Influenza-like illness known as flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms. Symptoms include fever, chills, dry cough, loss of appetite, body aches, nausea in connection with a sudden onset of illness. In most cases, the symptoms are caused by cytokines released by immune system activation, are thus non-specific. Common causes of ILI include the common cold and influenza, which tends to be less common but more severe than the common cold. Less-common causes include side effects of many manifestations of many other diseases; the term ILI can be used casually, but when used in the surveillance of influenza cases, can have a strict definition. The World Health Organization defines an illness as an ILI if the patient has a fever greater than or equal to 38 C° and a cough, which began in the last 10 days. If the patient requires hospitalisation, the illness is classified instead as a severe acute respiratory infection.
Other organisations may have different definitions. For instance, the CDC defines it as a 100°F fever or greater, a cough or sore throat; the causes of influenza-like illness range from benign self-limited illnesses such as gastroenteritis, rhinoviral disease, influenza, to severe, sometimes life-threatening, diseases such as meningitis and leukemia. Technically, any clinical diagnosis of influenza is a diagnosis of ILI, not of influenza; this distinction is of no great concern because, regardless of cause, most cases of ILI are mild and self-limiting. Furthermore, except during the peak of a major outbreak of influenza, most cases of ILI are not due to influenza. ILI is common: in the United States each adult can average 1–3 episodes per year and each child can average 3–6 episodes per year. Influenza in humans is subject to clinical surveillance by a global network of more than 110 National Influenza Centers; these centers receive samples obtained from patients diagnosed with ILI, test the samples for the presence of an influenza virus.
Not all patients diagnosed with ILI are tested, not all test results are reported. Samples are selected for testing based on severity of ILI, as part of routine sampling, at participating surveillance clinics and laboratories; the United States has a general surveillance program, a border surveillance program, a hospital surveillance program, all devoted to finding new outbreaks of influenza. In most years, in the majority of samples tested, the influenza virus is not present. In the United States during the 2008–9 influenza season through 18 April, out of 183,839 samples tested and reported to the CDC, only 25,925 were positive for influenza; the percent positive reached a maximum of about 25%. The percent positive increases with the incidence of infection, peaking with the peak incidence of influenza. During an epidemic, 60–70% of patients with a clear influenza-like illness have influenza. Samples are respiratory samples collected by a physician, nurse, or assistant, sent to a hospital laboratory for preliminary testing.
There are several methods of collecting a respiratory sample, depending on requirements of the laboratory that will test the sample. A sample may be obtained from around the nose by wiping with a dry cotton swab. Infectious diseases causing ILI include malaria, acute HIV/AIDS infection, hepatitis C, Lyme disease, myocarditis, Q fever, dengue fever, pneumonia, measles, COVID-19, many others. Pharmaceutical drugs that may cause ILI include many biologics such as interferons and monoclonal antibodies. Chemotherapeutic agents commonly cause flu-like symptoms. Other drugs associated with a flu-like syndrome include bisphosphonates and levamisole. A flu-like syndrome can be caused by an influenza vaccine or other vaccines, by opioid withdrawal in physically dependent individuals. Influenza-like illness is a nonspecific respiratory illness characterized by fever, fatigue and other symptoms that stop within a few days. Most cases of ILI are caused not by other viruses. Less common causes of ILI include bacteria such as Legionella, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Influenza, RSV, certain bacterial infections are important causes of ILI because these infections can lead to serious complications requiring hospitalization. Physicians who examine persons with ILI can use a combination of epidemiologic and clinical data and, if necessary and radiographic tests to determine the cause of the ILI; the use of point-of-care markers such as CRP along with an examination by a doctor may help to identify a bacterial and avoid an unnecessary antibiotic prescription. During the 2009 flu pandemic, many thousands of cases of ILI were reported in the media as suspected swine flu. Most were false alarms. A differential diagnosis of probable swine flu requires not only symptoms but a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent history. During the 2009 flu pandemic in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U.
S. states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the 7 days preceding their illness onset." A diagnosis of confirmed swine flu required laboratory tes
United Nations Security Council resolution 1224, adopted unanimously on 28 January 1999, after reaffirming all previous resolutions on the question of the Western Sahara, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara until 11 February 1999. The resolution requested the Secretary-General to keep the Council updated on developments, including the implementation of the Settlement Plan, the agreements reached between both the Government of Morocco and the Polisario Front and the viability of MINURSO's mandate. Free Zone History of Western Sahara List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1201 to 1300 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Wall Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1224 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org
St Paul's College is a Catholic secondary school for boys owned by the Marist Brothers and located in the central Auckland suburb of Ponsonby on a spacious 7.3 hectare campus. The Marist Brothers first opened a school on the site in 1903. St Paul's College commenced operations in 1955 and celebrates its 65th anniversary in 2020; the college, which became a State-integrated school in 1982, makes full use of its extensive grounds in sporting and other activities. The school offers the standard intermediate and secondary school curriculum leading, for the senior year levels, to the National Certificate of Educational Achievement assessment system; the school has good pass rates in NCEA. The college excels in sport Rugby football and in Polynesian and other cultural activities, notably in the annual ASB Polyfest competitions; the Marist Brothers, the proprietors of the school, maintain a small community of non-teaching brothers on the campus to encourage the continuation of the Marist charism. The Marist Brothers arrived in Auckland in 1885 and began operations on the site of previous schools in Pitt St in central Auckland.
In the 1890s they began teaching secondary classes there but it became evident that the Pitt St site was too small and noisy. By 1900 negotiations were underway with Bishop Lenihan who arranged for the brothers to lease part of a block of land of 48 acres near Cox's Creek in Ponsonby; this land had been gifted to the Diocese of Auckland in 1851 by Hugh Coolahan, an Auckland Catholic businessman. He had come from Ireland and had prospered during the early days of Auckland's commercial development, he had been a member of the building committee for St Patrick's Church and was a founding member of the board of St Peter's School in Pitt St. The Marist Brothers leased 7.3 hectares of the land at £30 a year for a 42-year term. The school, Sacred Heart College, was opened on 21 June 1903; the first building was a large three storied building with a prominent encompassing verandas. It was built from brick resting on concrete foundations; the bricks were coated in white plaster which became grey with age.
This building was a prominent landmark and became the main school building of St Paul's College until it was demolished in 1980. The site required much development. A gully ran through the middle of the property and the land was unevenly contoured; some of the land was farmed by the college. Over time the land was leveled and drained and other buildings were built. In 1955 the complete campus and buildings was taken over by St Paul's, but by the 21st century, the only Sacred Heart College structures left at St Pauls were a classroom, the old infirmary and a statue of the Sacred Heart. It was only on 4 September 1946 that the Marist Brothers had acquired the freehold of the St Paul's College Richmond Rd site. On 14 June 1946 the site was vested in the New Zealand Marist Brothers' Trust Board and there was a small ceremony and Bishop Liston was thanked by the Marist Brothers. One brother observed sardonically, that the Marist Brothers had been paying for the land for over forty years and had effected great improvements.
The school operated as St Paul's College after Queen's Birthday 1955 under the same motto "Confortare esto vir". The same traditions were faithfully upheld. Many sons of old boys preferred to attend St Paul's in the following years, both because it was more central and because their fathers had attended school there; the school maintained a substantial roll into the 1970s. On 8 August 1982, when the school was integrated it had a roll of 330, but this was increased in 1998 to a maximum roll of 400. However, with the establishment of other secondary schools in the school's traditional catchment, enrolment numbers declined. Many of the families associated with the school moved out of the local area as the socio-economic character of suburbs adjacent to the school changed although many still sent their sons to St Paul's by bus from South Auckland; the school is attempting to attract the sons of the new local demographic as well as the college's traditional supporters. In 2015 a 1700 square metre slice of unused school land was sold to fund new class rooms, an administration block and a new middle school was opened in 2018.
The middle school block is expected to enable St Paul's to increase its roll. The school hopes as a local college, to enrol more local students from the nearby suburbs of Grey Lynn and Westmere by "exhorting students" to "exam success" and "altruistic action." The Headmaster of St Paul's appointed in 2016, Mr Kieran Fouhy said, on his appointment, that he aimed to incorporate students' families in the life of the college and to further increase the spirit of independence and personal responsibility amongst the students. The names and colours of the St Paul's College Houses are: Xavier, named for Francis Xavier - red Champagnat, named for Marcellin Champagnat - yellow Lavalla, named for La Valla-en-Gier where the Marist Brothers were founded — blue Aquinas, named for Thomas Aquinas - green David Fane – actor Malo Luafutu – musician Brendan Perry – Musician, member of group Dead Can Dance Feleti Strickson-Pua – professional musician Lemi Ponifasio – director, dancer and choreographer Mark Hotchin, company directorRon Holland, Yacht designer Dail Jones, Member of Parliament Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi, seventh Prime Minister of Samoa.
All Our Favourite Stories is the debut album by British band Dog Is Dead, released by Atlantic Records in October 2012. Music from the track "Heal It" was used for Sky Sports' coverage of the UEFA Champions League, while "Glockenspiel Song" had been featured in an episode of Skins. Music off the album has featured in reality TV shows Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex. After signing to Atlantic Records, the band entered RAK Studios to begin work on their debut album with producer David Kosten. Unhappy with the way that these sessions were heading, the band relocated back to Random Recordings – the Nottingham studio they had used to record their early demo tapes. Recording for the album was completed there, with production coming from studio owner/ producer Guy Elderfield and Dog Is Dead's singer Rob Milton; the cover of the album features a collage of 1970s schoolchildren walking along a suburban pathway, unwittingly approaching a black hole. The image was inspired by the work of the artist Valero Doval.
All Our Favourite Stories entered the UK Albums Chart during the week ending 20 October and peaked at number 45. Upon its release, All Our Favourite Stories received a mixed critical response. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews and ratings from mainstream critics, the album has received a metascore of 55, based on 9 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews."The album was described by the Observer as containing "punchy pop songs with immediate, uncomplicated appeal", while its sister publication the Guardian praised the "solid gold indie pop songs ornamented with real precision and flair". The NME was less complimentary, lamenting the loss of the band's early, rougher sound which it considered had been replaced by "earnest but uninspiring anthemic rock". Lack of originality was a concern for BBC Music, which noted that the album did not "bring anything new to the table". Drowned in Sound were more generous, stating that Dog Is Dead had released "one of 2012's finest debuts".
All Our Favourite Stories found favour with musicOMH, who argued that it was "one of the most entertaining albums of the year"
The Shire of Sherbrooke was a local government area about 40 kilometres east of Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia. The shire covered an area of 191.66 square kilometres, existed from 1963 until 1994. Its largest population centre was the town of Belgrave. Sherbrooke was the northwestern part of the Berwick Road District, incorporated on 24 October 1862 and became a shire on 12 May 1868. On 23 May 1889, the Scoresby Riding of the shire was severed, incorporated as the Shire of Fern Tree Gully. With increasing urbanisation in suburbs closer to Melbourne, Fern Tree Gully in turn was splintered on 9 October 1963, to form the City of Knox and the Shire of Sherbrooke, named on 23 December 1964. On 15 December 1994, the Shire of Sherbrooke was abolished, along with the Shires of Lillydale and Upper Yarra, was merged into the newly created Shire of Yarra Ranges; the districts around Emerald merged with the neighbouring Shire of Pakenham, into the newly created Shire of Cardinia, while Upper Ferntree Gully and Lysterfield were transferred to the City of Knox.
Council met at the Shire Offices in Upwey. After the amalgamations, these offices became the Burrinja Cultural Centre; the Shire of Sherbrooke was divided into four ridings, each of which elected three councillors: Centre Riding East Riding Emerald Riding South Riding * Estimate in the 1958 Victorian Year Book.+ Knox severed in 1963 - Sherbrooke population in 1961 was 16,306, combined population for 1966 is 65,242
Ambassador Emilia Castro de Barish was, after more than fifty years as an active Costa Rican diplomat, an Ambassador Emeritus of Costa Rica. She was the first woman to be appointed a career Ambassador in the Costa Rican diplomatic service and, for many years, she was the dean of Costa Rica's foreign service. Daughter of Rafael Castro Quesada, Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Costa Rica from 1928–1929, the Ms. Castro entered the Costa Rican Foreign Service in 1948 when she was appointed to the Embassy of Costa Rica to the United States, in Washington, D. C. In 1949 she left the diplomatic service to marry Mr. Frederik I. Barish. On 20 November 1956, she was injured in an airplane crash, her husband, flying the aircraft and their two small children were injured. Mrs. Castro de Barish re-entered the Costa Rican foreign service on May 1957 and was appointed first secretary to the Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations. On 1970 she has promoted to Minister Counselor and, on 1981, she was promoted to the rank of Ambassador.
By the time she retired, on 1999, she was the diplomat, accredited the longest continuous time to the United Nations. Ambassador Castro de Barish was the Rapporteaur of the United Nations Host Country Committee from 1978 to 1999. Being an expert on International Human Rights, she was a key promoter of the United Nations programme of action on a Culture of Peace, and she was instrumental to the establishment of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. As Keys notes: Efforts to strengthen the UN`s implementing machinery have met with defeat. A prime indicator has been the fate of the Costa Rica proposal to establish a High Commissioner for Human Rights, who would act as a sort of “ombudsman” taking erring governments to task and threatening publicity and public pressure if they do not improve; this proposal has been subjected to the wildest kind of ridicule. Only the most patient and devoted efforts of Emilia Castro de Barish from the Costa Rica have kept the High Commissioner proposal on the UN Agenda.
Ambassador Castro de Barish has a B. S. from the University of California, Los Angeles, UCLA. Official Statements by Ambassador Castro de Barish, 1994-1999Jorge F. Sáenz Carbonell, Biografía, Doña Emilia Castro Silva de Barish Primera Embajadora Emérita de Costa Rica