Oculus Rift is a virtual reality headset developed and manufactured by Oculus VR, a division of Facebook Inc. released on March 28, 2016. This is the first generation device, is succeeded by Oculus Rift S, scheduled for release in spring of 2019. Oculus initiated a Kickstarter campaign in 2012 to fund the Rift's development, after being founded as an independent company two months prior; the project proved successful. In March 2014, Facebook purchased Oculus for $2 billion. In March 2017, after three years at the company, it was announced Oculus founder and creator Palmer Luckey was leaving Facebook; the Rift has gone through various pre-production models since the Kickstarter campaign, around five of which were demonstrated to the public. Two of these models were shipped to backers, labelled as development kits. However, both were purchased by a large number of enthusiasts who wished to get an early preview of the technology; the Rift has two Pentile OLED displays, 1080×1200 resolution per eye, a 90 Hz refresh rate, 110° field of view.
The device features rotational and positional tracking, integrated headphones that provide a 3D audio effect. Through Meant to be Seen's virtual reality and 3D discussion forums, Palmer Luckey, the founder of Oculus and longtime MTBS discussion forum moderator, developed the idea of creating a new head-mounted display, both more effective than what was on the market, inexpensive for gamers; the first rough prototype was hacked together in 2011 by Palmer Luckey in his parents’ garage in Long Beach, California. Coincidentally, John Carmack had been doing his own research and happened upon Luckey's developments as a fellow member of MTBS. After sampling an early prototype, Carmack favored Luckey's approach and just before the 2012 Electronic Entertainment Expo, Id Software announced that their future updated version of Doom 3, BFG Edition, would be compatible with head-mounted display units. In June 2012, during the E3 convention, Carmack introduced a duct taped head-mounted display based on Luckey's Oculus Rift prototype, which ran Carmack's own software.
The unit featured a high speed IMU and a 5.6-inch LCD, visible via dual lenses, that were positioned over the eyes to provide a 90 degrees horizontal and 110 degrees vertical stereoscopic 3D perspective. Two months after being formed as a company, Palmer's Oculus VR launched a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign on August 1 of 2012 for their virtual reality headset, named the Rift; the main purpose of the kickstarter was to get an Oculus Rift prototype—now referred to as DK1 —into the hands of developers to begin integration of the device into their games. DK1 was given as a reward to backers who pledged $300 or more on Kickstarter, was sold publicly for $300 on their website; these kits sold at a rate of 4–5 per minute for the first day, before slowing down throughout the week. The Rift DK1 was released on March 29, 2013, used a 7-inch screen with a lower pixel switching time than the original prototype, reducing latency and motion blur when turning one's head quickly; the pixel fill is better, reducing the screen door effect and making individual pixels less noticeable.
The LCD was brighter and the color depth is 24 bits per pixel. The 7-inch screen makes the stereoscopic 3D no longer 100% overlapping, the left eye seeing extra area to the left and the right eye seeing extra area to the right; the field of view is more than 90 degrees horizontal, more than double the FOV of previous VR devices from other companies, is the primary strength of the device. The resolution is 1280 × 800. However, since the Rift does not feature a 100% overlap between the eyes, the combined horizontal resolution is greater than 640; the image for each eye is shown in the panel as a barrel distorted image, corrected by pincushion effect created by lenses in the headset, generating a spherical-mapped image for each eye. Initial prototypes used a Hillcrest Labs 6DoF head tracker, 125 Hz, with a special firmware requested by John Carmack that makes it run at 250 Hz, tracker latency being vital due to the dependency of virtual reality's realism on response time; the latest version includes Oculus's new 1000 Hz Adjacent Reality Tracker, which will allow for much lower latency tracking than any other tracker.
It uses a combination of three-axis gyros and magnetometers, which make it capable of absolute head orientation tracking without drift. The Development Kit 1 included interchangeable lenses that will allow for simple dioptric correction; the entire source for the Rift DK1 was released to the public in September 2014, including the firmware and mechanicals for the device. The firmware is released under a simplified BSD license, while the schematics and mechanicals are released under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. In June 2013, a prototype of the rift that used a 1080p LCD panel was shown at Electronic Entertainment Expo; this step forwards to twice the number of pixels as DK1 reduced the screen door effect and made objects in the virtual world more clear at a distance. The poor resolution had been the main criticism of the DK1; this HD prototype is the only prototype of the Rift shown to the public which did not turn into a publicly available developer kit. In January 2014, an updated prototype codenamed "Crystal Cove" was unveiled at Consumer Electronics Show, which us
Royal Academy of Engineering
The Royal Academy of Engineering is the UK's national academy of engineering. The Academy was founded in June 1976 as the Fellowship of Engineering with support from Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who became the first Senior Fellow and, as of 2018, remains so; the Fellowship was incorporated and granted a Royal Charter on 17 May 1983 and became the Royal Academy of Engineering on 16 March 1992. It is associated Statutes and Regulations. Conceived in the late 1960s, during the Apollo space programme and Harold Wilson’s espousal of ‘white heat of technology’, the Fellowship of Engineering was born in the year of Concorde's first commercial flight; the Fellowship's first meeting, at Buckingham Palace on 11 June 1976, enrolled 126 of the UK's leading engineers. The first fellows included Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, the jet engine genius,the structural engineer Sir Ove Arup, radar pioneer Sir George MacFarlane, the inventor of the bouncing bomb, Sir Barnes Wallis, father of the UK computer industry Sir Maurice Wilkes.
The Fellowship's first President, Lord Hinton, had driven the UK's supremacy in nuclear power. The Fellowship focused on championing excellence in all fields of engineering. Activities began in earnest in the mid-1970s with the Distinction lecture series, now known as the Hinton lectures; the Fellowship was asked to advise the Department of Industry for the first time and the Academy became host and presenter of the MacRobert Award. In the 1980s, the Fellowship received its own Royal Charter along with its first government grant-in-aid. At the same time it received significant industrial funding, initiated its research programme to build bridges between academia and industry and opened its doors to International and Honorary Fellows. In 1990, the Academy launched its first major initiative in education, Engineering Education Continuum, which evolved into the BEST Programme and Shape the Future and Tomorrow's Engineers; the Academy's increasing level of influence – in policy and education – was recognised when it was granted a royal title and became The Royal Academy of Engineering in 1992.
The Academy's current logo is inspired by the Neolithic hand-axe, humans' first technological advance, taken to be a symbol appropriate to the Academy representative of the ever-changing relationship between humanity and technology. The Academy's premises, 3-4 Carlton House Terrace, are in a Grade I listed building overlooking St James's Park, designed by celebrated architect John Nash and owned by the Crown Estates; the Academy shares the Terrace with two of its sister academies, the British Academy and the Royal Society as well as other institutes. The building was renamed Prince Philip House, in honour of the Senior Fellow, after renovation works were completed in 2012. Prince Philip House is available for venue hire for meetings or events; the President of the Royal Academy of Engineering, the elected officer of the Academy, presides over meetings of the Council. The President is elected for a single term of not more than five years; the Fellowship includes over 1,500 engineers from all sectors and disciplines of engineering.
The Fellows, distinguished by the title Fellow of The Royal Academy of Engineering and the postnominal designation FREng, lead and contribute to the Academy's work and provide expertise. Up to 60 engineers are elected each year by their peers. Honorary and International Fellows who have made exceptional contributions to engineering are elected and are entitled to use the designatory letters HonFREng and FREng after their name; the criteria for election are stated in the charter and regulations document. The essential attributes of excellence in engineering include: Organization leaders: those with full responsibility on technical decisionsTop Engineers, academics or researchers: whose work have resulted in new products, important processes or practices. Top Engineers: those who have made outstanding contributions to major projects. Engineering department leaders: those who have demonstrated significant personal engineering achievementsThe current President of the Academy is Professor Dame Ann Dowling OM, DBE, FREng, FRS, the first woman to hold the office.
The Immediate Past President is Sir John Parker GBE FREng. The Royal Fellows of the Academy comprise Prince Philip, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Anne, Princess Royal; the Academy is instrumental in two policy alliances set up in 2009 to provide coherent advice on engineering education and policy across the profession: Education for Engineering and Engineering the Future. The Academy is one of four agencies that receives funding from the UK's Department for Business Innovation & Skills for activities that support government policy on public understanding of science and engineering; as part of its programme to communicate the benefits and value of engineering to society, the Academy publishes a quarterly magazine, Ingenia. The Academy says that Ingenia is written for a non-specialist audience and is "aimed at all those with an interest in engineering, whether working in business and industry, academia or the financial community"; the Academy makes Ingenia available to A-Level students in 3,000 schools in the UK.
The Academy strives to ensure that the pool of candidates for election to The Fellowship better reflects the diverse make-up of society as a whole. It set up the Proactive Membership Committee in 2008 to identify and support the nomination of candidates from underrepresented areas, with the aim of boosting the number of women candidates, engineers from industry and Small and Medium Enterprises, those from emerging technologies and ethnically diverse backgrounds. With the support of the Worshipful Company of Engineers, the
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, launched in October 2010 on iOS. A version for Android devices was released a year and half in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited website interface in November 2012, apps for Windows 10 Mobile and Windows 10 in April 2016 and October 2016 respectively; the app allows users to upload photos and videos to the service, which can be edited with various filters, organized with tags and location information. An account's posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tags and locations, view trending content. Users can "like" photos, follow other users to add their content to a feed; the service was distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square aspect ratio, but these restrictions were eased in 2015. The service added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, as well as "Stories"—similar to its main competitor Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each.
After its launch in 2010, Instagram gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, 800 million as of September 2017. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for US$1 billion in cash and stock; as of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded to the service. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, illegal or improper content uploaded by users; as of 14 January 2019, the most liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with a sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture has over 50 million likes. Instagram began development in San Francisco, when Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger chose to focus their multi-featured HTML5 check-in project, Burbn, on mobile photography; as Krieger reasoned, Burbn became too similar to Foursquare, both realized that it had gone too far.
Burbn was pivoted to become more focused on photo-sharing. The word Instagram is a portmanteau of instant telegram. On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a $500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn. Josh Riedel joined the company in October as Community Manager, Shayne Sweeney joined in November as an engineer, Jessica Zollman joined as a Community Evangelist in August 2011. Kevin Systrom posted the first photo to Instagram on July 16, 2010; the photo shows Systrom's girlfriend's foot. On October 6, 2010, the Instagram iOS app was released through the App Store. In February 2011, it was reported that Instagram had raised $7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca, Adam D'Angelo; the deal valued Instagram at around $20 million. On April 3, 2012, Instagram was released for Android phones, it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day. In March 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Instagram was raising a new round of financing that would value the company at $500 million, details that were confirmed the following month, when Instagram raised $50 million from venture capitalists with a $500 million valuation.
The same month, Facebook bought Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock, with a plan to keep the company independently managed. Britain's Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012, on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U. S. closed its investigation. On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook was closed; the deal, made just prior to Facebook's scheduled IPO, cost about a quarter of Facebook's cash-on-hand, according to figures documented at the end of 2011. The deal was for a company characterized as having "lots of buzz but no business model", the price was contrasted with the $35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005. Mark Zuckerberg noted that Facebook was "committed to building and growing Instagram independently", in contrast to its past practices. According to Wired, the deal netted Systrom $400 million based on his ownership stake in the business; the exact purchase price was 23 million shares of stock. In November 2012, Instagram launched website profiles, allowing anyone to see users' feeds from their web browsers.
However, the website interface was limited in functionality, with notable omissions including the lack of a search bar, a news feed, the ability to upload photos. In February 2013, the website was updated to offer a news feed, in June 2015, the website was redesigned to offer bigger photos. On October 22, 2013, during the Nokia World event held in Abu Dhabi, Systrom confirmed the upcoming release of the official Instagram app for Windows Phone, after pressure from Nokia and the public to develop an app for the platform; the app was released as a beta version on November 21, 2013, was lacking the ability to record and upload video, though an Instagram spokesperson stated that "We're not finished, our team will continue developing the Windows Phone app to keep releasing features and bringing you the best Instagram possible". In April 2016, Instagram upgraded the app to Windows 10 Mobile, adding support for video and direct messages, followed by updates in October 2016 that
John C. Reynolds
John Charles Reynolds was an American computer scientist. John Reynolds studied at Purdue University and earned a PhD in theoretical physics from Harvard University in 1961, he was a professor of Information science at Syracuse University from 1970 to 1986. From until his death he was Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, he held visiting positions at Aarhus University, University of Edinburgh, Imperial College London, Microsoft Research and Queen Mary, University of London. Reynolds's main research interest was in the area of programming language design and associated specification languages concerning formal semantics, he invented the polymorphic lambda formulated the property of semantic parametricity. He wrote a seminal paper on definitional interpreters, which clarified early work on continuations and introduced the technique of defunctionalization, he applied category theory to programming language semantics. He defined the programming languages Forsythe, known for its use of intersection types.
He worked on a separation logic to reason about shared mutable data structures. He had been an editor of journals such as the Communications of the ACM and the Journal of the ACM. In 2001, he was appointed a Fellow of the ACM, he won the ACM SIGPLAN Programming Language Achievement Award in 2003, the Lovelace Medal from the British Computer Society in 2010. BooksThe Craft of Programming, Prentice Hall International, 1981. ISBN 0-13-188862-5. Theories of Programming Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-59414-6. Articles"Transformational Systems and the Algebraic Structure of Atomic Formulas". Machine Intelligence. 5: 135–151. 1970. "Towards a Theory of Type Structure". Colloque sur la Programmation. Paris, France. 1974. Pp. 408–425. Doi:10.1007/3-540-06859-7_148. "Types and Parametric Polymorphism". Information Processing'83. 1983. Pp. 513–523. "Separation Logic: A Logic for Shared Mutable Data Structures". 17th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. Pp. 55–74. Doi:10.1109/LICS.2002.1029817.
Olivier Danvy, Peter O'Hearn and Philip Wadler, "Festschrift for John C. Reynolds's 70th Birthday". Theoretical Computer Science, 375:1–350, 1 May 2007. Editorial, pages 1–2. Doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2006.12.024 Stephen Brookes, Peter O'Hearn and Uday Reddy, "The Essence of Reynolds". POPL 2014, pages 251-256. Doi:10.1145/2535838.2537851 Home page Curriculum Vitae John C. Reynolds at DBLP Bibliography Server John C. Reynolds at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Program Verification and Semantics: Further Work
Facebook Credits was a virtual currency that enabled people to purchase items in games and non-gaming applications on the Facebook Platform. One U. S. dollar was the equivalent of 10 Facebook Credits. Facebook Credits were available in 15 currencies including U. S. dollars, pound sterling and Danish kroner. It was expected that Facebook would expand Credits into a micropayment system open to any Facebook application, whether a game or a media company application. While the Facebook Credits website is still active, Facebook has announced that it is doing away with Facebook Credits in favor of local currency. Facebook Credits went into its alpha stage in May 2009 and progressed into the beta stage in February 2010, which ended in January 2011. At that time, Facebook announced all Facebook game developers would be required to process payments only through Facebook Credits from July 1, 2011. Facebook retains 30% and developers get 70% of all revenue earned through Credits. Credits is a single currency that can be used in multiple games and applications, its introduction led former PayPal executives to comment on whether or not Credits could soon replace PayPal as the leader in virtual payments.
By the end of 2010, it was expected that Facebook users would purchase Credits to pay for the majority of virtual goods sold on the social network. In March 2011, Facebook created an official subsidiary to handle payments: Facebook Payments Inc. In June 2012, Facebook announced it would no longer use Facebook Credits. Users with credits will see them converted into their own currencies. Facebook Credits was removed from Facebook in September 2013. Over 150 developers used Facebook Credits in more than 650 Facebook games and applications, which represented over 70% of virtual goods purchased on Facebook. Developers who offered Facebook Credits include Zynga, CrowdStar, PopCap Games as well as Playdom, RockYou, 6waves. In September 2010, it was announced that Facebook Credits would become the exclusive payment method for all games developed by Zynga and hosted on Facebook. Zynga is the number one Facebook application developer and was expected to earn $500 million in 2010 from virtual goods, it was announced in April 2011 that Facebook users will be able to use Credits to purchase vouchers that can be redeemed for real goods and services by using the "Deals" offering.
In addition to purchasing Credits within Facebook, there are a number of online and offline channels for earning or buying Facebook Credits. These include the following. Gift cards — In the U. S. Target, Best Buy, Radio Shack, GameStop, Safeway sell Facebook credit gift cards in their stores. Facebook Credits gift cards are sold in Tesco and Game shops in the U. K. Facebook Credits gift cards are sold in over 500,000 outlets in five Southeast Asian countries, India and New Zealand. Rixty lets users get Facebook Credits by buying a prepaid Rixty giftcard with coins or cash at stores and converting it to Facebook Credits. Shopkick allows users to earn Facebook Credits by checking into stores with an iPhone or Android application. Ifeelgoods enables online retailers to offer Facebook Credits as incentives for making purchases, signing up for e-mail newsletters, other actions. AppDog awards users with an Apple or Android mobile device with free Facebook Credits in exchange for downloading apps. Downloaded apps can be free or paid.
Issues Facebook Credits as an incentive for users to sign up for advertiser services, complete market research surveys or interact with brand-sponsored videos/engagements. Users can access TrialPay on the Facebook platform through a variety of ways including in-game icons DealSpot or an'Earn Credits' tab within the game environment. In March 2013, FinCen announced new guidance relating to the regulation of virtual currencies such as Facebook Credits and bitcoin These regulations will have an impact of those who deal in virtual currencies and is seen as FinCen's first step towards regulating virtual currency As regulation of such currencies expands, there is a possibility that individual U. S. Citizens may be required to report substantial holdings of these currencies on their tax returns. Digital currency Token money Official website German Facebook Credits Info Website
Facebook Messenger is a messaging app and platform. Developed as Facebook Chat in 2008, the company revamped its messaging service in 2010, subsequently released standalone iOS and Android apps in August 2011. Over the years, Facebook has released new apps on a variety of different operating systems, launched a dedicated website interface, separated the messaging functionality from the main Facebook app, requiring users to use the web interface or download one of the standalone apps. Users can send messages and exchange photos, stickers and files, as well as react to other users' messages and interact with bots; the service supports voice and video calling. The standalone apps support using multiple accounts, conversations with optional end-to-end encryption, playing games. Following tests of a new instant messaging platform on Facebook in March 2008, the feature, then-titled "Facebook Chat", was released to users in April 2008. Facebook revamped its messaging platform in November 2010, subsequently acquired group messaging service Beluga in March 2011, which the company used to launch its standalone iOS and Android mobile apps on August 9, 2011.
Facebook launched a BlackBerry version in October 2011. An app for Windows Phone, though lacking features including voice messaging and chat heads, was released in March 2014. In April 2014, Facebook announced that the messaging feature would be removed from the main Facebook app and users will be required to download the separate Messenger app. An iPad-optimized version of the iOS app was released in July 2014. In April 2015, Facebook launched a website interface for Messenger. A Tizen app was released on July 13, 2015. In October 2016, Facebook released Facebook Messenger Lite, a stripped-down version of Messenger with a reduced feature set; the app is aimed at old Android phones and regions where high-speed Internet is not available. In April 2017, Facebook Messenger Lite was expanded to 132 more countries. In May 2017, Facebook revamped the design for Messenger on Android and iOS, bringing a new home screen with tabs and categorization of content and interactive media, red dots indicating new activity, relocated sections.
Facebook announced a Messenger program for Windows 7 in a limited beta test in November 2011. The following month, Israeli blog TechIT leaked a download link for the program, with Facebook subsequently confirming and releasing the program; the program was discontinued in March 2014. A Firefox web browser add-on was released in December 2012, but was discontinued in March 2014. In December 2017, Facebook announced Messenger Kids, a new app aimed for persons under 13 years of age; the app comes with some differences compared to the standard version. The following is a table of features available in Facebook Messenger, as well as their geographical coverage and what devices they are available on: In January 2017, Facebook announced that it was testing showing advertisements in Facebook Messenger's home feed. At the time, the testing was limited to a "small number of users in Australia and Thailand", with the ad format being swipe-based carousel ads. In July, the company announced. Stan Chudnovsky, head of Messenger, told VentureBeat that "We’ll start slow...
When the average user can be sure to see them we don’t know because we’re just going to be data-driven and user feedback-driven on making that decision". Facebook told TechCrunch that the advertisements' placement in the inbox depends on factors such as thread count, phone screen size, pixel density. In a TechCrunch editorial by Devin Coldewey, he described the ads as "huge" in the space they occupy, "intolerable" in the way they appear in the user interface, "irrelevant" due to the lack of context. Coldewey finished by writing "Advertising is how things get paid for on the internet, including TechCrunch, so I’m not an advocate of eliminating it or blocking it altogether, but bad advertising experiences can spoil a good app like Messenger. Messaging is a personal, purposeful use case and these ads are a bad way to monetize it." In November 2014, the Electronic Frontier Foundation listed Facebook Messenger on its Secure Messaging Scorecard. It received a score of 2 out of 7 points on the scorecard.
It received points for having communications encrypted in transit and for having completed an independent security audit. It missed points because the communications were not encrypted with keys the provider didn't have access to, users could not verify contacts' identities, past messages were not secure if the encryption keys were stolen, the source code was not open to independent review, the security design was not properly documented; as stated by Facebook in its Help Center, there is no way to log out of the Facebook Messenger application. Instead, users can choose between different availability statuses, including "Appear as inactive", "Switch accounts", "Turn off notifications". Media outlets have reported on a workaround, by pressing a "Clear data" option in the application's menu in Settings on Android devices, which returns the user to the log-in screen. After being separated from the main Facebook app, Facebook Messenger had 600 million users in April 2015; this grew to 900 million in June 2016, 1 billion in July 2016, 1.2 billion in April 2017.
Comparison of instant messaging clients Comparison of VoIP software Official website
WhatsApp Messenger is a freeware, cross-platform messaging and Voice over IP service owned by Facebook. It allows the sending of text messages and voice calls, as well as video calls and other media and user location; the WhatsApp client application runs on mobile devices but is accessible from desktop computers while the mobile device is connected to the Internet. The service requires users to provide a standard cellular mobile number. Users could communicate only with others individually or in groups of individuals, but in September 2017, WhatsApp announced a forthcoming business platform to enable companies to provide customer service to users at scale; the client application was created by WhatsApp Inc. of Mountain View, acquired by Facebook in February 2014 for US$19.3 billion. By February 2018, WhatsApp had over one and a half billion users, making it the most popular messaging application at the time, it has grown in multiple countries, including Brazil and large parts of Europe, including the United Kingdom and France.
WhatsApp was founded in 2009 by Brian Acton and Jan Koum, former employees of Yahoo!. After leaving Yahoo! in September 2007, they took some time off in South America. At one point, they were rejected. In January 2009, after purchasing an iPhone and realizing the potential of the app industry on the App Store and Acton began visiting Koum's friend Alex Fishman in West San Jose to discuss a new type of messaging app that would " statuses next to individual names of the people", they realized that to take the idea further, they'd need an iPhone developer. Fishman visited RentACoder.com, found Russian developer Igor Solomennikov, introduced him to Koum. Koum named the app WhatsApp to sound like "what's up". On February 24, 2009, he incorporated WhatsApp Inc. in California. However, when early versions of WhatsApp kept crashing, Koum considered giving up and looking for a new job. Acton encouraged him to wait for a "few more months". In June 2009, Apple launched push notifications, allowing users to be pinged when they were not using an app.
Koum changed WhatsApp so that when a user's status is changed, everyone in the user's network would be notified. WhatsApp 2.0 was released with a messaging component and the number of active users increased to 250,000. Although Acton was managing another startup, he decided to join the company. In October 2009, Acton persuaded five former friends at Yahoo! to invest $250,000 in seed funding, Acton became a co-founder and was given a stake. He joined WhatsApp on November 1. After months at beta stage, the application launched in November 2009 on the App Store for the iPhone. Koum hired a friend in Los Angeles, Chris Peiffer, to develop a BlackBerry version, which arrived two months later. To cover the primary cost of sending verification texts to users, WhatsApp was changed from a free service to a paid one. In December 2009, the ability to send photos was added to the iPhone version. By early 2011, WhatsApp was one of the top 20 apps at Apple's U. S. App Store. In April 2011, Sequoia Capital invested about $8 million for more than 15% of the company, after months of negotiation with Sequoia partner Jim Goetz.
By February 2013, WhatsApp had 50 staff members. Sequoia invested another $50 million, WhatsApp was valued at $1.5 billion. In a December 2013 blog post, WhatsApp claimed that 400 million active users used the service each month. On February 19, 2014, months after a venture capital financing round at a $1.5 billion valuation, Facebook announced it was acquiring WhatsApp for US$19 billion, its largest acquisition to date. At the time, it was the largest acquisition of a venture-backed company in history. Sequoia Capital received an approximate 5000% return on its initial investment. Facebook, advised by Allen & Co, paid $4 billion in cash, $12 billion in Facebook shares, an additional $3 billion in restricted stock units granted to WhatsApp's founders Koum and Acton. Employee stock was scheduled to vest over four years subsequent to closing. Days after the announcement, WhatsApp users experienced a loss of service, leading to anger across social media; the acquisition move to other message services.
Telegram claimed. At a keynote presentation at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2014, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg said that Facebook's acquisition of WhatsApp was related to the Internet.org vision. A TechCrunch article said this about Zuckerberg's vision:The idea, he said, is to develop a group of basic internet services that would be free of charge to use –'a 911 for the internet.' These could be a social networking service like Facebook, a messaging service, maybe search and other things like weather. Providing a bundle of these free of charge to users will work like a gateway drug of sorts – users who may be able to afford data services and phones these days just don’t see the point of why they would pay for those data services; this would give them some context for why they are important, that will lead them to paying for more services like this – or so the hope goes. Just three days after announcing the Facebook purchase, Koum said they were working to introduce voice calls.
He said that new mobile phones would be sold in Germany with the WhatsApp brand, that their ultimate goal was to be on all smartphones. In August 2014, WhatsApp was the most globally popular messaging app, with more than 600 million users. By early January 2015, WhatsApp had 700 million monthly users and over 30 billion messages every day. In April 2015, Forbes