The classical signs of inflammation are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation is a response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity. Too little inflammation could lead to tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation is therefore normally closely regulated by the body. Inflammation can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the vascular system, the immune system. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the bodys immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be. But because of how often the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes described as referring to infection. There are also situations where microbial invasion does not result in classic inflammatory response—for example, parasitosis. Acute inflammation is a process, usually appearing within a few minutes or hours. It involves a coordinated and systemic mobilisation response locally of various immune, endocrine, in a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and then ceases. It is characterized by five signs, An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is PRISH, for pain, redness, immobility, swelling. Loss of function has multiple causes, Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings. PAMPs are compounds that are associated with pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related injury and cell damage, at the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes the redness and increased heat, increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling. Some of the released mediators such as increase the sensitivity to pain
The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction.
Infected ingrown toenail showing the characteristic redness and swelling associated with acute inflammation