Kingdom of Italy
The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders.
Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king.
However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberals
Zaragoza, called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva, on 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza was 701,090, within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres, ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union, the population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population, the city lies at an elevation of 199 metres above sea level. Zaragoza hosted Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a fair on water. It was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2012, the city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, and landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain, the city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta, from which the present name derives. The Iberian town that predated the Roman city was called Salduie, see also, Caesar Augusta The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated a village called Salduie. Later on, Augustus founded a city called Caesaraugusta at the location to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars. The foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, the city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the fifth century AD. From 1018 to 1118, Zaragoza was one of the taifa kingdoms, during the first three decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the Banu Tujibi. After the death of El Cid his kingdom was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the Ebro into Barbastro, the Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the Almoravids and ruled until they were eventually defeated by them in May 1110.
On 18 December 1118, the Aragonese led by Alfonso I conquered the city from the Almoravids, after Alfonsos death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza was swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer IV, the marriage union was the origin of the Crown of Aragón. While the reality of the existence of Saint Dominguito del Val is questioned, despite a decline in the outlying rural economy, Zaragoza has continued to grow. The General Military Academy, a training center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on September 27,1940 by Minister of the Army José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the second half of the 20th century, Zaragozas population boomed as a number of factories opened in the region, in 1979, the Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80
Maria Christina of Austria
Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria of Austria, known as Maria Christina Henrietta Désirée Félicité Rénière was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, known to her family as Christa, she was born at Židlochovice Castle, near Brno, in Moravia, a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Her paternal grandparents were Archduke Charles of Austria and Princess Henriette Alexandrine of Nassau-Weilburg, various sources attributed good traits to Maria Christina before her marriage. One states she was tall, fair and well educated and she was Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Royal and Imperial Ladies Chapter of the Castle of Prague. She lived a life as queen. During this period, Maria Christina ruled as regent until her child, a son, was born and her chief adviser and head of government was Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. Her role was ceremonial, and her purpose was to preserve the crown for her son until he became an adult.
After her sons marriage in 1906, she lost her position as first lady at court, Alfonso XIII continued to look to her on many occasions for advice. She was the 805th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa, in February 1929, after some weeks of heart disease, she died at the Royal Palace in Madrid and is buried at El Escorial. Sir Charles Petrie, Alfonso XIIIs biographer, maintained that the Queen dowagers death had an effect on her son. Within little more than two years the monarchy had collapsed, campos y Fernández de Sevilla, Francisco-Javier. María Cristina de Habsburgo y la Regencia, 1885–1902, san Lorenzo de El Escorial, Estudios Superiores del Escorial, Real Colegio Universitario María Cristina,1994. The Function of Maria Christina of Austrias Regency, 1885–1902, in Preserving the Spanish Monarchy, figueroa y Torres, Alvaro de, Conde de Romanones. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo Lorena, la discreta regente de España, diez y seis años de regencia, María Cristina de Hapsburgo-Lorena, 1885–1902.
Habsburgs letzte Herrscherin, Maria Christine, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Königin-Regentin von Spanien
Julia, Princess of Battenberg
Julie Therese Salomea Hauke was born in Warsaw, ruled in personal union by the Tsar of Imperial Russia. She was the daughter of John Maurice Hauke, a German soldier, julie was rumored to be of Jewish descent. Julias father had fought in Napoleons Polish Legions in Austria, Italy and the Peninsular War. In the November Uprising of 1830 led by rebelling army cadets, Grand Duke Constantine, Polands de facto viceroy, managed to escape and her mother died of shock shortly afterwards, and their children were made wards of the Tsar. Julia served as lady-in-waiting to Tsesarevna Marie Alexandrovna, wife of the future Tsar Alexander II and sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse and she met Prince Alexander while performing her duties at court in St. Petersburg. The Tsar did not approve of any liaison between his sons brother-in-law and a parvenu, and so the two arranged to leave the St. Petersburg court, by the time Julia and Alexander were able to marry, she was six months pregnant with their first child, Marie.
They were married on 28 October 1851 in Breslau in Prussian Silesia, Julia was considered to be of insufficient rank to have any of her children qualify for the succession to the throne of Hesse and by Rhine, hence the marriage was considered morganatic. The children of Julia and Alexander were elevated to princes and princesses, Battenberg became the name of a morganatic branch of the Grand Ducal Family of Hesse. Julia converted from Roman Catholicism to Lutheranism on 12 May 1875 and she died at Heiligenberg Castle, near Jugenheim, aged sixty-nine, on 19 September 1895. There were five children of the marriage, all princes and princesses of Battenberg, married in 1871 Gustav, Count of Erbach-Schönberg, created first Marquess of Milford Haven in 1917, married in 1884 Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, with issue. In 1917, he and his children gave up their German titles, created Reigning Prince of Bulgaria in 1879, abdicated in Bulgaria and created Count of Hartenau, married morganatically in 1889 Johanna Loisinger, with issue.
Heinrich, married in 1885 Beatrice, Princess of Great Britain and Ireland and his children resided in the UK and became lords and ladies with the surname Mountbatten in 1917. His eldest son was created the first Marquess of Carisbrooke in 1917, Franz Joseph, married in 1897 Anna Princess Petrovich-Niegosh of Montenegro, with no issue. Hauke-Bosak family Almanach de Gotha, Gotha 1931 Eckhart G. Franz, Das Haus Hessen, Eine europäische Familie, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-018919-0
Cascais is a coastal town and a municipality in Portugal,30 kilometres west of Lisbon. It is a suburb of the Portuguese capital and one of the richest municipalities in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 206,479, in an area of 97.40 square kilometres, the former fishing village gained fame as a resort for Portugals royal family in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Nowadays, it is a vacation spot for both Portuguese and foreign tourists. It is located on the Estoril Coast, in the Greater Lisbon subregion and it has an airport for general aviation serving the Lisbon Region in Tires, the Cascais Aerodrome, that offers domestic scheduled flights by Aero VIP. It was during the Neolithic that permanent settlements were established in the region, their inhabitants utilizing the natural grottoes, the bodies were buried along with offerings, a practice that continued to the Chalcolithic. Roman dominion over the territory influenced place names in the region, as was the case with the word Caparide, the development of Cascais began in earnest in the 12th century, when it was administratively subordinate to the town of Sintra, located to the north.
In its humble beginnings, Cascais depended on the products of the sea and land, during the 14th century, the population spread outside the walls of its fortress castle. The settlements prosperity led to its independence from Sintra in 1364. On 7 June 1364, the people of Cascais obtained from King Peter I the elevation of the village to the status of town, necessitating the appointment of local judges and administrators. The townspeople were consequently obligated to pay the Crown 200 pounds of gold annually, owing to the regions wealth, these obligations were easily satisfied. The castle of Cascais was likely constructed during this period, since by 1370, King Ferdinand had donated the castle and these privileges were passed on to his successors, among them João das Regras and the Counts of Monsanto, and the Marquess of Cascais. Meanwhile, despite its conquest and sack by Castilian forces in 1373, by the end of the 14th century this resulted in the creation of the parishes of Santa Maria de Cascais, São Vicente de Alcabideche and São Domingos de Rana.
From the Middle Ages onward, Cascais depended on fishing, maritime commerce, and agriculture producing wine, olive oil, due to its location at the mouth of the Tagus estuary, it was seen as a strategic post in the defence of Lisbon. Around 1488, King John II built a fortress in the town. On 15 November 1514, Manuel I conceded a foral to Cascais and it was followed on 11 June 1551 by a license from King John III to institutionalise the Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Cascais. The fortress was enlarged towards the end of the 16th century by King Philip I, turning it into a typical Renaissance citadel with the flat profile. Of these structures, the citadel of Cascais, which was constructed alongside the fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz, in 1755, the great Lisbon earthquake destroyed a large portion of the city
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I was King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain prior to the abolition in 1931. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his familys exile, Juan Carloss father, Don Juan, was the fourth child of Alfonso who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Don Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969, was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Francos successor, Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his education in 1955, he began his military training. Later, he attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, in 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Greece in Athens, daughter of King Paul. The couple had two daughters and a son together, Elena and Felipe, due to Francos declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spains head of state in the summer of 1974. Expected to continue Francos legacy, soon after his accession, Juan Carlos, introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy.
In 1981, Juan Carlos played a role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the Kings name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, in 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded the throne as Felipe VI. He was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias and he was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His early life was dictated largely by the concerns of his father. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow it and he began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza, Juan Carlos has two sisters, Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, and Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria. He had a brother, Alfonso.
On the evening of Holy Thursday,29 March 1956, Juan Carloss younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the familys home Villa Giralda in Estoril, Portugal. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infantes return from the Maundy Thursday religious service and it is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun that had apparently been given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, VA CI GCVO GBE RRC GCStJ was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. King Felipe VI of Spain is her great-great-grandson, Beatrice was the last of Queen Victorias children to die,65 years after the first, her sister Alice. Beatrices childhood coincided with Queen Victorias grief following the death of her husband Albert, as her elder sisters married and left their mother, Queen Victoria came to rely on the company of her youngest daughter, whom she called Baby for most of her childhood. Beatrice was brought up to stay with her mother always and she resigned herself to her fate. Queen Victoria was so set against her youngest daughter marrying that she refused to discuss the possibility and she was attracted to the Prince Imperial and there was talk of a possible marriage, but he was killed in the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879. Beatrice fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg, the son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia von Hauke and brother-in-law of her niece Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine.
Queen Victoria consented on condition that Beatrice and Henry make their home with her, the Prince and Princess had four children, but 10 years into their marriage, on 20 January 1896, Prince Henry died of malaria while fighting in the Anglo-Asante War. Beatrice remained at her mothers side until Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, Beatrice devoted the next 30 years to editing Queen Victorias journals as her designated literary executor and continued to make public appearances. She died at 87, outliving all her siblings, two of her children, and several nieces and nephews including George V and Wilhelm II, Beatrice was born at Buckingham Palace. She was the daughter and youngest of the nine children of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. The birth caused controversy when it was announced that Queen Victoria would seek relief from the pains of delivery through the use of chloroform administered by Dr John Snow, chloroform was considered dangerous to mother and child and was frowned upon by the Church of England and the medical authorities.
Queen Victoria was undeterred and used that blessed chloroform for her last pregnancy, a fortnight later, Queen Victoria reported in her journal, I was amply rewarded and forgot all I had gone through when I heard dearest Albert say Its a fine child, and a girl. She was christened in the chapel at Buckingham Palace on 16 June 1857. Her godparents were the Duchess of Kent, the Princess Royal, from birth, Beatrice became a favoured child. The elder favourite daughter of Prince Albert, the Princess Royal, was about to take up residence in Germany with her new husband, at the same time, the newly arrived Beatrice showed promise. Albert wrote to Augusta, Fritzs mother, that Baby practises her scales like a prima donna before a performance and has a good voice. Although Queen Victoria was known to dislike most babies, she liked Beatrice and this provided Beatrice with an advantage over her elder siblings. Queen Victoria once remarked that Beatrice was a pretty, with fine large blue eyes, pretty little mouth and very fine skin
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
The English chrism derives from Koine Greek via Latin and Old French. In Greek, khrîsma was originally the verbal noun of χρίειν, by extension, along with khrîma, khrîstai, and khrísma, it came to be used for the anointing oil or ointment itself. Khrísma came into Latin as chrisma, which appears in the works of Tertullian and this was adopted directly into Old English as crisma, which developed into Middle English crisme and various related spellings. In Old French, the original Latin was conflated with cramum, developing into cresme, the spelling chrism after the Latin original was generally adopted in the 16th century, after which cream came to be restricted to its present meaning. The Proto-Indo-European root from which the Greek term derived has been reconstructed as *ghrei- and this is cognate with Sanskrit ghṛtə and Hindi ghī, as well as Lithuanian grejù, griẽti, Middle Low German grēme, Old English grīma, English grime, and possibly Phrygian gegreimenan. Multiple early Christian documents discuss the ordinance or several ceremonies.
explained in the Apostolical Constitutions of chrism, including documents by Theophilus, cyril states that the ointment is the seal of the covenants of baptism and God’s promises to the Christian who is anointed. He says, Having been counted worthy of this Holy Chrism, ye are called Christians, for before you were deemed worthy of this grace, ye had properly no right to this title, but were advancing on your way towards being Christians. Chrism is essential for the Catholic Sacrament of Confirmation/Chrismation, and is used in the sacraments of Baptism. Those to be confirmed or chrismated, after receiving the laying on of hands, are anointed on the head by the bishop or priest, in baptism, if the person baptized is not to be immediately confirmed or chrismated, the minister anoints them with chrism. Newly ordained priests are anointed with chrism on the palms of their hands and it is used in the consecration of objects such as churches and altars. Before the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, chrism had to be used to consecrate patens and chalices as well.
The Sign of the Cross would be made with the chrism on the parts the chalice and paten where the Eucharist would rest. The chalice and paten would need to be consecrated with the chrism again if they were re-gilded and this ritual could only be performed by a Bishop or a priest with the faculties to do so. According to the rubrics, a simple blessing suffices, however, it is still permitted that the bishop performs the consecration with chrism. Chrism is made of oil and is scented with a sweet perfume. The oil of catechumens and the oil of the sick are blessed at this Mass. These holy oils are stored in special vessels known as chrismaria. When the oils are distributed to a priest for him to use in his ministry they are kept in a vessel with three compartments, known as an oil stock
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive