she is the closest known genealogical representative of King Edward the Confessor, and the direct genealogical representative of King David I of Scotland. After Infanta Alicias death Carloss son Pedro will presumably become the titular King of Navarre, THE HEAD OF THE ROYAL HOUSE – official website of the Royal House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Order of the Golden Fleece
It became one of the most prestigious orders in Europe. The chaplain of the Austrian branch is Cardinal Graf von Schönborn and it is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, and 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign. The Orders first King of Arms was Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, so that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order. Should honor those who wear it, and be encouraged to employ themselves in noble deeds, the bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleeces reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven. He was succeeded as king by Philip V, a Bourbon, in either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French. These, and other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813, napoleon created by Order of 15 August 1809 the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces, in view of his sovereignty over Austria and Burgundy.
This was opposed by Joseph I of Spain and the new order was never awarded, in 1812 the acting government of Spain awarded the order to the Duke of Wellington, an act confirmed by Ferdinand on his resumption of power, with the approval of Pope Pius VII. Wellington therefore became the first Protestant to be awarded the Golden Fleece and it has subsequently been awarded to non-Christians, such as Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand. There was another crisis in 1833 when Isabella II became Queen of Spain in defiance of Salic Law that did not allow women to become heads of state and her right to award the Fleece was challenged by Spanish Carlists. Sovereignty remained with the head of the Spanish house of Bourbon during the republican and Francoist periods and is today by the present King of Spain. Knights of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style His/Her Excellency in front of their name, King Juan Carlos I of Spain – Former Sovereign of the Order as King of Spain from 1975 to 2014.
The problem of inheritance was avoided on the accession of Maria Theresa in 1740 as sovereignty of the Order passed not to herself but to her husband. Sovereignty remains with the head of the House of Habsburg, which was handed over on 20 November 2000 by Otto von Habsburg to his elder son, die Schatzkammer in Wien, Symbole abendländischen Kaisertums. Der Schatz des Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies, ISBN 3-7017-0541-0 Boulton, DArcy Jonathan Dacre,1987
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Leopold II was Grand Duke of Tuscany. He married twice, first to Maria Anna of Saxony, and after her death in 1832, by the latter, he begat his eventual successor, Ferdinand. Leopold was recognized contemporarily as a monarch, authorizing the Tuscan Constitution of 1848. The Grand Duke was deposed briefly by a government in 1849, only to be restored the same year with the assistance of Austrian troops. Leopold attempted a policy of neutrality with regard to the Second Italian War of Independence, the Grand Ducal family left for Bologna, in Papal territory. Tuscany was occupied by soldiers of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia for the duration of the conflict, Ferdinand was not, any more acceptable to the revolutionaries in control of Florence, and his accession was not proclaimed. Instead, the government proclaimed the deposition of the House of Habsburg. Born in Florence, Leopold II was the son of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Princess Luisa Maria Amelia Teresa of the Two Sicilies and his maternal grandparents were Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Marie Caroline of Austria.
He succeeded his father on 18 June 1824, during the first twenty years of his reign he devoted himself to the internal development of the state. But Austrian influence prevented him from doing more, even had he wished to do so, the granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed by that of Tuscany, composed by Gino Capponi. His speech on their departure was uncompromisingly Italian and Liberal, soldiers, he said, the holy cause of Italian freedom is being decided to-day on the fields of Lombardy. Already the citizens of Milan have purchased their liberty with their blood, honour to the arms of Italy. The Tuscan contingent fought bravely, though unsuccessfully, at Curtatone, Capponi resigned, and Leopold agreed reluctantly to a Montanelli-Guerrazzi ministry, which in its turn had to fight against the extreme republican party. New elections in the autumn of 1848 returned a constitutional majority, the utmost confusion prevailed in Florence and other parts of Tuscany. On 18 February 1849 a republic was proclaimed and on same day Leopold sailed for Gaeta.
A third parliament was elected and Guerrazzi appointed dictator, but there was great discontent, and the defeat of Charles Albert at Novara caused consternation among the Liberals. Leopold accepted, although he said nothing about the foreign invasion, on 24 May the latter appointed G Baldasseroni prime minister, on the 25th the Austrians entered Florence and on 28 July Leopold himself returned. On their advice he formally revoked the constitution, political trials were held and many others being condemned to long terms of imprisonment, and although in 1855 the Austrian troops left Tuscany, Leopolds popularity was gone
Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta
Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta was the third son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria. He was pretender to the throne of the Two Sicilies in succession of his older half-brother and he was succeeded by his eldest son, Ferdinand Pius. Born in Caserta, Alfonso was the heir to the throne of Two Sicilies since the time of his birth. Ahead of him in line were his older half-brother Francis and older brothers Prince Louis, Count of Trani and Prince Alberto, on 12 July 1844, Alberto died. He was two short of his fifth birthday and naturally childless. On 22 May 1859, Ferdinand II died, Francis became King but had no children yet from his wife Maria Sophie of Bavaria. Louis became his Heir Presumptive and Alfonso the second-in-line heir to their half-brother, however the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Expedition of the Thousand under Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1861. Garibaldi served the Kingdom of Sardinia which was in the process of Italian unification, the deposed Royal House survived with Francis still at its head.
On 8 June 1886, Louis died and his only daughter Princess Maria Teresa was not in line for the throne because females were barred from succession. Alfonso became the heir presumptive to Francis who had survived his own daughter, on 27 December 1894, Francis II died. Alfonso became the Head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and he died at Cannes in 1934. Alfonso was married to his cousin, Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies on 8 June 1868 and she was a daughter of Prince Francis, Count of Trapani and his wife Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany. Her paternal grandparents were Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his second wife Maria Isabella of Spain and her maternal grandparents were Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his second wife Maria Antonietta of the Two Sicilies. Maria Isabella was a daughter of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma, Maria Antonietta was another daughter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and Maria Isabella of Spain. Prince Ferdinand Pius of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria ∞ Princess Maria Ludwiga Theresia of Bavaria, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, daughter of Alfonso XII of Spain.
∞ Princess Louise of Orléans, daughter of Prince Philippe of Orléans, Prince Francesco di Paola of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Prince Johann Georg of Saxony, son of George of Saxony. Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, son of Ferdinand IV, Princess Maria di Grazia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Prince Luiz Maria of Orléans-Braganza, son of Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. Princess Maria Giuseppina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Prince Gennaro of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Beatrice Bordessa, Prince Ranieri of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro ∞ Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska, daughter of Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski, Count Zamoyski
Order of Isabella the Catholic
The Order of Isabella the Catholic is a Spanish civil order granted in recognition of services that benefit the country. The Order is not exclusive to Spaniards, and it has awarded to many foreigners. The Order was reorganized by royal decree on 26 July 1847, the King of Spain is Grand Master of the Order. The Grand Chancellor of the Order is the Minister of Foreign Affairs, all deeds granting decorations of the Order must bear the signatures of both. Members of the order at the knight and above enjoy personal nobility and have the privilege of adding a golden heraldic mantle to their coat of arms, Knights at the rank of Grand Cross and Knight of the Collar receive the official style of His or Her most Excellent Lord. Knights at the rank of commander and commander by number receive the style of His or Her Most Illustrious Lord, the structure of the order has varied several times since then. The following is a summary of the history of the grades and medals of the order. Knights Grand Cross – Established 24 March 1815, Knight First Class – Established 24 March 1815, retitled Commander on 24 July 1815.
Officer – Established 10 October 1931, abolished 15 June 1938, Knight Second Class – Established 24 March 1815, retiled Knight on 24 July 1815. Silver Cross – Established 16 March 1903 to reward civil and palace officials, gold Medal with Laureate – Established on 24 July 1815 for award to European sergeants and enlisted men. Gold Medal – Established on 24 July 1815 for award to non-European natives, silver Medal – Established 15 April 1907 to reward non-commissioned officers and junior civil officials. Bronze Medal – Established 15 April 1907 to reward non-commissioned officers, women appointed to an applicable grade are not called Knights. Women are instead appointed as Dames of the Collar, Dames Grand Cross or Dames Cross, the decoration is a red-enameled cross, with a golden frame. The outer peaks are fitted with gold balls. The center of the medallion contains the inscription A La Lealtad Acrisolada, above the cross is a green enameled laurel wreath with the band ring. The ribbon is yellow with a central stripe, except the Collar
Prince Francis, Count of Trapani
Prince Francis of the Two Sicilies, Count of Trapani was a member of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Born in Naples, Francis was the youngest child and son of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his second wife and he received the title of Count of Trapani. He was three years old at the death of his father and the ascension of his brother Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies to the throne. As the youngest son in a family, he was destined to follow a career in the church and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome. His religious career was abandoned in 1844 when King Louis Philippe of France proposed to marry Francis to the young Queen Isabella II of Spain and she was three years younger than him and was both his cousin and his niece. The Count of Trapani hesitated in putting forward his candidacy to marry Isabella II, after a family council on 17 June 1845, Trapani accepted marrying his niece under pressure by his brother Ferdinand II, his mother, and the French ambassador. However, he could not ask for the Queens hand, she had to offer it, spains prime minister Narvaez and Franciss sister Queen Maria Christina favored his candidacy.
Their union was unpopular in Tuscany as the Bourbon of Naples were disliked on political grounds, in spite of family intrigues, he was loyal to his brother Ferdinand II. Because he did not bother Ferdinand II with petitions, Francis was well liked by the king, like his brothers, the Count of Syracuse and the Count of Aquila, Trapani had a weakness for women of easy virtue, but he did not get involve in scandals. At Ferdinand IIs death on 22 May 1859, Trapani was entrusted with handling the army. During the short reign of his nephew King Francis II, lacking in political acumen, after the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies fell in 1861 during the Expedition of the Thousand, the royal family went into exile. Francis and his family went to Rome, where they were under the protection of Pope Pius IX, the Papal States were invaded by Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Francis and his family fled next to France. Francis died in 1892 in Paris at 65 years of age, the Count of Trapani and his wife had five children, Princess Maria Antonietta of the Two Sicilies ∞ Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta on 8 June 1868 in Rome, had 12 children
Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg
Henrietta Alexandrine Friederike Wilhelmine of Nassau-Weilburg, of Nassau was the wife of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. Her husband was a general of the Napoleonic Wars and victor of the Battle of Aspern-Essling against Napoleon I of France. Henrietta was the youngest daughter of Frederick William of Nassau-Weilburg and his wife Burgravine Louise Isabelle of Kirchberg and her paternal grandparents were Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg and Princess Wilhelmine Carolina of Orange-Nassau. Wilhelmine Carolina was a daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange and Anne, Anne was in turn the eldest daughter of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach. On 15 September/17 September 1815 in Weilburg, Henrietta married Archduke Charles of Austria, the bride was almost eighteen years old and the groom forty-four. Her husband was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, however he had been adopted and raised by his childless aunt Marie Christine of Austria and her husband Albert of Saxe-Teschen.
He was the heir to the Duchy of Teschen and would succeed in 1822 and this marriage was a very happy one. Henrietta died young of scarlet fever, which she had caught while nursing her children through the same illness and she is the only Protestant buried in the Imperial Crypt in the Capuchin Church. This was allowed by order of her brother-in-law Emperor Francis I, who said, She dwelt among us when she was alive and Charles had seven children. A listing of descendants of the House of Nassau-Weilburg
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand II was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859. Ferdinand was born in Palermo, to King Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his paternal grandparents were King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Queen Maria Carolina of Austria. His maternal grandparents were Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma, Ferdinand I and Charles IV were brothers, both sons of Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony. In his early years he was fairly popular, progressives credited him with Liberal ideas and, in addition, his free and easy manners endeared him to the so-called lazzaroni, the lower classes of Neapolitan society. However, in 1837 he violently suppressed Sicilian demonstrators demanding a constitution, progressive intellectuals, who were motivated by visions of a new society founded upon a modern constitution, continued to demand the King to grant a constitution and to liberalize his rule. In September 1847, violent riots inspired by Liberals broke out in Reggio Calabria, on 12 January 1848 a rising in Palermo spread throughout the island and served as a spark for the Revolutions of 1848 all over Europe.
A dispute, arose as to the nature of the oath which should be taken by the members of the chamber of deputies, as an agreement could not be reached and the King refused to compromise, riots continued in the streets. Eventually, the King ordered the army to break them and dissolved the parliament on 13 March 1849. Although the constitution was never formally abrogated, the King returned to reigning as an absolute monarch, during this period, Ferdinand showed his attachment to Pope Pius IX by granting him asylum at Gaeta. The pope had been forced to flee from Rome following similar revolutionary disturbances. In the meantime, Sicily proclaimed its independence under the leadership of Ruggeru Sèttimu, in response, the King assembled an army of 20,000 under the command of General Carlo Filangieri and dispatched it to Sicily to subdue the Liberals and restore his authority. After a campaign lasting close to nine months, Sicilys Liberal regime was completely subdued on 15 May 1849, between 1848 and 1851, the policies of King Ferdinand caused many to go into exile.
Meanwhile, an estimated 2,000 suspected revolutionaries or dissidents were jailed, gladstone had not actually been to Southern Italy and so some of his accusations were unreliable, but reports of misgovernment in the Two Sicilies were widespread throughout Europe during the 1850s. The British government, which had been the ally and protector of the Bourbon dynasty during the Napoleonic Wars, had already additional interests to limit the independence of the kingdom and it had extensive business interests in Sicily and relied on Sicilian sulfur for certain industries. The King had endeavored to limit British influence, which had begun to cause tension, as Ferdinand ignored the advice of the British and the French governments, those powers recalled their ambassadors in 1856. A soldier attempted to assassinate Ferdinand in 1856, and many believe that the infection he received from the soldiers led to his ultimate demise. He died on 22 May 1859, shortly after the Second French Empire and this would lead to the invasion of his Kingdom by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Italian unification in 1861.
Naples–Portici railway line This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh