SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Inflammation

Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, initiate tissue repair; the five classical signs of inflammation are heat, redness and loss of function. Inflammation is a generic response, therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation is associated with various diseases, such as hay fever, periodontal disease and osteoarthritis. Inflammation can be classified as either chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues.

A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the body's immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be, but because of how the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes informally described as referring to infection.

For example, the word urethritis means only "urethral inflammation", but clinical health care providers discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis. It is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection because there are typical situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, trauma and autoimmune diseases including type III hypersensitivity. Conversely, there is pathology where microbial invasion does not cause the classic inflammatory response – for example, parasitosis or eosinophilia. Acute inflammation is a short-term process appearing within a few minutes or hours and begins to cease upon the removal of the injurious stimulus, it involves a coordinated and systemic mobilization response locally of various immune and neurological mediators of acute inflammation. In a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and ceases.

It is characterized by five cardinal signs:An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is "PRISH", for pain, immobility and heat. The traditional names for signs of inflammation come from Latin: Dolor Calor Rubor Tumor Functio laesa The first four were described by Celsus, while loss of function was added by Galen. However, the addition of this fifth sign has been ascribed to Thomas Sydenham and Virchow. Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site. Loss of function has multiple causes. Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings; the process of acute inflammation is initiated by resident immune cells present in the involved tissue resident macrophages, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition receptors, which recognize two subclasses of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns.

PAMPs are compounds that are associated with various pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related cell damage. At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes increased heat. Increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling; some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain. The mediator molecules alter the blood vessels to permit the migration of leukocytes neutrophils and macrophages, outside of the blood vessels (e

Odon device

Odón device is a medical device that assists during a difficult birth. The low-cost device consists of a plastic sleeve, inflated around the baby's head and is used to pull and ease the head of the infant through the birth canal. Worldwide, more than 13 million births each year face serious complications, every day about 800 women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth; the use of forceps and other mechanical devices in the extraction of a baby in a difficult delivery can cause internal bleeding in the mother or may result in injuries to the baby's head or spine. The Odón device has the potential to allow for vaginal delivery in complicated pregnancies in which common medical practice would have led to a cesarean section, the use of forceps to extract the newborn or the use of a ventouse vacuum device that attaches suction cups directly to the baby's scalp. By reducing contact between the baby's skull and the birth canal, the risk of infection is reduced; the device was developed by Jorge Odón, a car mechanic from Lanús, Argentina who had seen a video describing a method to extract a loose cork from inside an empty wine bottle by inserting a plastic bag into the bottle, inflating the bag once it has enveloped the cork and pulling out the inflated bag together with the cork.

Odón conceived of the use of this same technique that evening in bed and spoke with an obstetrician who encouraged him to move ahead with the idea. The first model of the device was created by sewing a sleeve onto a cloth bag and was tested using a doll inserted into a glass jar to simulate the use of the device in the delivery process. In complicated deliveries, the device is positioned against the baby's scalp and the lubricated sleeve is inserted around the baby's head. Once a marker on the device indicates that it has been positioned properly, the inner compartment of the sleeve is inflated, providing a strong grip on the baby's head; the inserter is taken away and the sleeve can be pulled with up to 19 kilograms of force to pull out the head and allow for delivery of the baby. After further testing, Odón was introduced to the chief of obstetrics at a hospital in Buenos Aires who saw the benefit of the method and arranged to have the device tested more at an Iowa laboratory that has simulators designed to model delivery methods more realistically.

Safety testing had been performed on 20 women in Argentina, all of whom had given birth and were experiencing uncomplicated pregnancies, including a woman, able to deliver a baby weighing 9 pounds with only two pushes. Further testing will be conducted on more than 250 women in China and South Africa, with a mix of pregnant women experiencing normal and complicated labor. Becton Dickinson has agreed to manufacture and distribute the unit, estimates that the Odón device could be constructed for $50 per unit, it is expected that it could be used by midwives as well as obstetricians who would need minimal training to use the device effectively; the World Health Organization offered favorable notices regarding the device, recognized for its "potential to save the lives of mothers and newborns at the time of birth". The WHO's Dr. Mario Merialdi called the device "exciting", saying that childbirth is an area that has had little recent progress. Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the WHO, described the device as "a low-cost simplified way to deliver babies, protect mothers promises to transfer life-saving capacity to rural health posts, which never have the facilities and staff to perform a C-section the first simple new tool for assisted delivery since forceps and vacuum extractors were introduced centuries ago."

Miss Misery

"Miss Misery" is a song by American singer-songwriter Elliott Smith. Featured in the closing credits and the soundtrack of the 1997 film Good Will Hunting, the song was nominated for Best Original Song in the 1998 Academy Awards. A previous version of "Miss Misery" with different lyrics was recorded in Jackpot! Recording Studio in early 1997 and appears on the 2007 posthumous collection New Moon; the Good Will Hunting version was re-cut at Jackpot! A music video was directed by Ross Harris, features Smith walking around in a white suit, being followed by a policeman; the musician inserts change into expired parking meters so the policeman cannot write up tickets. The video was shot in the Silverlake neighborhood of Los Angeles. One version of the video splices in some footage from Good Will Hunting. On March 5, 1998, Smith performed "Miss Misery" solo on acoustic guitar on Late Night with Conan O'Brien. On March 23, 1998, Smith played an abridged version of the song at the 70th Academy Awards, accompanied by the house orchestra.

Following the "shocking" nomination for the Academy Award for Best Original Song, Smith had to be convinced by the producers to perform the song at the ceremony, as he had not intended to do so. They informed him that his song would be played live that night, whether by him or by another musician of their choosing, they reportedly rejected his style of performing sitting in a chair. Before the ceremony, responding to a reporter's question, said, "Mainly I just want to go so I can wear my white suit. I always have a great time when I wear my white suit." When Madonna announced "My Heart Will Go On" as the winner, she sarcastically remarked, "What a shocker!" She said that she admired Elliott Smith. Afterwards, Smith described the experience as "surreal" and "ridiculous, but at a certain point I threw myself into it because it seemed to make my friends happy... I walked out and Jack Nicholson was sitting about six feet away, so I avoided that area and I looked up at the balcony in the back and sang the song."In 1998, Smith performed the song on MTV.

Although he would play "Miss Misery" in various shows throughout his career, Smith would avoid playing it or talking about it. It was not requested compared to his other songs, in one show he dedicated it to the audience. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics