Toulouse is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region. The city lies on the banks of the River Garonne,150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea,230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and it is the fourth-largest city in France with 466,297 inhabitants in January 2014. The Toulouse Metro area is, with 1312304 inhabitants as of 2014, Frances 4th metropolitan area after Paris and Marseille and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, the Airbus Group, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. The city hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNESs Toulouse Space Centre, thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites, Airbus Groups satellite system subsidiary, have a significant presence in Toulouse. The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the Universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014, according to the rankings of LExpress and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, the city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a subtropical climate which can be qualified as submediterranean due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone. The Garonne Valley was a point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost.
After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm, in 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odos victory was an obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe. Charles Martel, a later, won the Battle of Tours. The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century
The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft Freemasonry, members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are usually supervised and governed at the level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient. There is no international, worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry, each Grand Lodge is independent, modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Continental Freemasonry is now the term for the liberal jurisdictions who have removed some, or all. The Masonic Lodge is the organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets regularly to conduct the formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, at the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song.
The bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies, candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice. Some time later, in a ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft. In all of ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords, signs. Another ceremony is the installation of the Master and officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, in other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, and no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of calendar, allowing Masons. Often coupled with events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity. This occurs at both Lodge and Grand Lodge level, Masonic charities contribute to many fields from education to disaster relief. These private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, and a Freemason will necessarily have been initiated into one of these, there exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate anything from sport to Masonic research
Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier
Infanta María Luisa Fernanda of Spain, Duchess of Montpensier was Infanta of Spain and Duchess of Montpensier. She was the youngest daughter of king Ferdinand VII of Spain and his fourth wife Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, the queen-regent, Isabella had been engaged to their first cousin the Duke of Cádiz, who was known to be homosexual and rumored impotent. Their kinsman, the King of the French calculated that no children would be born from Isabellas marriage, for this purpose, Luisa Fernanda was engaged to the Duke of Montpensier, the youngest son of king Louis Philippe, who was Luisas mothers first cousin. The couple moved to Paris and to Sevilla, the relationship between Isabella and her sister was tense, due to Antoines conspiracies against the queen. Antoines father was deposed in 1848, the same year, the 16-year-old Luisa Fernanda gave birth to their first child, Maria Isabel. After Isabella was deposed, the family went to exile, Luisa returned to Sevilla years later, already widowed, where she died.
Luisa Fernanda and Antoine had nine children, but only five reached adulthood, Infanta Maria Isabel, who married her first cousin Philippe, comte de Paris, the French claimant, and became known as Marie Isabelle, comtesse de Paris. She had several children, including Princess Louise of Orléans, the grandmother of King Juan Carlos I. After her younger sister Mercedes died, she was engaged to Alfonso XII, five years her junior, Infanta Maria de las Mercedes, otherwise Princess Marie des Graces dOrleans-Montpensier, who married her first cousin Alfonso XII and is historically known as Mercedes of Orléans, Queen of Spain. Infante Felipe Raimundo Maria Infante Antonio, Duke of Galliera, became Duke of Galliera in Italy, general of the Spanish Air Force. Infante Luís, who married Marie Charlotte Say, Infante Luis Maria Felipe Antonio Of all her children, just Marie Isabelle de Paris and Antonio di Galliera left issue. Through Antonio, the now non-royal line of dukes of Galliera continues, Alfonsos grandchildren lost royal status because of non-dynastic marriages.
The current Duke of Galliera is Alfonsos great-grandson, Don Alfonso Francesco de Orléans-Borbón y Ferarra-Pignatelli, for this, the King bring his own money in exchange for placing one of his descendants in the Ecuadorian throne. For this, the money needed for the expedtition probably coming from the king Louis Philippe I
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations armed forces, fire service or police. The meaning of lieutenant differs in different military formations, but is often subdivided into senior and junior ranks, in navies it is often equivalent to the army rank of captain, it may indicate a particular post rather than a rank. The rank is used in fire services, emergency medical services, security services. Lieutenant may appear as part of a used in various other organisations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is second-in-command, and as such, for example, a lieutenant master is likely to be second-in-command to the master in an organisation using both ranks. Political uses include lieutenant governor in various governments, and Quebec lieutenant in Canadian politics, in the United Kingdom, a lord lieutenant is the sovereigns representative in a county or lieutenancy area, while a deputy lieutenant is one of the lord lieutenants deputies. However, their efforts failed, and the French word is used, along with its many variations.
The early history of the pronunciation is unclear, Middle English spellings suggest that the /luː-/ and /lɛf-/ pronunciations may have existed even then. The rare Old French variant spelling luef for Modern French lieu supports the suggestion that a final of the Old French word was in certain environments perceived as an, in Royal Naval tradition—and other English-speaking navies outside the United States—a reduced pronunciation /ləˈtɛnənt/ is used. This is not recognised as current by recent editions of the OED, conventionally and other services or branches which use army-style rank titles have two grades of lieutenant, but a few use a third, more junior, rank. Where more junior officers were employed as deputies to the lieutenant, they went by names, including second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant, ensign. The senior grade of lieutenant is known as first lieutenant in the United States, and as lieutenant in the United Kingdom, in countries which do not speak English, the rank title usually translates as lieutenant, but may translate as first lieutenant or senior lieutenant.
The Israel Defense Forces rank segen literally translates as deputy, which is equivalent to a lieutenant, there is great variation in the insignia used worldwide. In most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, as well as a number of European and South American nations, an example of an exception is the United States, whose armed forces distinguish their lieutenant ranks with one silver bar for first lieutenant and one gold bar for second lieutenant. Second lieutenant is usually the most junior grade of commissioned officer, in non-English-speaking countries, the equivalent rank title may translate as second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant or junior lieutenant. Non-English terms include alferes, alférez, fänrik, Leutnant, poručík, a few non-English-speaking militaries maintain a lower rank, frequently translated as third lieutenant OF1c. The rank title may translate as second lieutenant, junior lieutenant, sub-lieutenant or ensign. Warsaw Pact countries standardised their ranking systems on the Soviet system, some of the former Soviet and Warsaw Pact nations have now discarded the third rank while many retain it like Bulgaria
Maria Luisa of Parma
Maria Luisa of Parma was Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808 as the wife of King Charles IV of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and his wife, Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France, born in Parma, she was christened Luisa Maria Teresa Anna, but is known to history by the short Spanish form of this name, María Luisa. Her parents had been the Duke and Duchess of Parma since 1749 and she, her brother Ferdinand, and her sister Isabella were educated in Parma by Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, a well-known French philosopher. María Luisas mother tried to engage her to Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the young duke died in 1761. In 1762 Maria Luisa instead became engaged to Charles, Prince of Asturias, King Charles IV of Spain, as there was no queen in Spain at that time, María Luisa became the first lady in precedence at the court from the beginning of her residence there. Her husband was the son and heir of the widowed Charles III of Spain, previously Duke of Parma and King of Naples, due to pressure from Napoleon I, Marías husband abdicated the throne of Spain and spent the rest of his life in exile.
When Napoleons army invaded the country, several pamphlets blamed her for the abdication, María Luisa spent some years in France and in Rome. Both María Luisa and her husband died in Italy in early 1819, in 1792, the Order of Queen Maria Luisa for women was founded on her suggestion. Maria Luisa married her first cousin Charles IV, in 1765, a miscarriage of a daughter in the 6th month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage of a son in the 4th and a half month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage of a son in the 5th and a half month of pregnancy. A miscarriage of a son in the 4th and a month of pregnancy. EPTON, The Spanish mousetrap and the Court of Spain, HILT, The troubled trinity and the Spanish monarchs
Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
As Carlos V, he was the first of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain. He is often referred to simply as Don Carlos and he was a reactionary who was angry with liberalism in Spain and the assaults on the Catholic Church. He claimed the throne of Spain after the death of his older brother King Ferdinand VII in 1833 and his claim was contested by liberal forces loyal to the dead kings infant daughter. The result was the bloody First Carlist War, Don Carlos had support from Basque provinces and much of Catalonia, but it was not enough, and he lost the war and never became king. His heirs continued the cause, fought two more Carlist wars and were active into the mid-20th century, but never obtained the throne. Carlos was born on 29 March 1788 at the Palacio Real de Aranjuez in Aranjuez, in 1808, Napoleon captured Madrid in the Battle of Somosierra, and he induced Carloss father Charles IV and Carlos older brother Ferdinand VII to renounce their rights to the throne of Spain. But Carlos, who was heir presumptive to his brother, refused to renounce his rights to the throne, from 1808 until 1814, he and his brothers were prisoners of Napoleon at Valençay in France.
In 1814, Carlos and the rest of the Spanish royal family returned to Madrid, in September 1816, he married his niece Infanta Maria Francisca of Portugal, daughter of King John VI of Portugal and Carlos sister Carlota Joaquina. Francisca was sister of the wife of Carlos brother, Ferdinand VII. Ferdinand VII had found it necessary to cooperate with the moderate liberals. Carlos, was known for his belief in the divine right of kings to govern absolutely, the rigid orthodoxy of his religious opinions. During the revolutionary troubles of 1820–1823, Carlos was threatened by the extreme radicals, in May 1830, Ferdinand VII published the Pragmatic Sanction, again allowing daughters to succeed to the Spanish throne as well as sons. This decree had originally approved by the Cortes in 1789. On 10 October 1830, Ferdinands wife gave birth to a daughter Isabella, the clerical party continued to support the rights of Carlos to the throne. They considered the Pragmatic Sanction not only impractical but illegal and they intrigued in favour of Carlos, but he himself would do no more than assert his rights in words.
His wife and her sister, Maria Teresa, the princess of Beira, in March 1833, Ferdinand authorised Carlos to go to Portugal with his wife and sister-in-law. The authorisation was in fact an order to remove Carlos and his adherents from Spain, in April 1833, Ferdinand called upon Carlos to take an oath of allegiance to Isabella as Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally used by the first in line to the throne. In respectful but firm terms, Carlos refused and he had no personal desire for the throne, but he was adamant that he could not renounce what he considered to be his God-given rights and responsibilities. Ferdinand VII died on 29 September 1833, in Madrid, his widow declared herself regent for their daughter
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile
A frigate /ˈfrɪɡᵻt/ is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries. In the 17th century, this term was used for any warship built for speed and maneuverability and these could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks. The term was used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle. In the late 19th century, the frigate was a type of ironclad warship that for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat. The term frigate was used because such ships still mounted their principal armaments on a continuous upper deck. Ship classes dubbed frigates have more closely resembled corvettes, cruisers. The rank frigate captain derives from the name of type of ship. The term frigate originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a lighter galleass type ship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for speed and maneuverability.
The etymology of the word is unknown, although it may have originated as a corruption of aphractus, aphractus was, in turn, derived from the Ancient Greek phrase ἄφρακτος ναῦς, or undefended ship. In 1583, during the Eighty Years War, Habsburg Spain recovered the Southern Netherlands from the rebellious Dutch and this soon led to the occupied ports being used as bases for privateers, the Dunkirkers, to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this they developed small, sailing vessels that came to be referred to as frigates, in French, the term frigate became a verb, meaning to build long and low, and an adjective, adding further confusion. Even the huge English Sovereign of the Seas could be described as a frigate by a contemporary after her upper decks were reduced in 1651. The navy of the Dutch Republic was the first navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates, the first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the Netherlands, and the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade.
The third task required heavy armament, sufficient to fight against the Spanish fleet, the first of these larger battle-capable frigates were built around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. The effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most visible in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, encouraging most other navies, especially the English, to adopt similar designs. The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s generally consisted of ships described as frigates, the largest of which were two-decker great frigates of the third rate. Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as big and capable as great ships of the time, most other frigates at the time were used as cruisers, independent fast ships. The term frigate implied a long hull design, which relates directly to speed and also, in turn, in Danish, the word fregat is often applied to warships carrying as few as 16 guns, such as HMS Falcon which the British classified as a sloop
Antoine, Duke of Montpensier
Antoine dOrléans was a member of the French royal family in the House of Orléans. He was the youngest son of King Louis Philippe of France and he was styled as the Duke of Montpensier. He was born on 31 July 1824 at the château de Neuilly and died 4 February 1890 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain. On 10 October 1846 at Madrid, Spain, he married Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain, Maria Isabel, who married her first cousin Philippe, comte de Paris, the French claimant, and became known as Marie Isabelle, comtesse de Paris. Mercedes, otherwise Princess Marie des Graces dOrleans-Montpensier, who married her first cousin Alfonso XII and is known as Mercedes of Orleans. Antonio, became Duke of Galliera in Italy and he married his first cousin Infanta Eulalia of Spain, daughter of Isabella II, and had two sons. Luis Maria Felipe Antonio Antoine de Montpensier lived in Spain from 1848 when he, during the Spanish revolution of 1868, he supported the insurgents under Juan Prim against Queen Isabella II of Spain, his own sister-in-law.
In 1870 he fought a duel against Infante Enrique, Duke of Seville, the brother of Francis, Duke of Cádiz, Antoine was convicted and sentenced to one month in prison. On 16 November 1870 the Cortes voted for the next king, Antoine only received 27 votes, and left Spain, only to return in 1874. His ambitions were fulfilled by his daughter Mercedes, who became Queen of Spain after her marriage to Alfonso XII, son of Isabella II