Maria Amalia of Saxony
She was the mother of thirteen children, many of whom died in childhood. A popular consort, she oversaw the construction of the Caserta Palace outside Naples as well as other projects in her husbands domains. Moving to Spain in 1759, she set about the improvements to the Royal Palace of Madrid. Maria Amalia was politically active and openly participated in affairs in both Naples and Spain. She was born at Dresden Castle in Dresden, the daughter of Augustus III of Poland, Elector of Saxony and Maria Josepha of Austria, herself daughter of Joseph I and her mother was the first cousin of Empress Maria Theresa. The infant was baptised with the names Maria Amalia Christina Franziska Xaveria Flora Walburga and her youngest sister, Princess Kunigunde was a possible wife for the future Philippe Égalité. She grew up at the court of Dresden and was educated in French and she was an accomplished musician and sang and played the keyboard from an early age. In 1738 Maria Amalia became engaged to Charles, King of Naples and Sicily, the impenetrable secret negotiations had taken place earlier in Vienna, where the Dowager Empress Wilhelmina Amalia, grandmother of Maria Amalia, played an important part in the negotiations.
The Spanish ambassador in Vienna, Count Fuenclara, acted on behalf of the courts of Madrid and Naples, in December 1737, a papal dispensation was made, and the marriage announced in the beginning 1738. On May 8,1738, Maria Amalia had a ceremony at Dresden with her brother, Frederick Christian of Saxony. Since this marriage was looked upon favorably by the papacy, it soothed the diplomatic disagreements between Charles and the Papal states, on July 4,1738, Maria Amalia arrived at Naples and to what was described as a euphoric welcome. The couple met for the first time on June 19,1738 at Portella, at court, festivities lasted till July 3 when Charles created the Royal order of San Gennaro – the most prestigious chivalric order in the kingdom. He had the Order of Charles III created in Spain on 19 September 1771, despite being an arranged marriage, the couple became very close, it was noted and reported to her mother-in-law in Spain, that Charles seemed happy and pleased when he first met her.
Maria Amalia was described as a beauty and as a skillful rider, as Queen, she exerted great influence upon politics despite her frequent illnesses, and she actively participated in state affairs. He displeasure led directly to the latter being deposed as prime minister, Maria Amalia did not need to keep her influence secret, after the birth of her first son in 1747, she was given a seat in the council of state. In 1744, however she was forced to agree to declare war and she favored Great Britain before France and Austria. Maria Amalia was talked about because of her favorites, which were to have influence over her policy when she was ill, such as princess Anna Francesca Pinelli. In 1754, she supported the career of Bernardo Tanucci as Foreign Minister, they left Naples before its completion due to her declining health so they never actually lived in the palace
Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira
Maria Teresa Francisca de Assis Antónia Carlota Joana Josefa Xavier de Paula Micaela Rafaela Isabel Gonzaga was born in Ajuda, Lisbon in 1793. As the eldest child of the heir to the Portuguese monarch, Maria Teresa was the eldest daughter of King John VI of Portugal, the heir-apparent of the reigning queen Maria I of Portugal, and his wife Carlota Joaquina, daughter of Charles IV of Spain. She was married on 13 May 1810 in Rio de Janeiro to her cousin Infante Pedro Carlos, Prince of Spain and she was widowed on 26 May 1812, soon after giving birth to her only child, a son, Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain. In the last years of the reign of her uncle Ferdinand VII of Spain, Teresa lived in Madrid and she participated in the First Carlist War, being a leading supporter of Carlism and reactionary interests. Her sister Francisca, Titular Queen of Spain, wife of Carlos, on 15 January 1837, the Cortes of Spain legislated her excluded from the Spanish succession, rights belonging to her in descent from her mother, on grounds of her being a rebel along with Don Carlos.
Her son Sebastians rights were excluded, but he was later, in 1859. Also don Carlos sons and Teresas brother Miguel I of Portugal were excluded at the same law, the second marriage remained childless, but she took care of her stepsons, who were her nephews and cousins. They soon left Spain because of unsuccess in the civil war and she died in Trieste on 17 January 1874, having survived her second husband by nineteen years. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, descendants of John VI of Portugal House of Bourbon-Braganza
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust, was a Roman historian and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family. Sallust was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines and was a popularis, an opponent of the old Roman aristocracy, throughout his career, and a partisan of Julius Caesar. Sallust is the earliest known Roman historian with surviving works to his name, of which Catilines War, The Jugurthine War, Sallust was primarily influenced by the Greek historian Thucydides and amassed great wealth from his governorship of Africa. Sallust was probably born in Amiternum in Central Italy, though Eduard Schwartz takes the view that Sallusts birthplace was Rome and his birth date is calculated from the report of Jeromes Chronicon. But the New Zealander Ronald Syme suggests that Jeromes date has to be adjusted because of his carelessness, Sallusts birth is widely dated at 86 BC, and the Kleine Pauly Encyclopedia takes 1 October 86 BC as the birthdate. Michael Grant cautiously offers 80s BC, there is no information about Sallusts parents or family, except for Tacitus mention of his sister.
The Sallustii were a noble family of Sabine origin. They belonged to the order and had full Roman citizenship. During the Social War Gaius parents hid in Rome, because Amiternum was under threat of siege by rebelling Italic tribes, because of this Sallust could have been raised in Rome He received a very good education. After an ill-spent youth, Sallust entered public life and may have won election as quaestor in 55 BC and he became a Tribune of the Plebs in 52 BC, the year in which the followers of Milo killed Clodius in a street brawl. Sallust supported the prosecution of Milo, Titus Munatius Plancus and Quintus Pompeius Rufus tried to blame Cicero, one of the leaders of the Senators opposition to the triumvirate, for his support of Milo. Syme suggests that Sallust, because of his position in Milos trial, T. Mommsen states that Sallust acted in Pompeys interests. According to one inscription, some Sallustius was a proquaestor in Syria in 50 BC under Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. Mommsen identified this Sallustius with Sallust the historian, though T. R. S.
Broughton argued that Sallust the historian could not have been an assistant to Julius Caesars adversary. From the beginning of his career, Sallust operated as a decided partisan of Julius Caesar. In 50 BC, the censor Appius Claudius Pulcher removed him from the Senate on the grounds of gross immorality, in the following year, perhaps through Caesars influence, he was reinstated. During the Civil War of 49–45 BC Sallust acted as Caesars partisan and it was reported that Sallust dined with Caesar, Oppius and Sulpicius Rufus on the night after Caesars famous crossing of the Rubicon river into Italy on 10 January. In 49 BC Sallust was moved to Illyricum and probably commanded at least one legion there after the failure of Publius Cornelius Dolabella, in 48 BC he was probably made quaestor by Caesar to re-enter the Senate
Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spains foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746, from 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent. Elisabeth was born at the Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, daughter of Odoardo Farnese, Elisabeth would become the heiress of her fathers dominions after her uncle Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma and his younger brother both remained childless. Elisabeth was raised in seclusion in an apartment in the Palace in Parma and she had a difficult relationship with her mother, but was reportedly deeply devoted to her uncle-stepfather. She was a student within dance, studied painting under Pierantonio Avanzini and enjoyed music. She survived a virulent attack of smallpox shortly after the War of the Spanish Succession and she was therefore made many marriage proposals. Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont and Francesco dEste, Hereditary Prince of Modena both asked for her hand but negotiations failed, as well as Prince Pio della Mirandola.
The Duchy of Parma would be inherited by her first son, after his accession to the Spanish throne, the title passed on to her third son, Infante Felipe. It was he who founded the modern day House of Bourbon-Parma, on 16 September 1714 she was married by proxy at Parma to Philip V of Spain. The marriage was arranged by the ambassador of Parma, Cardinal Alberoni, with the concurrence of the Princesse des Ursins, Elisabeth was a natural choice for Philip V because of the traditional Spanish interests in Italian provinces, as she was the heir of the Parmesan throne. Elisabeth left Parma in September and traveled to Spain by land in a retinue led by Marquis Schotta, originally intended to travel by sea, she became ill in Genova, and the plans were therefore altered. On her way to Spain, she met the Prince of Monaco and the French ambassador, Elisabeth spent several days in Bayonne in November as guest of her maternal aunt, the Queen Dowager Maria Anna of Spain. At the Franco-Spanish border, she was met by Alberoni, who spent several days warning her against des Ursins, upon entrance to Spain, she refused to part with her Italian retinue in exchange with a Spanish one, as had originally been planned.
On 23 December at Jadraque, Elisabeth met the Princesse des Ursins, the princess had sent out spies who reported that Elisabeth was in fact not at all a timid person who would be easy to control. Elisabeth received des Ursins and asked to speak with her privately, shortly after, the party could hear the sounds of a violent argument, after which des Ursins was arrested and immediately escorted over the border to France. There have been different versions of this incident, and different suggestions as to how it occurred. Her chief adviser was Alberoni, who guided her as how to protect the interests of herself and Parma, while he himself, Queen Elisabeth quickly obtained complete influence over Philip, who himself wished to be dominated. Reportedly she had physical charm and purposefulness, she was intelligent and could converse, be gay and charming, the king did not live in his own apartments but in the queens, where he spent the whole night
Maria I of Portugal
Dona Maria I was Queen of Portugal and the Algarves. Known as Maria the Pious, or Maria the Mad, she was the first undisputed Queen regnant of Portugal, with Napoleons European conquests, her court, under the direction of Prince Dom João, the Prince Regent, moved to Brazil, a Portuguese colony. Later on, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a kingdom, with the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil. Maria was born at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon and baptized Maria Francisca Isabel Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joana, on the day of her birth, her grandfather, King John V of Portugal, created her the Princess of Beira. Maria grew up in a time when her fathers government was dominated completely by the first Marquis of Pombal and her father would often retire to the Palace of Queluz which was given to Maria and her husband. The Marquis took control of the government after the terrible 1755 Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755, after the earthquake, Marias father was often uncomfortable at the thought of staying in enclosed spaces, and suffered from claustrophobia.
The king had a built in Ajuda, away from the city centre. This palace became known as Real Barraca de Ajuda because it was made of wood, the family spent much time at the large palace, and it was the birthplace of Marias first child. In 1794 the palace burned to the ground and the Palace of Ajuda was built in its place, in 1760 Maria married her uncle Pedro, younger brother of her father Jose I. They had six children, of whom the eldest surviving son succeeded Maria as João VI on her death in 1816, in 1777, Maria became the first undisputed queen regnant of Portugal and the Algarves. With Marias accession, her husband became king as Peter III, despite Peters status as king and the nominal joint reign, the actual regal authority was vested solely in Maria, as she was the lineal heir of the crown. Also, as Peters kingship was iure uxoris only, his reign would cease in the event of Marias death, Maria is considered as having been a good ruler in the period prior to her madness. Noteworthy events of this period include Portugals membership in the League of Armed Neutrality, Queen Maria suffered from religious mania and melancholia.
This acute mental illness made her incapable of handling state affairs after 1792, Marias madness was first officially noticed in 1786, when Maria had to be carried back to her apartments in a state of delirium. Afterward, the mental state became increasingly worse. In May 1786, her husband died, Maria was devastated, according to a contemporary, state festivities began to resemble religious ceremonies. Her condition worsened after the death of her eldest son, aged 27, from smallpox, in February 1792, she was deemed mentally insane and was treated by Francis Willis, the same physician who attended King George III of Great Britain. Willis wanted to take her to England, but the plan was refused by the Portuguese court, Marias second son and new heir-apparent, took over the government in her name, even though he only took the title of Prince Regent in 1799
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I, was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars. Before that he had been, since 1759, Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples and he was deposed twice from the throne of Naples, once by the revolutionary Parthenopean Republic for six months in 1799 and again by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805. Ferdinand was the son of King Charles III of Spain and Sicily by his wife. On 10 August 1759, Charles succeeded his brother, Ferdinand VI. Ferdinand was the founder of the cadet House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Ferdinand was styled both Ferdinand III of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples. On 21 January 1799, the Kingdom of Naples was abolished and replaced by the Parthenopaean Republic which lasted until 13 June 1799, Ferdinand was restored to the throne for a while. On 26 December 1805, Napoleon I of France declared Ferdinand deposed again, Ferdinand was restored for the second time following the Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino over rival monarch King Joachim I.
On 8 March 1816 he merged the thrones of Sicily and Naples into the throne of the Two Sicilies and he continued to rule until his death on 4 January 1825. Ferdinand was born in Naples and grew up amidst many of the monuments erected there by his father which can be seen today, Ferdinand was his parents third son, his elder brother Charles was expected to inherit Naples and Sicily. When his father ascended the Spanish throne in 1759 he abdicated Naples in Ferdinands favor in accordance with the treaties forbidding the union of the two crowns, a regency council presided over by the Tuscan Bernardo Tanucci was set up. Ferdinands minority ended in 1767, and his first act was the expulsion of the Jesuits, the following year he married Archduchess Maria Carolina, daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. By the marriage contract the queen was to have a voice in the council of state after the birth of her first son, who attempted to thwart her, was dismissed in 1777. He became practically and afterward prime minister.
Although not a mere grasping adventurer, he was responsible for reducing the internal administration of the country to a system of espionage, corruption. The French entered the city in spite of the resistance of the lazzaroni. When, a few weeks the French troops were recalled to northern Italy, Ferdinand sent a hastily assembled force, under Cardinal Ruffo, to reconquer the mainland kingdom. Ruffo, with the support of British artillery, the Church, and the aristocracy, reaching Naples in May 1800. After some months King Ferdinand returned to the throne, the king returned to Naples soon afterwards, and ordered a few hundred who had collaborated with the French executed
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century, by the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs, the royal Bourbons originated in 1268, when the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon married a younger son of King Louis IX. The house continued for three centuries as a branch, while more senior Capetians ruled France, until Henry IV became the first Bourbon king of France in 1589. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, a cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, ruled for 18 years, until it too was overthrown. The Princes de Condé were a branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV. Both houses were prominent in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.
When the Bourbons inherited the strongest claim to the Spanish throne, the claim was passed to a cadet Bourbon prince, a grandson of Louis XIV of France, who became Philip V of Spain. The Spanish House of Bourbon has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734–1806 and in Sicily from 1734–1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816–1860. They ruled in Parma from 1731–1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859, all legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV. The term House of Bourbon is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1268, Count of Clermont, sixth son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527.
Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, the remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, all future Bourbons would descend from James IIs younger brother, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mothers inheritance. In 1514, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme and his son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoines younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon, Louis male-line, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and he was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre
Maria Theresa of Spain
Maria Theresa of Spain, was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France and Navarre. Her marriage in 1660 with King Louis XIV was made with the purpose to end the war between France and Spain. Without any political influence in the French court or government, she died at the age of 44 from complications from an abscess on her arm. Born an Infanta of Spain at the Royal Monastery of El Escorial, she was the daughter of King Philip IV, and his wife Elisabeth of France, as a member of the House of Habsburg, Maria Theresa was entitled to use the title Archduchess of Austria. Unlike France, the kingdom of Spain had no Salic Law, when Maria Theresas brother Balthasar Charles died in 1646, she became heiress presumptive to the vast Spanish Empire and remained such until the birth of Philip Prospero, in 1657. She was heiress presumptive once more between 1 November and 6 November 1661– the death of Prince Philip and the birth of Prince Charles, who would inherit the thrones of Spain as Charles II.
In 1658, as war with France began to wind down, anne of Austria desired an end to hostilities between her native country of Spain and her adopted one, France. However, Spanish procrastination led to a scheme in which Frances prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, pretended to seek a marriage for his master with Margaret Yolande of Savoy. When Philip IV of Spain heard of a meeting at Lyon between the Houses of France and Savoy in November 1658, he reputedly exclaimed of the Franco-Savoyard union that it cannot be, and will not be. Philip sent an envoy to the French court to open negotiations for peace. The negotiations for the contract were intense. This was eventually done but, by the skill of Mazarin and his French diplomats, the renunciation and its validity were made conditional upon the payment of a large dowry. As it turned out, Spain and bankrupt after decades of war, was unable to pay such a dowry, a marriage by proxy to the French king was held in Fuenterrabia. On 9 June the marriage took place in Saint-Jean-de-Luz at the rebuilt church of Saint Jean the Baptist.
After the wedding, Louis wanted to consummate the marriage as quickly as possible, the new queens mother-in-law arranged a private consummation instead of the public one that was the custom. On 26 August 1660, the made the traditional Joyous Entry into Paris. Maria Theresa was very fortunate to have found a friend at court in her mother-in-law and she continued to spend much of her free time playing cards and gambling, as she had no interest in politics or literature. Consequently, she was viewed as not fully playing the part of queen designated to her by her marriage, but more importantly, she became pregnant in early 1661, and a long-awaited son was born on 1 November 1661
Philip William, Elector Palatine
Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine was Count Palatine of Neuburg from 1653 to 1690, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1679 and Elector of the Palatinate from 1685 to 1690. He was the son of Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg, Charles IIs sister, now the Duchess of Orléans and Louis XIVs sister-in-law, claimed the Palatinate. This was the pretext for the French invasion in 1688, which began the Nine Years War and he first married Princess Anna Catherine Constance Vasa, daughter of Sigismund III Vasa and Constance of Austria. The couple had a son who died at birth, anne Catherine Constance herself died in 1651. In 1653 Philipp Wilhelm married Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt and this second marriage lasted 37 years and was regarded as extremely happy. They had 17 children, including the next two Palatine Electors, John William and Charles III Philip, as well as Elector-Archbishop Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg, many of these children have descendants today. In the early years of their marriage, the couple lived in Düsseldorf, media related to Philip William, Elector Palatine at Wikimedia Commons
Royal Palace of Aranjuez
The Royal Palace of Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, located in the town of Aranjuez, in the Community of Madrid, Spain. The palace is open to the public as one of the Spanish royal sites, died here the Ferdinand VII the Felons first wife Maria Antonia of Naples, the second wife Maria Isabel of Portugal and third wife Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony. In 1931, during the Second Spanish Republic declared the Royal Site a Artistic Historical Monument and this building is part of the Aranjuez Cultural Landscape declared in 2001 a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO Most days, Patrimonio Nacional does not allow photos of its interior. It is in the 12th century when the Order of Santiago settled in the due to its verdant landscape and mild climate that is beneficiary of Tagus. In 1523, Aranjuez became a royal property, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the one who gave this orders former possessions the dignity of Real Bosque y Casa de Aranjuez, in order to enjoy in them huntings good days.
In 1551 he destined a facilities for botanical garden, which serve to catalog new species brought from the Americas, but the emperors purposes barely met. Wars, his stays in Europe and health setbacks prevented him seize the property as much as anticipated. It did his son Philip II, after granting Aranjuez the designation of Royal Site in 1561, aware of how fertile place, he devoted a portion of land to farm. In the adjacent plot, the King began construction of the first palace and he hired for this services Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera, responsibles for the El Escorials works. On the Philip IIs death in 1598, the works were still to finish, in addition to the royal apartments, only they had built the chapel at the base of the south tower and part of the facades of noon and sunset. Then, the 17th century economic and political crisis and the lack of interest for the place of the last Habsburgs resulted in stoppage of work, was Philip V the Bourbon dynastys first king, who decided to resume the work and tried to make Aranjuez his particular Versailles.
Subsequently, this condition would inherit La Granja de San Ildefonso, with Philip V rose a new north tower, completed the west facade and charted the structure that would shape the current palace. In 1748, a fire destroyed almost all of his work. After the fire, Ferdinand VI Philip Vs son, rebuilds the palace, the new project, although he respected the original buildings foundations, was due entirely to aesthetic and the 18th centurys thought. That is, a construction, and refined lines in the exterior. As a tribute to its history, it were included in the facade the statues of its main promoters, Philip II, Philip V. The imposing building that has reached today is due to Charles III in his reforming work for Madrid. The architect was Italian Francesco Sabatini who designed the two wings of the west, laterally limiting the cour dhonneur, at one end of the ensemble was located the chapel, and on opposite side should built a theater that never came up
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach.
Impelled by a mix of commerce and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council.
Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960