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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including: Viruses and related agents such as viroids and prions Bacteria Fungi, further subclassified into: Ascomycota, including yeasts such as Candida, filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Pneumocystis species, dermatophytes, a group of organisms causing infection of skin and other superficial structures in humans. Basidiomycota, including the human-pathogenic genus Cryptococcus. Parasites, which are divided into:Unicellular organisms Macroparasites including nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms and flukes Arthropods such as ticks, mites and lice, can cause human disease, which conceptually are similar to infections, but invasion of a human or animal body by these macroparasites is termed infestation.

Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antifungals and antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9.2 million deaths in 2013. The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease. Symptomatic infections are apparent and clinical, whereas an infection, active but does not produce noticeable symptoms may be called inapparent, subclinical, or occult. An infection, inactive or dormant is called a latent infection. An example of a latent bacterial infection is latent tuberculosis; some viral infections can be latent, examples of latent viral infections are any of those from the Herpesviridae family. The word infection can denote any presence of a particular pathogen at all but is used in a sense implying a clinically apparent infection; this fact creates some ambiguity or prompts some usage discussion.

Different terms are used to describe infections. The first is an acute infection. An acute infection is one; the next is a chronic infection. A chronic infection is when symptoms develop over weeks or months, are slow to resolve. A subacute infection is one in which symptoms take longer to develop than in an acute infection but arise more than a chronic infection. A latent infection is a type of infection. A focal infection is defined as the initial site of infection from which organisms travel via the bloodstream to another area of the body. Among the many varieties of microorganisms few cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals. Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect; the appearance and severity of disease resulting from any pathogen, depends upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the host to resist the pathogen. However a host's immune system can cause damage to the host itself in an attempt to control the infection.

Clinicians therefore classify infectious microorganisms or microbes according to the status of host defenses - either as primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens: Primary pathogens Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, healthy host, their intrinsic virulence is, in part, a necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however many serious diseases are caused by organisms acquired from the environment or that infect non-human hosts. Opportunistic pathogens Opportunistic pathogens can cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance or if they have unusual access to the inside of the body. Opportunistic infection may be caused by microbes ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, they may result from microbes acquired from other hosts or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction.

An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects, exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals, exposure to ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity. Primary pathogens may cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would occur in an immunosufficient host. Primary i

Sherrie Levine

Sherrie Levine is an American photographer and conceptual artist. Some of her work consists of exact photographic reproductions of the work of other photographers such as Walker Evans, Eliot Porter and Edward Weston. Sherrie Levine was born in Hazleton, Pennsylvania in 1947, she received her B. A. from the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1969. In 1973, she earned her M. F. A. from the same institution. Much of Levine's work is explicitly appropriated from recognizable modernist artworks by artists such as Walker Evans, Edgar Degas, Marcel Duchamp, Constantin Brancusi. Appropriation art gained notoriety in the late 1970s, although it can be traced to early modernist works those using collage. Other appropriation artists such as Louise Lawler, Vikky Alexander, Barbara Kruger, Mike Bidlo came into prominence in New York’s East Village in the 1980s; the importance of appropriation art in contemporary culture lies in its ability to fuse broad cultural images as a whole and direct them towards narrower contexts of interpretation.

In 1977, Levine participated in the exhibition Pictures at Artists Space in New York, curated by Douglas Crimp. Other artists in the exhibition included Robert Longo, Troy Brauntuch, Jack Goldstein, Philip Smith. Crimp's term, "Pictures Generation," was used to describe the generation of artists in the late 1970s and early 1980s who were moving away from minimalism and towards picture-making. Levine is best known for her series of photographs, After Walker Evans, shown at her 1981 solo exhibition at Metro Pictures Gallery in New York; the works consist of well-known Walker Evans photographs, rephotographed by Levine from an Evans exhibition catalogue and presented as Levine's own artwork without manipulation of the images. The Evans photographs — made famous by his book project Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, with writings by James Agee — are considered to be the quintessential photographic record of rural American poor during the Great Depression; the Estate of Walker Evans saw the series as a copyright infringement, acquired Levine's works to prohibit their sale.

Levine donated the whole series to the estate. All of it is now owned by the Metropolitan Museum of New York. Levine's appropriation of Evans's images has since become a hallmark of the postmodern movement. By rephotographing and re-feminizing this series, Levine makes the images more transparent in their message, rather than focusing on authorship. Including herself in this series can be seen as the artist's gesture of solidarity with the subject. Levine has rephotographed a number of works by other artists, including Eliot Porter and Edward Weston. Additional examples of Levine's works include photographs of Van Gogh paintings from a book of his work; this work in particular brings attention to the idea of originality and Levine's ability to remake artworks as not quite themselves. In the case of Fountain, Levine purposefully chooses a polished bronze finish to evoke works by Brancusi. By doing so, Levine likens the two artists' works, raises the question of originality and the copy. In 1993, Levine created cast glass copies of sculptures by Constantin Brancusi, held in the permanent collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, for an exhibition titled Museum Studies.

In 2009, the Metropolitan Museum of Art held an exhibition titled The Pictures Generation, which featured Levine's works. In November 2011, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York mounted a survey exhibition of Levine's career titled Mayhem. Sherrie Levine: Mayhem, mounted at the Whitney Museum of Art from November 2011 through January 2012, was a meticulously organized installation, ranging from Levine's best-known photographs to works including her more recent Crystal Skull series. During the winter of 2016, Levine exhibited new work of monochrome paintings paired with refrigerators. In 2016-2017 she exhibited at Neues Museum Nürnberg: After All. Levine's art is most associated with 1980's theoretical feminism, she was showcased in the exhibit Difference: On Representation and Sexuality in 1984 along with artists such as Barbara Kruger, Jeff Wall, Mary Kelly. This exhibit focused on gender distortions rather than differences, the construct of sexuality. Three paintings from Levine's series After Ernst Ludwig Kirchner were included in this exhibit.

Her appropriations of male artists' famous works combined with her intentional re-feminizing brings attention to the "difference problem" which this exhibit was focused on. Sherrie Levine: La Fortune, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Sherrie Levine: Newborn, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Fractional Importance

Fractional Importance is a modern rock band from Los Angeles, California formed in 1998, consisting of Doug Gledhill, Nate Perry and Kevin Fessler. Their sound has been described as ranging from alternative post-hardcore to modern rock. Although the band never enjoyed mainstream success, they were one of the few independent rock bands to emerge from the saturated late 1990s Hollywood club scene who, through self-funded touring and relentless promotion, were able to amass a sizable fan base and influence younger L. A. based band bands coming up on the same scene. The original line-up consisted of Douglas Gledhill, Kevin Fessler and John Holiday who met while attending high school in Santa Clarita, CA. Shortly after their inception they self-released the LP Indecision, followed by well-received shows on the famed Hollywood Sunset Strip; this was followed by the Apathy EP, produced by Donat Kazarinoff. Bassist John Holiday left shortly thereafter and was replaced by Nate Perry, who assumed bass and co-writing duties.

The band rejoined Kazarinoff at 4th Street Recording in 2001 to record their sophomore LP Visions, released on the band's own Dyspathy Records and sold over 7,000 copies with no major distribution. The record was well received by various indie-rock critics and combined with relentless DIY touring, helped to solidify the band's growing regional popularity while raising the band's awareness on a more national level. After extensive touring throughout the western portion of the U. S. in support of Visions, the band shortened their name to'Fractional' in 2003 and signed with 11 Records, the vanity label of acclaimed producer John Travis. Travis produced demos of the band which featured drummer Chris Robyn from the influential rock band Far, they temporarily added Zack Lopez on second guitar to fatten up the live sound who played on their 2005 EP A Love Letter Suicide which included tracks recorded by Travis. By this time Fractional began receiving airplay on various college and commercial radio stations nationwide which scored the band opening slots for Smile Empty Soul, Seether and Crossfade.

Despite several independent releases and playing nearly 1000 shows, Fractional failed to see commercial success and parted ways in 2005 to pursue other projects. Douglas Gledhill formed the band Un:armed with his brother Derek Gledhill. Nate Perry went on to play in the band Manic who released two EP's on Suretone/Interscope Records in 2007. Full Lengths Indecision Visions EP's Apathy A Love Letter Suicide Demos Roger Sommers/Royaltone Demo Simple Things Demo Island Records/Don Kazarinoff Demo John Travis/11 Records Demo Official Website Nate Perry


Kumamon is a mascot created by the government of Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. It was created in 2010 for a campaign created to draw tourists to the region after the Kyushu Shinkansen line opened. Kumamon subsequently became nationally popular, in late 2011, was voted top in a nationwide survey of mascots, collectively known as yuru-chara, garnering over 280,000 votes. Following his success in the contest, Kumamoto earned ¥11.8 billion in merchandising revenue for the first half of 2012, after having only earned ¥2.5 billion throughout all of 2011. Kumamon enjoys tremendous popularity throughout the world. In just two years, Kumamon has generated US$1.2 billion in economic benefits for his region, including tourism and product sales, as well as US$90 million worth of publicity, according to a recent Bank of Japan study. Sales of Kumamon items have reached ¥29.3 billion in 2012, up from ¥2.5 billion in 2011. The Bank of Japan estimated that Kumamon generated ¥123.2 billion in revenue during a two-year period starting from 2011.

A large part of Kumamon's success can be attributed to its cuteness. The unusual marketing strategy of free licensing is behind Kumamon's commercial success, since the Kumamoto prefecture grants usage rights for free to anyone as long as their products promote goods and services from the prefecture. Furthermore, in 2018, the Kumamoto prefecture decided to allow foreign businesses to use Kumamon, aiming to expand Kumamon to the world; this mascot has a minor cameo in the 2014 video game Yo-Kai Watch 2, made an appearance in Yo-kai Watch: The Movie, following the main characters around. It gained internet popularity when images of Kumamon around large fires, were captioned with "Why? For the glory of Satan, of course!". The Kumamoto Prefecture has taken this well, but has more restricted official photography of the mascot. In a video of BTS, Kumamon opens the door and Suga likes him, it became popular when fans make comments in Kumamon games "It's Kumamon! Call Yoongi!". Since 3 September 2018 Kumamon has embraced a new identity as a YouTuber.

Videos in Japanese have been uploaded onto its YouTube account every Monday. Funassyi Hikonyan Choruru Kigurumi Official website Kumamon on Facebook Kumamon on Twitter, automatic English translation available at another Twitter account KumamonTV's channel on YouTube

Live at Royal Opera House

Live at Royal Opera House and known as Vespertine Live at Royal Opera House is an official DVD released by Björk on 18 November 2002. It contains a live performance by Björk on the Vespertine World Tour, recorded live at the Royal Opera House in London, on 7 December 2001, it was one of the last of the concerts performed on that tour. With this concert Björk had become the first contemporary pop artist to perform in the Royal Opera House; the concert was premiered on UK television in the launch week of the BBC digital channel BBC Four on 12 March 2002. For the first half of the concert the majority of the songs were taken from her most recent album Vespertine, while the second half sees songs played from her previous solo albums; the first two songs from the concert film appear on the 2003/04 release, Vespertine Live. The closing song "It's in Our Hands" was released as the lead-off single from her Greatest Hits album; the track "Generous Palmstroke" is a B-side, appears in a different form on the "Hidden Place" single.

Although listed as "Frosti", the first song of the concert is a music box version of "Pagan Poetry", as it appears on the "Cocoon" single. The DVD omits performances of two songs that were performed on the night - "Play Dead" and "Bachelorette". A mini-documentary "Touring Vespertine" is included as a bonus feature, a working version of what was to become the Minuscule DVD. However, the Minuscule documentary does not include some material, included on "Touring Vespertine", such as the short interviews with composer Simon Lee. Notes "Unison" contains choral music from the anthem "Viri Galilaei" written by Patrick Gowers and performed by the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Live at Royal Opera House page at

Jesse L. Brown

Jesse LeRoy Brown was a United States Navy officer. He was the first African-American aviator to complete the U. S. Navy's basic flight training program, was a recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross, the first African-American naval officer killed in the Korean War. Born in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, to an impoverished family, Brown was avidly interested in aircraft from a young age, he graduated as salutatorian of his high school, notwithstanding its racial segregation, was awarded a degree from Ohio State University. Brown enlisted in the U. S. Navy in 1946, becoming a midshipman. Brown earned his pilot wings on 21 October 1948 amid a flurry of press coverage. At the outset of the Korean War, Leyte was ordered to the Korean Peninsula, arriving in October 1950. Brown, an ensign, flew 20 combat missions before his F4U Corsair aircraft came under fire and crashed on a remote mountaintop on 4 December 1950 while supporting ground troops at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. Brown died of his wounds despite the efforts of wingman Thomas J. Hudner Jr. who intentionally crashed his own aircraft in a rescue attempt, for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor.

Brown's successes in the segregated and desegregated U. S. military were memorialized in several books. The frigate USS Jesse L. Brown was named in his honor. Brown was born on 13 October 1926 in Mississippi, he was one of six children born to Julia Lindsey Brown, a schoolteacher, John Brown, a grocery warehouse worker. He had four brothers, William and Lura, as well as an older sister known as Johnny. Brown's ancestry was African American and Choctaw; the family lived in a house without central heating or indoor plumbing so they relied on a fireplace for warmth. As a child, Jesse's brother William fell into this fireplace and was burned. At the beginning of the Great Depression, John Brown lost his job and relocated the family to Palmer's Crossing, 10 miles from Hattiesburg, where he worked at a turpentine factory until he was laid off in 1938. John Brown moved the family to Lux, where he worked as a sharecropper on a farm. During this time, Jesse Brown shared a bed with his brothers and attended a one-room school 3 miles away.

His parents were strict about school attendance and homework, Jesse Brown walked to school every day. The Browns were committed Baptists and Jesse and Julia Brown sang in the church choir. In his spare time, Brown worked in the fields of the farm harvesting corn and cotton; when Brown was six years old, his father took him to an air show. Brown gained an intense interest in flying from this experience, afterward, was attracted to a dirt airfield near his home, which he visited in spite of being chased away by a local mechanic. At the age of thirteen, Brown took a job as a paperboy for the Pittsburgh Courier, a black press paper, developed a desire to pilot while reading in the newspaper about African-American aviators of the time including C. Alfred Anderson, Eugine Jacques Bullard, Bessie Coleman, he became an avid reader of Popular Aviation and the Chicago Defender, which he said influenced his desire to fly naval aircraft. In his childhood he was described as "serious, witty and intelligent."

In 1937, he wrote a letter to U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in which he complained of the injustice of African-American pilots being kept out of the U. S. Army Air Corps, to which the White House responded with a letter saying that it appreciated the viewpoint; because the schools closer to his family were of lower quality, in 1939, Brown lived with his aunt and attended the segregated Eureka High School in Hattiesburg. He was a member of the basketball and track and field teams and he was an excellent student, graduating as the salutatorian in 1944. During this time, Brown met Daisy Pearl Nix. Following graduation, Brown sought to enroll in a college outside of the South, his principal, Nathaniel Burger, advised he attend an all-black college, as his brother Marvin Brown had done. But he enrolled at Ohio State University as Jesse Owens, had done. Burger told Brown that only seven African Americans had graduated from the university that year, but Brown was determined to enroll, believing that he could compete well with white students.

Brown took several side jobs to save money for college, including waiting tables at the Holmes Club, a saloon for white U. S. Army soldiers. In this job, Brown was the target of racist vitriol and abuse, but he persevered, earning $600 to pay for college. In the autumn of 1944, Brown left Mississippi on a segregated train for Columbus, where he started at Ohio State. Brown moved into an on-campus boarding house at 61 East Eleventh Avenue in the black neighborhood of the University District in Columbus, he majored in architectural engineering. Brown attempted several times to apply to the school's aviation program, but was denied because of his race. Brown joined the track and field team as well as the wrestling team, but soon dropped both for financial reasons, he took a job as a janitor at a local Lazarus department store and was hired by the Pennsylvania Railroad to load boxcars from 15:30 to midnight each day. In spite of this, he maintained top grades in his classes. Although facing difficulties with academics and the institutional segregation in the city, Brown found that most of his fellow students were friendly toward him.

Brown returned to Mississippi during the school year, but in the summers he worked at a dry cleaner in Hattiesburg to