English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were owned by individuals who owned a town house. This allowed them to time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people. However, the term encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses. With large numbers of indoor and outdoor staff, country houses were important as places of employment for rural communities. In turn, until the agricultural depressions of the 1870s, the estates, of country houses were the hub. However, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were the swansong of the traditional English country house lifestyle, increased taxation and the effects of World War I led to the demolition of hundreds of houses, those that remained had to adapt to survive. While a château or a schloss can be a fortified or unfortified building, if fortified, it is called a castle, but not all buildings with the name castle are fortified.
The term stately home is subject to debate, and avoided by historians, as a description of a country house, the term was first used in a poem by Felicia Hemans, The Homes of England, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine in 1827. In the 20th century, the term was popularised in a song by Noël Coward. The books collection of homes includes George IVs Brighton town palace. The country houses of England have evolved over the last five hundred years, before this time, larger houses were usually fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors. The Tudor period of stability in the saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses. Henry VIIIs Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the Kings favourites, woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with abbey or priory in their name became private houses during this period. Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, court, mansion, house and place.
Burghley House, Longleat House, and Hatfield House are among the best known examples of the prodigy house. Some of the best known of Englands country houses were built by one architect at one time, Montacute House, Chatsworth House. They finally ran out of funds in the early 20th century, an example of this is Brympton dEvercy in Somerset, a house of many periods that is unified architecturally by the continuing use of the same mellow, local Ham Hill stone
Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona
Infante Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona, was the third surviving son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. His father was replaced by the Second Spanish Republic, and under his son, Juan Carlos I, as king of Spain, he would have been Juan III. Juan was born at the Palace of San Ildefonso and his father was forced into exile when the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931. Owing to the renunciations of his brothers Alfonso of Spain, Prince of Asturias and he thus received the title Prince of Asturias when he was serving with the Royal Navy in Bombay. In March 1935, he passed his exams in gunnery and navigation. This, however, he refused to do and he met his future wife at a party hosted by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy on the day before his sister was to be married. He married Princess María Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, known in Spain as Doña María de las Mercedes de Borbón Dos-Sicilias y Orleans, in Rome on 12 October 1935.
Just before the birth of the Infante Juan Carlos, the Count of Barcelona decided to go hunting, with the doctor telling him, when he was told of the birth he drove to the hospital so quickly that he broke an axle spring. They had four children, ten grandchildren and seventeen great-grandchildren, Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz she married Luis Gomez-Acebo y de Estrada and they have five children and nine grandchildren. Juan Carlos I of Spain he married Princess Sophia of Greece and they have three children and eight grandchildren. Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria she married Don Carlos Zurita y Delgado on 12 October 1972. Infante Alfonso of Spain They lived in Cannes and Rome, with the outbreak of World War II, they moved to Lausanne to live with his mother, they resided at Estoril, in Portugal. Don Juan became heir-apparent to the defunct Spanish throne after the renunciations of his two brothers and Jaime, both in 1933. To assert his claim to the throne, after his fathers death he used the title of Count of Barcelona, in 1936, his father sent him to enter Spain and participate in the uprising but, near the French border, General Mola arrested him and sent him back.
When General Francisco Franco declared Spain a monarchy in 1947, he characterised it as a restoration, Franco was afraid that Don Juan would turn out to be too liberal and roll back the Falangist state. Don Juan Carlos surprised many by his support of democratising Spain and Don Juan did not have a good relationship, with the Count constantly pressing Franco to restore the monarchy. Relations soured further when Juan called Franco an illegitimate usurper, while Franco claimed he had a claim to rule Spain than did Don Juan. Don Juan formally renounced his rights to the Crown eight years after being displaced as recognised heir to the throne by Franco, in return, his son officially granted him the title of Count of Barcelona, which he had claimed for so long
A boarding school is a school at which most or all of the students live during the part of the year that they go to lessons. The word boarding is used in the sense of bed and board, i. e. lodging, some boarding schools have day students who attend the institution by day and return to their families in the evenings. Many independent schools are boarding schools, Boarding school pupils normally return home during the school holidays and often weekends, but in some cultures may spend most of their childhood and adolescent life away from their families. In the United States, boarding schools comprise various grades, most commonly grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years, other schools are for younger children, grades two through eight. A military school, or military academy, features military education, in the former Soviet Union schools were introduced, these sometimes are known as Internat-schools. Some schools were a type of specialized school with a focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, language, sports.
Other schools were associated with orphanages after all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs, general schools offered extended stay programs featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work. In post-soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country, the term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. Pupils generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds, they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times, depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options, weekly, or on a flexible schedule. Each may be assisted in the management of the house by a housekeeper often known as matron.
In the U. S. boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm and they have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older pupils are often unsupervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior pupils, houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes, in some schools, day pupils are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Each student has a timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion. Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the day to include sports and societies
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. They are usually called ministers, but in some jurisdictions are sometimes called secretaries, in some countries, the cabinet is called Council of Ministers or Government Council or lesser known names such as Federal Council, Inner Council or High Council. These countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is used or established, in some countries, particularly those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the governments direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In this way, the President gets opinions and advice in upcoming decisions, instead, it is usually the Head of Government who holds all means of power in his hands and the Cabinet reports to him. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of minister, in a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and United States, the title of secretary is used for some Cabinet members.
In many countries, a Secretary is a member with an inferior rank to a minister. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in others this is strictly prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. The size of cabinets varies, although most contain around ten to twenty ministers, researchers have found an inverse correlation between a countrys level of development and cabinet size, on average, the more developed a country is, the smaller is its cabinet. In the United Kingdom and its colonies, cabinets began as smaller sub-groups of the English Privy Council, the term comes from the name for a relatively small and private room used as a study or retreat. The process has repeated itself in recent times, as leaders have felt the need to have a Kitchen Cabinet or sofa government, under the Westminster system, members of the cabinet are Ministers of the Crown who are collectively responsible for all government policy. All ministers, whether senior and in the cabinet or junior ministers, must publicly support the policy of the government, the cabinet may provide ideas on/if new laws were established, and what they include.
Cabinet deliberations are secret and documents dealt with in cabinet are confidential, in theory the prime minister or premier is first among equals. In some countries, the ministers are referred to as spokespersons. A prime ministerial government is a government where the minister is dominant in terms of the executive. As the prime minister is, by definition, a member of a cabinet – this form of government is often a development from cabinet government, in true cabinet government the prime minister is primus inter pares, where prime ministerial government necessitates the crossing of this boundary. An often cited example of ministerial government is the United Kingdom. Thatcher began using bilateral meetings with ministers to determine policy areas using cabinet to simply announce these decisions. Due to the extent of her success, and her control over cabinet positions, despite John Major moving back towards cabinet government, Tony Blair carried on Thatchers approach
Sir is an honorific address used in a number of situations in many anglophone cultures. The term can be used as a prefix, especially in the Commonwealth, for males who have been given certain honours or titles. The term is commonly used as a respectful way to address a man. Equivalent terms of address to females are maam or madam in most cases, or in the case of a woman, girl, or unmarried woman who prefers to be addressed as such. The equivalent term for a woman or baronetess is Dame. Sir derives from the Middle French honorific title sire, sire developed alongside the word seigneur, used to refer to a feudal lord. Both derived from the Vulgar Latin senior, sire comes from the nominative case declension senior and seigneur, the prefix is used with the holders given name or full name, but never with the surname alone. For example, whilst Sir Alexander and Sir Alexander Fleming would be correct, the equivalent for a female who holds a knighthood or baronetcy in her own right is Dame, and follows the same usage customs as Sir.
For example, while Lady Fiennes is correct, Lady Virginia, the widows of knights retain the style of wives of knights, however widows of baronets are either referred to as dowager, or use their forename before their courtesy style. For example, the widow of Sir Thomas Herbert Cochrane Troubridge, 4th Baronet, would either be known as Dowager Lady Troubridge or Laura, Lady Troubridge. Examples include, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Bruce Fraser, GCB, KBE Field Marshal Sir Thomas Blamey, GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED This is the case with academic titles, such as professor. For example, Patrick Bateson is both a professor and a bachelor, his correct title would be Professor Sir Patrick Bateson. The title of Doctor, however, is not used in combination with sir, knighted doctors are addressed as knights, though they may still use any post-nominal letters associated with their degrees. Church of England clergy who receive knighthoods do not use the title Sir, for example, the Reverend Dr John Polkinghorne, KBE is never referred to as Sir John Polkinghorne.
Clergy of other denominations may use different conventions, peers who have been knighted are not addressed as Sir in the formal sense of the style, as their titles of nobility take precedence. Other male heirs of an earl who lack courtesy titles, and the heirs of a viscount or baron, do however use the style of Sir if knighted. Dual nationals holding a Commonwealth citizenship that recognise the British monarch as head of state are entitled to use the styling, the permissibility of using the style of Sir varies. Regular creation of new knights of the order ended in 1921 upon the formation of the Irish Free State, with the death of the last knight in 1974, the Order became dormant
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I was King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain prior to the abolition in 1931. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his familys exile, Juan Carloss father, Don Juan, was the fourth child of Alfonso who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Don Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969, was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Francos successor, Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his education in 1955, he began his military training. Later, he attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, in 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Greece in Athens, daughter of King Paul. The couple had two daughters and a son together, Elena and Felipe, due to Francos declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spains head of state in the summer of 1974. Expected to continue Francos legacy, soon after his accession, Juan Carlos, introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy.
In 1981, Juan Carlos played a role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the Kings name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, in 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded the throne as Felipe VI. He was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias and he was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His early life was dictated largely by the concerns of his father. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow it and he began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza, Juan Carlos has two sisters, Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, and Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria. He had a brother, Alfonso.
On the evening of Holy Thursday,29 March 1956, Juan Carloss younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the familys home Villa Giralda in Estoril, Portugal. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infantes return from the Maundy Thursday religious service and it is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun that had apparently been given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired
Alfonso XIII of Spain
Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year, Alfonsos mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. With the political failure of the dictatorship, Alfonso impelled a return to the democratic normality with the intention of regenerating the regime, nevertheless, it was abandoned by all political classes, as they felt betrayed by the kings support of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. He left Spain voluntarily after the elections of April 1931. In exile, he retained his claim to the throne until 1941. Buried in Rome, his remains were not transferred until 1980 to the Pantheon of the Kings in the monastery of El Escorial, Alfonso was born in Madrid on 17 May 1886. He was the son of Alfonso XII of Spain, who had died in November 1885. The French newspaper Le Figaro described the king in 1889 as the happiest.
His mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent until his 16th birthday, during the regency, in 1898, Spain lost its colonial rule over Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. When he came of age in May 1902, the week of his majority was marked by festivities, balls, by 1905, Alfonso was looking for a suitable consort. On a state visit to the United Kingdom, he stayed at Buckingham Palace with King Edward VII, there he met Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the Scottish-born daughter of Edwards youngest sister Princess Beatrice, and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. He found her attractive, and she returned his interest, there were obstacles to the marriage. Victoria was a Protestant, and would have to become a Catholic, Victorias brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50 percent chance that Victoria was a carrier of the trait. Victoria was willing to change her religion, and her being a carrier was only a possibility.
Maria Christina was eventually persuaded to drop her opposition, in January 1906 she wrote an official letter to Princess Beatrice proposing the match. Victoria met Maria Christina and Alfonso in Biarritz, that month, in May, diplomats of both kingdoms officially executed the agreement of marriage. Alfonso and Victoria were married at the Royal Monastery of San Jerónimo in Madrid on 31 May 1906, with British royalty in attendance, including Victorias cousins the Prince, the wedding was marred by an assassination attempt on Alfonso and Victoria by Catalan anarchist Mateu Morral. As the wedding procession returned to the palace, he threw a bomb from a window which killed or injured several bystanders and members of the procession, on 10 May 1907, the couples first child, Prince of Asturias, was born
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. As a conservative and a monarchist, he opposed the abolition of the monarchy, with the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the generals, Franco quickly became his factions only leader. Leaving half a million dead, the war was won by Franco in 1939. He established a dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state. Franco proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title El Caudillo, under Franco, Spain became a one-party state, as the various conservative and royalist factions were merged into the fascist party and other political parties were outlawed. Although Francos Spain maintained a policy of neutrality during World War II.
Francos regime has been called a fascist one, Spain was isolated by the international community for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being openly totalitarian, by the 1960s Spain saw incremental reforms and progressive economic development. After a 36-year rule, Franco died in 1975 and he restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. After a referendum, a new constitution was adopted, which transformed Spain into a democracy under a constitutional monarchy. Franco was born at half past noon on December 4,1892, at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol and his father was of Andalusian ancestry. His mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade, Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913, to his fathers chagrin, Francisco decided to try the Spanish Army.
In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo, graduating in 1910 as a lieutenant, two years later, he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif War with native Moroccans and their tactics resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, and provided an opportunity to earn promotion through merit. It was said that officers would receive either la caja o la faja, Franco quickly gained a reputation as a good officer
House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is a cadet Italian branch of the Spanish line of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line, the name of Bourbon-Two Sicilies comes from the main name and the other from the title King of the Two Sicilies, itself a merger of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples, the two had been separated since the Sicilian Vespers of 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept Sicily, and his bastard son Ferdinand. In 1861 Two Sicilies became part of the newly founded Kingdom of Italy, when Prince Ferdinand Pius died in 1960, he left no direct male descendant, and two branches of the family claimed the right to succeed him as head of the house. Ferdinand Pius had two brothers and Ranieri. By the rule of primogeniture, headship would normally pass to Carlos, Alfonso offered a different interpretation of the Act of Cannes, describing it as effective only if Carlos should succeed to the Spanish throne.
He took the position that the Act of Cannes was invalid under the rules of the house of Two Sicilies itself. Children and male-line grandchildren of the King of the Two Sicilies bore the title Prince Royal of the Two Sicilies with the style of Royal Highness. Other agnatic descendants of the King, born of authorized marriages, the title of princess is born by the wives of the princes of the house provided the marriage is approved
Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
If Mateu Morral’s attempt to assassinate King Alfonso XIII of Spain had succeeded, Infante Alfonso would have become at that moment the King of Spain. Raised from infancy side-by-side with his king, Juan Carlos I. The school was the site of a house, Las Jarillas, located 10 miles north of Madrid. The princes obtained their bacs from the Colegiata de San Isidro de Madrid, Carlos lived in Madrid with his family. Their assets included agricultural properties in Toledo and Ciudad Real and he held investments in major companies, including Repsol and Telefonica. In April 1961 Carlos met his wife, Princess Anne of Orléans in Madrid, at the wedding of his elder sister, Princess Teresa, with Don Iñigo Moreno. Two months Anne was invited to and visited the home of Carloss parents at Toledana, by the end of 1963 the secret was out, French news media pictured the couple together and speculated about the date when the engagement of the royal couple would be announced publicly. Carloss father, Infante Alfonso, had asserted himself as heir because his late father.
The Comte de Paris withheld his consent, thus plans for the marriage were dropped. Carloss father died in 1964, and with patience and compromise from afar, michele Carrelli Palombi dei Marchesi di Raiano Nob. Teresa Carrelli Palombi dei Marchesi di Raiano Nob, blanca Carrelli Palombi dei Marchesi di Raiano Princess Victoria of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, married Greek shipowner Markos Nomikos in 2003. Following marriage and his wife remained for sometime guests of the Marquès de Decio, in 1966 the couple took up residence in a large apartment in the heart of Madrid. Carlos launched a professional specialization in law and banking. After his fathers death in 1964 he managed his familys large agricultural holdings in Spain, Infante Carlos was one of two claimants of the dignity of Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies. The other claimant was his second cousin Prince Carlo of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Prince Carlo of Bourbon, grandfather of the Infante, is alleged to have renounced his rights by signing the Act of Cannes.
While Duke of Castro is a title that belongs to the Head of the Royal House along with Duke of Parma, Duke of Calabria is a title of the Crown Prince, corresponding to the Spanish Prince of Asturias or the British Prince of Wales. He died on 5 October 2015 at the age of 77 and she is the closest known genealogical representative of King Edward the Confessor, and the direct genealogical representative of King David I of Scotland. After Infanta Alicias death Carloss son Pedro will presumably become the titular King of Navarre, THE HEAD OF THE ROYAL HOUSE – official website of the Royal House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Mercedes, Princess of Asturias
María de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, was the eldest child of King Alfonso XII of Spain and his second wife, Maria Christina of Austria. She was Princess of Asturias, the heir presumptive to the Crown of Spain, had her younger sibling, unborn at the death of Alfonso XII, been a daughter, Mercedes would have been queen regnant of Spain. The sibling proved to be a boy, Alfonso XIII, and on his birth in 1886, the marriage was highly controversial due to her father-in-laws ties with the Carlists. She died three years from complication while giving birth to her third child, born on 11 September 1880 at the Royal Palace of Madrid, Mercedes was the eldest daughter of King Alfonso XII and his second wife, Maria Christina of Austria. She was christened María de las Mercedes Isabel Teresa Cristina Alfonsa and her godmother was Queen Isabella II, her paternal grandmother, who came from retirement in Paris to attend the birth of her first grandchild. There was great disappointment because family and nation were hoping for a boy, to smooth thing out, Queen Maria Christina suggested giving her daughter the name Mercedes in honor of her husbands first wife, Mercedes of Orléans.
Mercedes was heir presumptive from her birth, but the disappointment was so great that she was initially treated only as an infanta, on 12 November 1882, Mercedes gained a sister, Infanta Maria Teresa. The marriage of their parents was unhappy, Alfonso had married Maria Christina in order to secure the succession to the throne. He did not love his wife and was disappointed when she gave birth to two daughters, while he already had two extramarital sons, in July 1883, Maria Christina left the Spanish court and traveled with her daughters to visit her own family in Austria. By the summer of 1884, Alfonso XIIs health deteriorated, he had tuberculosis, after a brief improvement, the 27-year-old king died on 25 November 1885 leaving his wife pregnant. The birth of another sister would have made Mercedes queen, but the sibling proved to be a boy and she resumed the position of heir presumptive, which she held for the rest of her life. Mercedes made her first public appearance at the court by the hand of her mother when Queen Maria Christina was declared regent.
The Queen brought up her three children strictly, despite her constitutional status, Mercedes was not given an education that would have prepared her to govern the nation. She received instead the conventional upbringing of princesses of her time, there were piano and painting lessons, knitting practices and the Queen involved her daughter in palace duties. Particular attention was paid to obedience and religious precepts, Mercedes grew up to be a serious young woman and unprepossessing. She was more Habsburg in appearance due to her long face, the family spent the summer months in the Palace of Miramar in San Sebastián. The situation in Spain became more complicated with the Spanish–American War in 1898, Mercedes and her sister lived a restricted life. Their conservative mother did not allow them to part in the social life of the Spanish nobility
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, commerce, entertainment, international trade, culture and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics.
In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil.
In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat common