Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities and villages and planning for the provision of municipal services to residents and visitors. In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional and sustainable. Urban design is an inter-disciplinary field that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, civil engineering and municipal engineering, it is common for professionals in all these disciplines to practice urban design. In more recent times different sub-subfields of urban design have emerged such as strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design, sustainable urbanism. Urban design demands an understanding of a wide range of subjects from physical geography to social science, an appreciation for disciplines, such as real estate development, urban economics, political economy and social theory.
Urban design is about making connections between people and places and urban form and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. Urban design draws these and other strands together creating a vision for an area and deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the vision to life. Urban design theory deals with the design and management of public space, the way public places are experienced and used. Public space includes the totality of spaces used on a day-to-day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas and public infrastructure; some aspects of owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens contribute to public space and are therefore considered by urban design theory. Important writers on urban design theory include Christopher Alexander, Peter Calthorpe, Gordon Cullen, Andres Duany, Jane Jacobs, Mitchell Joachim, Jan Gehl, Allan B.
Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Robert Venturi, William H. Whyte, Camillo Sitte, Bill Hillier and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. Although contemporary professional use of the term'urban design' dates from the mid-20th century, urban design as such has been practiced throughout history. Ancient examples of planned and designed cities exist in Asia, Africa and the Americas, are well known within Classical Chinese and Greek cultures. European Medieval cities are and erroneously, regarded as exemplars of undesigned or'organic' city development. There are many examples of considered urban design in the Middle Ages. In England, many of the towns listed in the 9th century Burghal Hidage were designed on a grid, examples including Southampton, Wareham and Wallingford, having been created to provide a defensive network against Danish invaders. 12th century western Europe brought renewed focus on urbanisation as a means of stimulating economic growth and generating revenue. The burgage system dating from that time and its associated burgage plots brought a form of self-organising design to medieval towns.
Rectangular grids were used in the Bastides of 13th and 14th century Gascony, the new towns of England created in the same period. Throughout history, design of streets and deliberate configuration of public spaces with buildings have reflected contemporaneous social norms or philosophical and religious beliefs, yet the link between designed urban space and human mind appears to be bidirectional. Indeed, the reverse impact of urban structure upon human behaviour and upon thought is evidenced by both observational study and historical record. There are clear indications of impact through Renaissance urban design on the thought of Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei. René Descartes in his Discourse on the Method had attested to the impact Renaissance planned new towns had upon his own thought, much evidence exists that the Renaissance streetscape was the perceptual stimulus that had led to the development of coordinate geometry; the beginnings of modern urban design in Europe are associated with the Renaissance but with the Age of Enlightenment.
Spanish colonial cities were planned, as were some towns settled by other imperial cultures. These sometimes embodied utopian ambitions as well as aims for functionality and good governance, as with James Oglethorpe's plan for Savannah, Georgia. In the Baroque period the design approaches developed in French formal gardens such as Versailles were extended into urban development and redevelopment. In this period, when modern professional specialisations did not exist, urban design was undertaken by people with skills in areas as diverse as sculpture, garden design, surveying and military engineering. In the 18th and 19th centuries, urban design was most linked with surveyors and architects; the increase in urban populations brought with it problems of epidemic disea
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating and distributing food in or around urban areas. Urban agriculture can involve animal husbandry, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, horticulture; these activities occur in peri-urban areas as well, peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics. Urban agriculture can reflect varying levels of social development, it may be a social movement for sustainable communities, where organic growers, "foodies," and "locavores" form social networks founded on a shared ethos of nature and community holism. These networks can evolve when receiving formal institutional support, becoming integrated into local town planning as a "transition town" movement for sustainable urban development. For others, food security and income generation are key motivations for the practice. In either case, more direct access to fresh vegetables and meat products through urban agriculture can improve food security and food safety. In semi-desert towns of Persia, oases were fed through aqueducts that carried mountain water to support intensive food production, nurtured by wastes from the communities.
In Machu Picchu, water was conserved and reused as part of the stepped architecture of the city, vegetable beds were designed to gather sun in order to prolong the growing season. The idea of supplemental food production beyond rural farming operations and distant imports is not new, it has been used during war and depression times when food shortage issues arose, as well as during times of relative abundance. Allotment gardens came up in Germany in the early 19th century as a response to poverty and food insecurity. In 1893, citizens of a depression-struck Detroit were asked to use any vacant lots to grow vegetables, they were nicknamed Pingree's Potato Patches after the mayor, Hazen S. Pingree, who came up with the idea, he intended for these gardens to produce income, food supply, boost independence during times of hardship. Victory gardens sprouted during WWI and WWII and were fruit and herb gardens in US, UK; this effort was undertaken by citizens to reduce pressure on food production, to support the war effort.
During the first World War, President Woodrow Wilson called upon all American citizens to utilize any available open space for food growth, seeing this as a way to pull them out of a damaging situation. Because most of Europe was consumed with war, they were unable to produce sufficient food supplies to be shipped to the U. S. and a new plan was implemented with the intent to feed the U. S. and supply a surplus to other countries in need. By the year 1919, over 5 million plots were growing food and over 500 million pounds of produce was harvested. A similar practice came into use during the Great Depression that provided a purpose, a job, food to those who would otherwise be without anything during such harsh times. In this case, these efforts helped to raise spirits as well as to boost economic growth. Over 2.8 million dollars worth of food was produced from the subsistence gardens during the Depression. By the time of the Second World War, the War/Food Administration set up a National Victory Garden Program that set out to systematically establish functioning agriculture within cities.
With this new plan in action, as many as 5.5 million Americans took part in the victory garden movement and over 9 million pounds of fruit and vegetables were grown a year, accounting for 44% of U. S.-grown produce throughout that time. Community gardening in most communities are open to the public and provide space for citizens to cultivate plants for food or recreation. A community gardening program, well-established is Seattle's P-Patch; the grassroots permaculture movement has been hugely influential in the renaissance of urban agriculture throughout the world. The Severn Project in Bristol was started in 2010 for £2500 and provides 34 tons of produce per year, employing people from disadvantaged backgrounds. City farms are agricultural plots in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants to produce food. City farms are community-run gardens which aim to improve community relationships and offer an awareness of agriculture and farming to people who live in urbanized areas.
City farms are important sources of food security for many communities around the globe. City farms vary in size from small plots in private yards to larger farms that occupy a number of acres. In 1996, a United Nations report estimated there are over 800 million people worldwide who grow food and raise livestock in cities. Although some city farms have paid employees, most rely on volunteer labour, some are run by volunteers alone. Other city farms operate as partnerships with local authorities. During the 1960s a number of community gardens were established in the United Kingdom, influenced by the community garden movement in the United States; the first city farm was set up in 1972 in London. It combined farm animals with gardening space, an addition inspired by children's farms in the Netherlands. Other city farms followed across the United Kingdom. In Australia, several city farms exist in various capital cities. In Melbourne, the Collingwood Children's Farm was established in 1979 on the Abbotsford Precinct Heritage Farmlands, the oldest continually farmed land in Victoria, farmed since 1838.
In 2010, New York City saw the building and opening of the world's largest owned and operated rooftop farm, followed by an larger location in 2012. Both were a result of municipal programs such as The Green Roof Tax Abatement Program and Green Infrastructure Grant Program; the Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agricult
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It is the foremost activity to achieve desired results, it involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills. There are a couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning well; as such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. An important further meaning just called "planning" is the legal context of permitted building developments. Planning has a specific process and is necessary for multiple occupations. In each field there are different types of plans that help companies achieve efficiency and effectiveness. An important, albeit ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds to forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like for multiple scenarios. Planning combines how to react to them. Planning is one of time management techniques.
Planning is preparing a sequence of action steps to achieve some specific goal. If a person does it they can reduce much the necessary time and effort of achieving the goal. A plan is like a map; when following a plan, a person can see how much they have progressed towards their project goal and how far they are from their destination. Planning is one of the executive functions of the brain, encompassing the neurological processes involved in the formulation and selection of a sequence of thoughts and actions to achieve a desired goal. Various studies utilizing a combination of neuropsychological, neuropharmacological and functional neuroimaging approaches have suggested there is a positive relationship between impaired planning ability and damage to the frontal lobe. A specific area within the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex located in the frontal lobe has been implicated as playing an intrinsic role in both cognitive planning and associated executive traits such as working memory. Disruption of the neural pathways, via various mechanisms such as traumatic brain injury, or the effects of neurodegenerative diseases between this area of the frontal cortex and the basal ganglia the striatum, may disrupt the processes required for normal planning function.
Individuals who were born Very Low Birth Weight and Extremely Low BirthWeight are at greater risk for various cognitive deficits including planning ability. There are a variety of neuropsychological tests which can be used to measure variance of planning ability between the subject and controls. Tower of Hanoi, a puzzle invented in 1883 by the French mathematician Édouard Lucas. There are different variations of the puzzle, the classic version consists of three rods and seven to nine discs of subsequently smaller size. Planning is a key component of the problem solving skills necessary to achieve the objective, to move the entire stack to another rod, obeying the following rules: Only one disk may be moved at a time; each move consists of taking the upper disk from one of the rods and sliding it onto another rod, on top of the other disks that may be present on that rod. No disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk. Tower of London is another test, developed in 1992 to detect deficits in planning as may occur with damage to the frontal lobe.
Test participants with damage to the left anterior frontal lobe demonstrated planning deficits. In test participants with damage to the right anterior, left or right posterior areas of the frontal lobes showed no impairment; the results implicating the left anterior frontal lobes involvement in solving the TOL were supported in concomitant neuroimaging studies which showed a reduction in regional cerebral blood flow to the left pre-frontal lobe. For the number of moves, a significant negative correlation was observed for the left prefrontal area: i.e. subjects that took more time planning their moves showed greater activation in the left prefrontal area. Public policy planning includes environmental, land use, regional and spatial planning. In many countries, the operation of a town and country planning system is referred to as "planning" and the professionals which operate the system are known as "planners", it is a conscious as well as sub-conscious activity. It is "an anticipatory decision making process".
It is deciding future course of action from amongst alternatives. It is a process that involves evaluating each set of interrelated decisions, it is selection of missions, objectives and "translation of knowledge into action." A planned performance brings better results compared to an unplanned one. A manager's job is planning and controlling. Planning and goal setting are important traits of an organization, it is done at all levels of the organization. Planning includes the plan, the thought process and implementation. Planning gives more power over the future. Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, who should do it; this bridges the gap from. The planning function involves arranging them in logical order. A well planned organization achieve faster goals than the ones that don't plan before implementation. Patrick Montana and Bruce Charnov outline a three-step result-oriented process for planning: choosing a destination evaluating alternative routes deciding the specific course
Real estate development
Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others. Real estate developers are the people and companies who coordinate all of these activities, converting ideas from paper to real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers manage the construction process. Developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, imagine and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards. Developers purchase a tract of land, determine the marketing of the property, develop the building program and design, obtain the necessary public approval and financing, build the structures, rent out and sell it. Sometimes property developers will only undertake part of the process.
For example, some developers source a property and get the plans and permits approved before selling the property with the plans and permits to a builder at a premium price. Alternatively, a developer, a builder may purchase a property with the plans and permits in place so that they do not have the risk of failing to obtain planning approval and can start construction on the development immediately. Developers work with many different counterparts along each step of this process, including architects, city planners, surveyors, contractors, leasing agents, etc. In the Town and Country Planning context in the United Kingdom,'development' is defined in the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 s55. Many aspects of the real estate development process require local or state licensing, such as acting as a real estate broker or sales agent along. A real estate developer is not a professional designation, there are no schools or associations who recognize or protect the term as a trademark. No single path automatically leads to success in real estate development.
Developers come from a variety of disciplines— construction, urban planning, architecture and accounting, among others. Recent specialized programs that award a Master of Real Estate Development degree are available; the graduate programs in real estate development are the most comprehensive education in the real estate industry. Other formal education includes a Master of Science in Real Estate, or an MBA. A development team can be put together in one of several ways. At one extreme, a large company might include many services, from architecture to engineering. At the other end of the spectrum, a development company might consist of one principal and a few staff who hire or contract with other companies and professionals for each service as needed. Assembling a team of professionals to address the environmental, private and political issues inherent in a complex development project is critical. A developer's success depends on the ability to coordinate and lead the completion of a series of interrelated activities efficiently and at the appropriate time.
Development process requires skills of many professionals: architects, landscape architects, civil engineers and site planners to address project design. The general contractor of the project hires subcontractors to put the architectural plans into action. Purchasing unused land for a potential development is sometimes called speculative development. Subdivision of land is the principal mechanism. Technically, subdivision describes the legal and physical steps a developer must take to convert raw land into developed land. Subdivision is a vital part of a community's growth, determining its appearance, the mix of its land uses, its infrastructure, including roads, drainage systems, water and public utilities. Land development can pose the most risk, but can be the most profitable technique as it is dependent on the public sector for approvals and infrastructure and because it involves a long investment period with no positive cash flow. After subdivision is complete, the developer markets the land to a home builder or other end user, for such uses as a warehouse or shopping center.
In any case, use of spatial intelligence tools mitigate the risk of these developers by modeling the population trends and demographic make-up of the sort of customers a home builder or retailer would like to have surrounding their new development. Real estate developments portal Construction Home construction Land consumption Land use Property investment calculator Urban sprawl
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
World Urbanism Day
The international organisation for World Urbanism Day known as "World Town Planning Day", was founded in 1949 by the late Professor Carlos Maria della Paolera of the University of Buenos Aires, a graduate at the Institut d'urbanisme in Paris, to advance public and professional interest in planning. It is celebrated in more than 30 countries on four continents each November 8th, it is a special day to promote the role of planning in creating livable communities. World Urbanism Day presents an excellent opportunity to look at planning from a global perspective, an event which appeals to the conscience of citizens and public authorities in order to draw attention to the environmental impact resulting from the development of cities and territories. Urbanism New Urbanism Institut d'Urbanisme de Paris American Planning Association: World Town Planning Day World Urbanism Day from WN Network
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin