Complutense University of Madrid
The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, and consistently ranks as one of the top universities in Spain, according to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. In the course of seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the sciences, fine arts. Alumni include renowned philosophers, scientists, military leaders, foreign leaders, in the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire. On 13 April 1499, Cardinal Cisneros secured from Pope Alexander VI a Papal bull to expand Complutense into a full university and this Papal Bull conferred official recognition throughout Christendom to all degrees granted by the University.
It renamed the institution Universitas Complutensis, after Complutum, which was the Latin name of Alcalá de Henares, in the 1509–1510 school year, the Complutense University already operated with five major schools and Philosophy, Canon law and Medicine. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Complutense University became one of the greatest centers of Academic excellence in the world, many of the leading figures in science and politics of that Age studied or taught in Complutenses classrooms. Special colleges were created for students of foreign origin, such as Flemish or Irish, in 1785, Complutense became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda. In comparison, University of Oxford did not accept female scholars until the year 1920, in 1824, Francisco Tadeo Calomarde further expanded Complutense by merging it with the University of Sigüenza. The University would be known under this name until its name of Complutense was restored in the 1970s.
The University of Madrid awarded Albert Einstein a Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa on 28 February 1923 and this was the first Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa that Albert Einstein accepted from a European University. However, as the situation began to deteriorate throughout Europe. The University greatly expanded during the 19th century, and its accommodations in central Madrid proved to be increasingly inadequate. This situation changed in 1927, when by royal decree King Alfonso XIII officially ceded state-held lands in the proximity of the Palace of La Moncloa to establish space for the University of Madrid. A council appointed by King Alfonso XIII had decided that the new University of Madrid would require the innovative architecture and planning. Indeed, the buildings, exemplary amongst them the Schools of Medicine and Odontology, are an homage to structural functionalism. The city of Alcalá de Henares decided to open a university within the campus buildings
Prince Henry of Battenberg
Prince Henry of Battenberg KG PC was a morganatic descendant of the Grand Ducal House of Hesse, becoming a member of the British Royal Family, through his marriage to Princess Beatrice. Henry was born on 5 October 1858 in Milan, Lombardy–Venetia and his father was Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, the third son and fourth child of Grand Duke Ludwig II of Hesse and Wilhelmina of Baden. His mother was Countess Julia Hauke and his parents marriage was morganatic, as Julia was not considered a proper wife for a prince of a reigning dynasty, being only a countess. As such, at the time of his birth, Henry could not bear his fathers title or name and he became His Serene Highness Prince Henry of Battenberg, although he remained ineligible to inherit the throne of Hesse or to receive a civil list stipend. Prince Henry received an education and took up a commission as a lieutenant in the 1st Regiment of the Rhenish Hussars in the Prussian Army. He served in the Prussian Garde du Corps and was Honorary Colonel of the 1st Infantry Regiment of Bulgaria, where his brother Alexander was Prince.
Because of their relationship to the Grand Ducal House of Hesse. Henrys elder brother, Prince Louis of Battenberg, had married Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, his first cousin once-removed, in 1884, Prince Henry became engaged to Princess Beatrice, the fifth daughter and the youngest child of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort. Queen Victoria agreed to the marriage on the condition that the couple should make their home with her, the Queen formally gave her consent to the marriage at a meeting of the Privy Council on 27 January 1885. On 22 July 1885, the Queen made Prince Henry a Knight of the Garter and this style took effect in the United Kingdom, but not in the German Empire. Beatrice and Henry were married at St Mildreds Church at Whippingham, near Osborne, on the same day, a bill to naturalise Prince Henry a British subject passed the House of Lords. The couple adopted the style, Their Royal Highnesses Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg and Princess Henry of Battenberg had four children.
By Royal Warrant of 13 December 1886, the Queen granted their children the style Highness, in 1889 Prince Henry was made Governor of Carisbrooke Castle and Captain-General and Governor of the Isle of Wight. He was made Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army on 21 June 1887, Colonel on 22 February 1893, in November 1895, Prince Henry persuaded Queen Victoria to allow him to go to West Africa to fight in the Ashanti War. He served as the secretary to the commander-in-chief of British forces. He contracted malaria when the expedition reached Prahsu, about 30 miles from Kumasi, interment followed in what became known as the Battenberg Chapel. The remains of his wife, Princess Beatrice, were placed there in August 1945 and those of his eldest son, beatrice’s sister Louise told Sir James Reid of Prince Henrys attempted relations with her, which she had declined
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was Queen of Spain as the wife of King Alfonso XIII. Victoria Eugenie was born on 24 October 1887 at Balmoral Castle, as Prince Henry was the product of a morganatic marriage, he took his style of Prince of Battenberg from his mother, who had been created Princess of Battenberg in her own right. To her family, and the British general public, she was known by the last of her names, she spent her childhood at Windsor Castle and Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. She was a bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousins, the Duke and her father died while on active military service after contracting fever in Africa in 1896. After the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, the Battenbergs moved to London, in 1905, the King of Spain made an official state visit to the United Kingdom. Victoria Eugenies uncle, King Edward VII, hosted a dinner in Buckingham Palace, Alfonso was seated between Queen Alexandra and Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, King Edwards sister. He noticed Victoria Eugenie and asked who was the dinner guest with almost white hair, everybody knew that King Alfonso was looking for a suitable bride and one of the strongest candidates was Princess Patricia of Connaught, daughter of King Edwards brother, the Duke of Connaught.
As Princess Patricia seemed not to be impressed by the Spanish monarch, Alfonso indulged his interest in Victoria Eugenie, when Alfonso returned to Spain he frequently sent postcards to Victoria Eugenie and spoke of her approvingly. Another obstacle to a marriage was Victoria Eugenies Protestantism, another potential problem was haemophilia, the disease that Victoria had transmitted to some of her descendants. Eugenies brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50% probability that Victoria Eugenie would be a carrier, still, if Alfonso married her, their issue could be affected by the disease. Some days at Windsor, King Edward congratulated his niece on her future engagement, Princess Beatrice and her daughter arrived in Biarritz on 22 January and stayed at the Villa Mauriscot where some days King Alfonso met them. At the Villa Mauriscot and his future bride conducted a chaperoned, Alfonso took Victoria Eugenie and her mother to San Sebastián to meet Queen Maria Cristina. The official reception of Victoria Eugenie into the Catholic faith took place on 5 March 1906 at Miramar Palace in San Sebastián, the terms of the marriage were settled by two agreements, a public treaty and a private contractual arrangement.
Ratifications were exchanged on 23 May following. Article I, the treatys reference to the forfeiture of Victoria Eugénies British succession rights reflected neither the British governments censure of the alliance, nor any renunciation made by her. Rather, it was a recognition of the fact that by marrying a Roman Catholic. This exclusion was personal and limited, those among her descendants who do not become Roman Catholic remain in the line of succession to the British Throne, given at Our Court of Saint Jamess, the Third day of April 1906, in the Sixth Year of Our Reign. M Gladstone This was accompanied by a published declaration which read. Princess Victoria Eugenie married King Alfonso XIII at the Royal Monastery of San Jerónimo in Madrid on May 31,1906, present at the ceremony were her widowed mother and brothers, as well as her cousins, the Prince and Princess of Wales
It is one of the Spanish royal sites and functions as a monastery, royal palace, library, museum and hospital. It is situated 2.06 km up the valley from the town of El Escorial, El Escorial was, at once, a monastery and a Spanish royal palace. Originally a property of the Hieronymite monks, it is now a monastery of the Order of Saint Augustine and it is a boarding school. Philip engaged the Spanish architect, Juan Bautista de Toledo, to be his collaborator in the design of El Escorial, Philip appointed him architect-royal in 1559, and together they designed El Escorial as a monument to Spains role as a center of the Christian world. On 2 November 1984, UNESCO declared The Royal Seat of San Lorenzo of El Escorial a World Heritage Site and it is a popular tourist attraction, often visited by day-trippers from Madrid – more than 500,000 visitors come to El Escorial every year. El Escorial is situated at the foot of Mt. Abantos in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Quentin in Picardy against Henry II, king of France.
He intended the complex to serve as a necropolis for the interment of the remains of his parents, Charles I and Isabella of Portugal, himself, in addition, Philip envisioned El Escorial as a center for studies in aid of the Counter-Reformation cause. The buildings cornerstone was laid on 23 April 1563, the design and construction were overseen by Juan Bautista de Toledo, who did not live to see the completion of the project. With Toledos death in 1567, direction passed to his apprentice, Juan de Herrera, under whom the building was completed in 1584, to this day, la obra de El Escorial is a proverbial expression for a thing that takes a long time to finish. Since then, El Escorial has been the site for most of the Spanish kings of the last five centuries. Two Bourbon kings, Philip V and Ferdinand VI, as well as King Amadeus, are not buried in the monastery, the floor plan of the building is in the form of a gridiron. The traditional belief is that design was chosen in honor of St. Lawrence. St.
Lawrence’s feast day is 10 August, the date as the 1557 Battle of St. Quentin. In fact, the origin of the layout is quite controversial. The grill-like shape, which did not fully emerge until Herrera eliminated from the conception the six interior towers of the facade, was, by no means. In fact, palaces of this design were commonplace in the Byzantine. Statues of David and Solomon on either side of the entrance to the basilica of El Escorial lend further weight to the theory that this is the origin of the design. A more personal connection can be drawn between the David-warrior figure, representing Charles V, and his son, the stolid and solomonically prudent Philip II
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
The Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn KG KP GCB GCH PC was the fourth son and fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria. On 23 March 1802, he was appointed Governor of Gibraltar, the Duke of Kent was appointed Field-Marshal of the Forces on 3 September 1805. He was the first member of the family to live in North America for more than a short visit and, in 1794. On June 27,1792, Edward is credited with the first use of the term Canadian to mean both French and English settlers in Upper and Lower Canada. The Prince used the term in an effort to quell a riot between the two groups at a station in Charlesbourg, Lower Canada. Recently he has been styled the Father of the Canadian Crown for his impact on the development of Canada, Prince Edward was born on 2 November 1767. His parents were the reigning British monarch, George III, as a son of the British monarch, he was styled His Royal Highness The Prince Edward from birth, and was fourth in the line of succession to the throne.
He was named after his uncle, the Duke of York and Albany. The Prince began his training in Germany in 1785. King George III intended to send him to the University of Göttingen, Prince Edward went to Lüneburg and Hanover, accompanied by his tutor, Baron Wangenheim. From 1788 to 1789, he completed his education in Geneva, in 1789, he was appointed colonel of the 7th Regiment of Foot. In 1790, he returned home without leave and, in disgrace, was sent off to Gibraltar as an ordinary officer and he was joined from Marseilles by Madame de Saint-Laurent. Due to the extreme Mediterranean heat, Edward requested to be transferred to Canada, specifically Quebec and his mistress, Julie St. Laurent, became close friends with the French Canadian de Salaberry family - the Prince mentored all of the familys sons throughout their military careers. Edward guided Charles de Salaberry throughout his career, and made sure that the commander was duly honoured after his leadership during the Battle of Chateauguay.
After 1794, Prince Edward lived at the headquarters of the Royal Navys North American Station which was Halifax and he was instrumental in shaping that settlements military defences, protecting its important Royal Navy base, as well as influencing the citys and colonys socio-political and economic institutions. Edward was responsible for the construction of Halifaxs iconic Garrison Clock, Lieutenant Governor Sir John Wentworth and Lady Francis Wentworth provided their country residence for the use of Prince Edward and Julie St. Laurent. Extensively renovated, the became known as Princes Lodge as the couple hosted numerous dignitaries. The only remains of the residence is a rotunda built by Edward for his regimental band to play music
Krumpendorf am Wörthersee is a municipality in Klagenfurt-Land District, in Carinthia, Austria. Krumpendorf stretches along the shore of Wörthersee, Carinthias largest bathing lake. The municipal area with 11.86 km2 is the smallest of all Carinthian municipalities, in the east, it borders on the state capital Klagenfurt. Krumpendorf can be reached via two junctions of the Süd Autobahn from Vienna to Villach and the border with Italy, the municipal area comprises the cadastral communities of Pritschitz, Drasing und Gurlitsch II. The original name Chrumpendorf was probably derived from the local denotation krumpe Felfer, Drasing Castle, located on a northern hillside, was first mentioned 1284, it may have been the site of an outer ward of the nearby Moosburg Kaiserpfalz. Once a rural area, its picturesque setting nowadays makes Krumpendorf a popular destination for daytrippers, beside the Baroque Krumpendorf Castle finished in 1740, the overall appearance of the locality features several lavish hotels and mansions built in the typical fin-de-siècle Wörthersee Style.
The name affix am Wörther See was added by resolution of the government in 1987
Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg
Henrietta Alexandrine Friederike Wilhelmine of Nassau-Weilburg, of Nassau was the wife of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. Her husband was a general of the Napoleonic Wars and victor of the Battle of Aspern-Essling against Napoleon I of France. Henrietta was the youngest daughter of Frederick William of Nassau-Weilburg and his wife Burgravine Louise Isabelle of Kirchberg and her paternal grandparents were Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg and Princess Wilhelmine Carolina of Orange-Nassau. Wilhelmine Carolina was a daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange and Anne, Anne was in turn the eldest daughter of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach. On 15 September/17 September 1815 in Weilburg, Henrietta married Archduke Charles of Austria, the bride was almost eighteen years old and the groom forty-four. Her husband was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, however he had been adopted and raised by his childless aunt Marie Christine of Austria and her husband Albert of Saxe-Teschen.
He was the heir to the Duchy of Teschen and would succeed in 1822 and this marriage was a very happy one. Henrietta died young of scarlet fever, which she had caught while nursing her children through the same illness and she is the only Protestant buried in the Imperial Crypt in the Capuchin Church. This was allowed by order of her brother-in-law Emperor Francis I, who said, She dwelt among us when she was alive and Charles had seven children. A listing of descendants of the House of Nassau-Weilburg
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain, in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired and to his detractors as the Felon King and he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers, under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low, historian Stanley Payne says, He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, grasping and vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth and he thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Charles IV of Spain, Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. The Queens confessor Fray Juan Almaraz wrote in his last will that she admitted in articulo mortis that none, none of her sons and daughters, none was of the legitimate marriage.
In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent who was excluded from all share in government by his parents and their advisor and Prime Minister. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805, in October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents, following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand ascended the throne and turned to Napoleon for support and he abdicated on 6 May 1808. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Chateau of Valençay, while the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleons choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country, marking the beginning of the Peninsular War, provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king.
After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, on 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, and negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain, the Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too closely to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the years a new world had been born of foreign invasion. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America, Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy he had relinquished six years earlier. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812, before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, only gave lukewarm indications he would do so
Order of the Golden Fleece
It became one of the most prestigious orders in Europe. The chaplain of the Austrian branch is Cardinal Graf von Schönborn and it is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, and 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign. The Orders first King of Arms was Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, so that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order. Should honor those who wear it, and be encouraged to employ themselves in noble deeds, the bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleeces reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven. He was succeeded as king by Philip V, a Bourbon, in either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French. These, and other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813, napoleon created by Order of 15 August 1809 the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces, in view of his sovereignty over Austria and Burgundy.
This was opposed by Joseph I of Spain and the new order was never awarded, in 1812 the acting government of Spain awarded the order to the Duke of Wellington, an act confirmed by Ferdinand on his resumption of power, with the approval of Pope Pius VII. Wellington therefore became the first Protestant to be awarded the Golden Fleece and it has subsequently been awarded to non-Christians, such as Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand. There was another crisis in 1833 when Isabella II became Queen of Spain in defiance of Salic Law that did not allow women to become heads of state and her right to award the Fleece was challenged by Spanish Carlists. Sovereignty remained with the head of the Spanish house of Bourbon during the republican and Francoist periods and is today by the present King of Spain. Knights of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style His/Her Excellency in front of their name, King Juan Carlos I of Spain – Former Sovereign of the Order as King of Spain from 1975 to 2014.
The problem of inheritance was avoided on the accession of Maria Theresa in 1740 as sovereignty of the Order passed not to herself but to her husband. Sovereignty remains with the head of the House of Habsburg, which was handed over on 20 November 2000 by Otto von Habsburg to his elder son, die Schatzkammer in Wien, Symbole abendländischen Kaisertums. Der Schatz des Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies, ISBN 3-7017-0541-0 Boulton, DArcy Jonathan Dacre,1987