Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday, it is considered to be one of the most important works of modernist literature and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement." According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking". Ulysses chronicles the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904. Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early 20th-century context of modernism and Ireland's relationship to Britain.
The novel is allusive and imitates the styles of different periods of English literature. Since its publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from an obscenity trial in the United States in 1921, to protracted textual "Joyce Wars"; the novel's stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, experimental prose—replete with puns and allusions—as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour, have led it to be regarded as one of the greatest literary works in history. Joyce first encountered the figure of Odysseus/Ulysses in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses, an adaptation of the Odyssey for children, which seems to have established the Latin name in Joyce's mind. At school he wrote an essay on the character, entitled "My Favourite Hero". Joyce told Frank Budgen, he thought about calling his short-story collection Dubliners by the name Ulysses in Dublin, but the idea grew from a story written in 1906 to a "short book" in 1907, to the vast novel that he began in 1914.
Leopold Bloom's home at 7 Eccles Street - Episode 4, Episode 17, Episode 18, Penelope Post office, Westland Row - Episode 5, Lotus Eaters. Sweny’s pharmacy, Lombard Street, Lincoln Place. Episode 5, Lotus Eaters the Freeman's Journal, Prince's Street, off of O'Connell Street Episode 7, Aeolus And - not far away - Graham Lemon's candy shop, 49 Lower O'Connell Street, it starts Episode 8, Lestrygonians Davy Byrne's pub - Episode 8, Lestrygonians National Library of Ireland - Episode 9, Scylla and Charybdis Ormond Hotel - on the banks of the Liffey - Episode 11, Sirens Barney Kiernan's pub, Episode 12, Cyclops Maternity hospital, Episode 14, Oxen of the Sun Bella Cohen's brothel. Episode 15, Circe Cabman’s shelter, Butt Bridge. - Episode 16, EumaeusThe action of the novel takes place from one side of Dublin Bay to the other, opening in Sandycove to the South of the city and closing on Howth Head to the North. Ulysses is divided into the three books, 18 episodes; the episodes do not have chapter headings or titles, are numbered only in Gabler's edition.
In the various editions the breaks between episodes are indicated in different ways. At first glance, much of the book may appear chaotic; the two schemata which Stuart Gilbert and Herbert Gorman released after publication to help defend Joyce from the obscenity accusations made the links to The Odyssey clearer, helped explain the work's internal structure. Joyce divides Ulysses into 18 episodes that "roughly correspond to the episodes in Homer's Odyssey". Homer's Odyssey is divided into 24 books, it has been suggested by scholars that every episode of Ulysses has a theme and correspondence between its characters and those of the Odyssey. The text of the published novel does not include the episode titles that are used below, nor the correspondences, which originate from explanatory outlines Joyce sent to friends, known as the Linati and Gilbert schemata. Joyce referred to the episodes by their Homeric titles in his letters, he took the idiosyncratic rendering of some of the titles, e.g. "Nausikaa" and the "Telemachiad" from Victor Bérard's two-volume Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée which he consulted in 1918 in the Zentralbibliothek Zürich.
While the action of Joyce's novel takes place during one ordinary day in early twentieth-century Dublin, Ireland, in Homer's epic, Odysseus, "a Greek hero of the Trojan War... took ten years to find his way from Troy to his home on the island of Ithaca". Furthermore, Homer's poem includes violent storms and a shipwreck and monsters, gods and goddesses, a different world from Joyce's. Joyce's character Leopold Bloom, "a Jewish advertisement canvasser", corresponds to Odysseus in Homer's epic, it is 8 a.m. Buck Mulligan, a boisterous medical student, calls Stephen Dedalus up to the roof of the Sandycove Martello tower where they both live. There is tension between Stephen and M
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses, a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners, the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake, his other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism. Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances, he went on to attend University College Dublin. In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle.
They lived in Trieste and Zurich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated by characters who resemble family members and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal." On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Dublin, Ireland. Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" Murray, he was the eldest of ten surviving siblings. James was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork, had owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork Alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator"; the Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation. Around this time Joyce was attacked by leading to his lifelong cynophobia, he suffered from astraphobia. In 1891 Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, his father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November, John Joyce was suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused by his drinking and financial mismanagement. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce studied at home and at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893; this came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere. In 1895, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers at Belvedere; the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas continued to have a strong influence on him for most of his life. Joyce enrolled at the established University College Dublin in 1898, studying English and Italian.
He became active in literary circles in the city. In 1900 his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review. Joyce wrote a number of at least two plays during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works, his closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman, in November 1901. Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce had it distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. In 1901, the National Census of Ireland lists James Joyce as an English- and Irish-speaking scholar living with his mother and father, six sisters and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Ro
Masaccio, born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist, regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. According to Vasari, Masaccio was the best painter of his generation because of his skill at imitating nature, recreating lifelike figures and movements as well as a convincing sense of three-dimensionality, he employed foreshortenings in his figures. This had been done before him; the name Masaccio is a humorous version of Maso. The name may have been created to distinguish him from his principal collaborator called Maso, who came to be known as Masolino. Despite his brief career, he had a profound influence on other artists and is considered to have started the Early Italian Renaissance in painting with his works in the mid- and late-1420s, he was one of the first to use linear perspective in his painting, employing techniques such as vanishing point in art for the first time. He moved away from the International Gothic style and elaborate ornamentation of artists like Gentile da Fabriano to a more naturalistic mode that employed perspective and chiaroscuro for greater realism.
Masaccio died at the age of twenty-six and little is known about the exact circumstances of his death. Upon hearing of Masaccio’s death, Filippo Brunelleschi said: "We have suffered a great loss." Masaccio was born to Giovanni di Simone Cassai and Jacopa di Martinozzo in Castel San Giovanni di Altura, now San Giovanni Valdarno. His father was a notary and his mother the daughter of an innkeeper of Barberino di Mugello, a town a few miles north of Florence, his family name, comes from the trade of his paternal grandfather Simone and granduncle Lorenzo, who were carpenters/cabinet makers. Masaccio's father died in 1406, he was to become a painter, with the nickname of lo Scheggia meaning "the splinter." In 1412 Monna Jacopa married an elderly apothecary, Tedesco di maestro Feo, who had several daughters, one of whom grew up to marry the only other documented painter from Castel San Giovanni, Mariotto di Cristofano. There is no evidence for Masaccio's artistic education, however Renaissance painters traditionally began an apprenticeship with an established master around the age of 12.
Masaccio would have had to move to Florence to receive his training, but he was not documented in the city until he joined the painters guild as an independent master on January 7, 1422, signing as "Masus S. Johannis Simonis pictor populi S. Nicholae de Florentia." The first works attributed to Masaccio are the San Giovenale Triptych, now in the Museum of Cascia di Reggello near Florence, the Virgin and Child with Saint Anne at the Uffizi. The San Giovenale altarpiece was discovered in 1961 in the church of San Giovenale at Cascia di Reggello close to Masaccio's hometown, it depicts the Child with angels in the central panel, Sts. Bartholomew and Blaise on the left panel, Sts. Juvenal and Anthony Abbot in the right panel; the painting has lost much of its original framing, its surface is badly abraded. Masaccio's concern to suggest three-dimensionality through volumetric figures and foreshortened forms is apparent, stands as a revival of Giotto's approach, rather than a continuation of contemporary trends.
The second work was Masaccio's first collaboration with the older and already-renowned artist, Masolino da Panicale. The circumstances of the two artists' collaboration are unclear. Masolino is believed to have painted the figure of St. Anne and the angels that hold the cloth of honor behind her, while Masaccio painted the more important Virgin and Child on their throne. Masolino's figures are delicate and somewhat flat, while Masaccio's are solid and hefty. In Florence, Masaccio could study the works of Giotto and become friends with Brunelleschi and Donatello. According to Vasari, at their prompting in 1423 Masaccio travelled to Rome with Masolino: from that point he was freed of all Gothic and Byzantine influence, as seen in his altarpiece for the Carmelite Church in Pisa; the traces of influences from ancient Roman and Greek art that are present in some of Masaccio's works originated from this trip: they should have been present in a lost Sagra, a fresco commissioned for the consecration ceremony of the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence.
It was destroyed. In 1424, the "duo preciso e noto" of Masaccio and Masolino was commissioned by the powerful and wealthy Felice Brancacci to execute a cycle of frescoes for the Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence. With the two artists working the painting began around 1425, but for unknown reasons the chapel was left unfinished, was completed by Filippino Lippi in the 1480s; the iconography of the fresco decoration is somewhat unusual.
Amenhotep III known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was Thutmose's son by Mutemwiya, his reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. When he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son ruled as Amenhotep IV, but changed his own royal name to Akhenaten; the son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep III was born around 1401 BC. He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV known as Akhenaten succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne.
Amenhotep III may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, who would succeed Akhenaten and ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Amenhotep III and Tiye may have had four daughters: Sitamun, Isis or Iset, Nebetah, they appear on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and are represented by smaller objects—with the exception of Nebetah. Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu; this huge sculpture, seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne—Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre. Evidence that Sitamun was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. Egypt's theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him.
The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and wife and daughter of the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women: Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign. A daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon. A daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia. Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria through to Soleb in Nubia.
Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women, she was the first of many such princesses. Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of... Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life, the Great Royal Wife Tiye, his Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye—may she live—in her town of Djakaru.. Its length is 3,700 and its width is 700. Celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen, his Majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it. Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child between the ages of 6 and 12.
It is that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years and she lived twelve years after his death, his lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni and Hatti, preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; the letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence—Amarna letter EA 4—Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters: From time immemorial, no daughter of the king of Egy is given to anyone. Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connect
Oedipus was a mythical Greek king of Thebes. A tragic hero in Greek mythology, Oedipus accidentally fulfilled a prophecy that he would end up killing his father and marrying his mother, thereby bringing disaster to his city and family; the story of Oedipus is the subject of Sophocles' tragedy Oedipus Rex, followed by Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone. Together, these plays make up Sophocles' three Theban plays. Oedipus represents two enduring themes of Greek myth and drama: the flawed nature of humanity and an individual's role in the course of destiny in a harsh universe. In the best known version of the myth, Oedipus was born to Queen Jocasta. Laius wished to thwart the prophecy, so he sent a shepherd-servant to leave Oedipus to die on a mountainside. However, the shepherd took pity on the baby and passed him to another shepherd who gave Oedipus to King Polybus and Queen Merope to raise as their own. Oedipus learned from the oracle at Delphi of the prophecy that he would end up killing his father and marrying his mother but, unaware of his true parentage, believed he was fated to murder Polybus and marry Merope, so left for Thebes.
On his way he killed him in a quarrel. Continuing on to Thebes, he found that the king of the city had been killed, that the city was at the mercy of the Sphinx. Oedipus answered the monster's riddle defeating it and winning the throne of the dead king – and the hand in marriage of the king's widow, his mother Jocasta. Years to end a plague on Thebes, Oedipus searched to find who had killed Laius, discovered that he himself was responsible. Jocasta, upon realizing that she had married her own son, hanged herself. Oedipus seized two pins from her dress and blinded himself with them; the legend of Oedipus has been retold in many versions, was used by Sigmund Freud to name and give mythic precedent to the Oedipus complex. Variations on the legend of Oedipus are mentioned in fragments by several ancient Greek poets including Homer, Pindar and Euripides. However, the most popular version of the legend comes from the set of Theban plays by Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone. Oedipus was the son of Laius and Jocasta and queen of Thebes.
Having been childless for some time, Laius consulted the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. The Oracle prophesied. In an attempt to prevent this prophecy's fulfillment, when Jocasta indeed bore a son, Laius had his ankles pierced and tethered together so that he could not crawl. However, rather than leave the child to die of exposure, as Laius intended, the servant passed the baby on to a shepherd from Corinth and who gave the child to another shepherd; the infant Oedipus came to the house of Polybus, king of Corinth and his queen, who adopted him, as they were without children of their own. Little Oedipus/Oidipous was named after the swelling from the injuries to his ankles; the word "oedema" or "edema" is from this same Greek word for swelling: oedēma. After many years, Oedipus was told by a drunk that he was a "bastard", meaning at that time that he was not their biological son. Oedipus confronted his parents with the news. Oedipus went to the same oracle in Delphi; the oracle informed him that he was destined to marry his mother.
In an attempt to avoid such a fate, he decided not to return home to Corinth, but to travel to Thebes, closer to Delphi. On the way, Oedipus came to Davlia. There he encountered a chariot driven by King Laius, they fought over who had the right to go first and Oedipus killed Laius when the charioteer tried to run him over. The only witness of the king's death was a slave who fled from a caravan of slaves traveling on the road at the time. Continuing his journey to Thebes, Oedipus encountered a Sphinx, who would stop all travelers to Thebes and ask them a riddle. If the travelers were unable to answer her they would be killed and eaten; the riddle was: "What walks on four feet in the morning, two in the afternoon and three at night?". Oedipus answered: "Man: as an infant, he crawls on all fours. Oedipus was the first to answer the riddle and, having heard Oedipus' answer, the Sphinx allowed him to carry on forward. Queen Jocasta's brother, had announced that any man who could rid the city of the Sphinx would be made king of Thebes, given the widowed Queen Jocasta's hand in marriage.
This marriage of Oedipus to Jocasta fulfilled the rest of the prophecy. Oedipus and Jocasta had four children: two sons and Polynices, two daughters and Ismene. Many years after the marriage of Oedipus and Jocasta, a plague of infertility struck the city of Thebes, affecting crops and the people. Oedipus asserted, he sent Creon, to the Oracle at Delphi, seeking guidance. When Creon returned, Oedipus learned that the murderer of the former King Laius must be brought to justice, Oedipus himself cursed the killer of his wife's late husband, saying that he would be exiled. Creon suggested that they try to find the blind prophet, Tiresias, respected. Oedipus sent for Tiresias, who warned him not to seek Laius'
Doria Pamphilj Gallery
The Doria Pamphilj Gallery is a large art collection housed in the Palazzo Doria Pamphilj in Rome, between Via del Corso and Via della Gatta. The principal entrance is on the Via del Corso; the palace façade on Via del Corso is adjacent to Santa Maria in Via Lata. Like the palace, it is still owned by the princely Roman family Doria Pamphili; the large collection of paintings and statuary has been assembled since the 16th century by the Doria, Pamphilj and Aldobrandini families now united through marriage and descent under the simplified surname Doria Pamphilj. The collection includes paintings and furnishings from Innocent X's Palazzo Pamphilj, who bequeathed them to his nephew Camillo Pamphilj; the Palazzo has grown over the centuries. The main collection is displayed in state rooms, including the chapel, complete with the mummified corpse of the family saint. However, the bulk is displayed in a series of four gilded and painted galleries surrounding a courtyard. An extensive suite of further rooms have now been converted to permanent well-lit galleries, containing the more medieval and Byzantine art in the collection.
The palace was renovated for the marriage of Andrea IV Doria Pamphilj Landi to Princess Leopoldina Maria of Savoy, daughter of Louis Victor, Prince of Carignan and Christine of Hesse-Rotenburg in 1767. Work was carried out under the supervision of an architect from Trapani. Velázquez's portrait of Innocent X, who rose to papacy as cardinal Giovan Battista Pamphilj in 1644, is considered the collection's masterpiece. Velázquez while not idealizing the pope's countenance, is not unflattering in the portrait; the portrait painted to commemorate the Holy Year was commissioned by his hedonistic sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini, his close confidante and adviser, some say mistress. Since 1927, Velázquez's portrait was placed in a specially designated small room along with a sculptured bust of the same pope by Bernini. Olimpia Maidalchini's son Camillo Pamphilj, defying his powerful mother, renounced the Cardinalship conferred on him by his uncle the Pope and married the widowed Olimpia Borghese. Born an Aldobrandini, she brought the palazzo known as Palazzo Aldobrandini into the Pamphilj family.
Following a period of exile in the country, to avoid confrontation with the Pope and Olimpia Maidalchini, the newly married couple took up permanent residence in the Palazzo Aldobrandini which from 1654 Camillo began to expand on a large scale. The architect in charge of this lengthy project was Antonio Del Grande; the façade facing the Via del Corso, however, is by Gabriele Valvassori. Following Camillo's death in 1666, building continued under the auspices of his two sons Giovanni Battista and Benedetto. One of Camillo and Olimpia's daughters, Anna Pamphilj, married the Genoese aristocrat Giovanni Andrea III Doria Landi in 1671, it was their descendants who inherited the Palazzo when the Roman branch of the Pamphilj family ended in 1760. In 1763 Prince Andrea IV combined his Roman names to the present Doria-Pamphilj-Landi. In 1767 the ceilings of the state rooms were frescoed by late-baroque artists such as Crescenzio Onofri, Aureliano Milani, Stefano Pozzi; the collection was first opened to the public by the three-quarters English Princess Orietta Pogson Doria Pamphilj, whose English husband Commander Frank Pogson added her name to his.
Her own father, Prince Filippo Andrea VI, was half English. Princess Orietta and Commander Frank did much to restore the Palazzo. Along with the possessions of the Colonna and Pallavicini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome; the Family chapel was designed by architect Carlo Fontana in the late 17th century, but since altered. The ivory crucifix was carved by Ercole Ferrata. Saletta Gialla and Rossa contain Gobelins tapestries, including those on Zodiac signs by Claude Audran. Sala del Poussin: Landscapes by Claude Lorraine. Birth of Adonis and the Rape of Adonis by Poussin and Giacomo Eremiti. Main painting galleries: 1st Gallery: Mary Magdalene by Carracci. 2nd Gallery: Velázquez and Bernini portraits, antique Roman statues. Saletta del Seicento: Caravaggio's Penitent Magdalene and The Rest on the Flight into Egypt Saletta del Cinquecento: Double portrait by Raphael. Saletta del Quattrocento: works by Ludovico Mazzolino and Antoniazzo Romano. 3rd Gallery: St Jerome by Lotto.
4th Gallery: bust of Olimpia Aldobrandini by Algardi. Saletta degli Specchi: Landscape by Domenichino. Salone Aldobrandini: antique sculptures and marble reliefs by Duquesnoy. Roo
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch post-impressionist painter, among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life, they include landscapes, still lifes and self-portraits, are characterised by bold colours and dramatic and expressive brushwork that contributed to the foundations of modern art. However, he was not commercially successful, his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious and thoughtful; as a young man he worked as an art dealer travelling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium, he drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him financially, the two kept up a long correspondence by letter.
His early works still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, contain few signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his work. In 1886, he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility; as his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes. His paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include series of olive trees, wheat fields and sunflowers. Van Gogh suffered from psychotic episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he neglected his physical health, did not eat properly and drank heavily, his friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor when, in a rage, he severed part of his own left ear. He spent time including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris, he came under the care of the homeopathic doctor Paul Gachet.
His depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a Lefaucheux revolver. He died from his injuries two days later. Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, was considered a madman and a failure, he became famous after his suicide, exists in the public imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius, the artist "where discourses on madness and creativity converge". His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his painting style came to be incorporated by the Fauves and German Expressionists, he attained widespread critical and popular success over the ensuing decades, is remembered as an important but tragic painter, whose troubled personality typifies the romantic ideal of the tortured artist. Today, Van Gogh's works are among the world's most expensive paintings to have sold at auction, his legacy is honoured by a museum in his name, the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, which holds the world's largest collection of his paintings and drawings.
The most comprehensive primary source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo. Their lifelong friendship, most of what is known of Vincent's thoughts and theories of art, are recorded in the hundreds of letters they exchanged from 1872 until 1890. Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support, access to influential people on the contemporary art scene. Theo kept all of Vincent's letters to him. After both had died, Theo's widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913. Vincent's letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a "diary-like intimacy", read in parts like autobiography; the translator Arnold Pomerans wrote that their publication adds a "fresh dimension to the understanding of Van Gogh's artistic achievement, an understanding granted us by no other painter". There are more than 600 letters from around 40 from Theo to Vincent.
There are 22 to his sister Wil, 58 to the painter Anthon van Rappard, 22 to Émile Bernard as well as individual letters to Paul Signac, Paul Gauguin and the critic Albert Aurier. Some are illustrated with sketches. Many are undated. Problems in transcription and dating remain with those posted from Arles. While there Vincent wrote around 200 letters in Dutch and English. There is a gap in the record when he lived in Paris as the brothers lived together and had no need to correspond. Vincent Willem van Gogh was born on 30 March 1853 into a Dutch Reformed family in Groot-Zundert, in the predominantly Catholic province of North Brabant in the southern Netherlands, he was the oldest surviving child of Theodorus van Gogh, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, Anna Cornelia Carbentus. Van Gogh was given the name of his grandfather, of a brother stillborn a year before his birth. Vincent was a common name in the Van Gogh family: his grandfather, who received a degree in theology at the University of Leiden in 1811, had six sons, three of whom became art dealers.
This Vincent may have been named after a sculptor. Van Gogh's mother came from a prosperous family in The Hague, his father was the youngest son of a minister; the two