Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
Influenza virus is the subtype of influenza A virus, the most common cause of human influenza in 2009, is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells; some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a small percentage of all human flu infections in 2004–2005. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in birds. In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic; this strain is called swine flu by the public media.
This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010. On August 10, 2010, the World Health Organization declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity had returned to typical seasonal patterns. Swine influenza is a respiratory disease that occurs in pigs, caused by the Influenza A virus. Influenza viruses that are found in swine are known as swine influenza viruses; the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3. Pigs can become infected with the H4N6 and H9N2 subtypes. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called a variant virus. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection; the meat of an infected animal poses no risk of infection.
Pigs experimentally infected with the strain of swine flu that caused the human pandemic of 2009–10 showed clinical signs of flu within four days, the virus spread to other uninfected pigs housed with the infected ones. During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed; these strains of swine flu pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing and general discomfort; the recommended time of isolation is about five days. The Spanish flu known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919, it is thought to be one of the deadliest pandemics in human history.
The 1918 flu caused an unusual number of deaths due to it causing a cytokine storm in the body. The Spanish flu virus infected lung cells, leading to overstimulation of the immune system via release of cytokines into the lung tissue; this leads to extensive leukocyte migration towards the lungs, causing destruction of lung tissue and secretion of liquid into the organ. This makes it difficult for the patient to breathe. In contrast to other pandemics, which kill the old and the young, the 1918 pandemic killed unusual numbers of young adults, which may have been due to their healthy immune systems mounting a too-strong and damaging response to the infection; the term "Spanish" flu was coined because Spain was at the time the only European country where the press were printing reports of the outbreak, which had killed thousands in the armies fighting World War I. Other countries suppressed the news. In 1976, a novel swine influenza A caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at Fort Dix, New Jersey.
The virus did not spread beyond Fort Dix. Retrospective serologic testing subsequently demonstrated that up to 230 soldiers had been infected with the novel virus, an H1N1 strain; the cause of the outbreak is still unknown and no exposure to pigs was identified. The 1977–1978 Russian flu epidemic was caused by strain Influenza A/USSR/90/77, it infected children and young adults under 23. Because of a striking similarity in the viral RNA of both strains – one, unlikely to appear in nature due to antigenic drift – it was speculated that the outbreak was due to a laboratory incident in Russia or Northern China, though this was denied by scientists in those countries; the virus was included in the 1978–1979 influenza vaccine. See 1889–1890 flu pandemic for the earlier Russian flu pandemic caused either by H3N8 or H2N2 In the 2009 flu pandemic, the virus isolated from patients in the United States was found to be made up of genetic elements from four different flu viruses – North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, swine influenza virus found in Asia and Europe – "an unusually mongrelised mix of genetic sequences."
This new strain appears to be a result of reasso
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
The phylum Negarnaviricota includes all negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses except Hepatitis delta virus. It is divided into Polyploviricotina; the name comes from the Latin RNA and - viricota, the suffix for a virus phylum. The taxonomy of the Negarnaviricota down to the rank of order is as follows: Subphylum Haploviricotina Class Chunqiuviricetes Order Muvirales Class Milneviricetes Order Serpentovirales Class Monjiviricetes Order Jingchuvirales Order Mononegavirales Class Yunchangviricetes Order Goujianvirales Subphylum Polyploviricotina Class Ellioviricetes Order Bunyavirales Class Insthoviricetes Order Articulavirales Ward, C. W.. "Progress towards a higher taxonomy of viruses". Research in Virology. 144: 419–53. Doi:10.1016/S0923-251680059-2. PMID 8140287
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population. In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly – there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic being the worst in recorded history. There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic. Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. Species that are thought to be important in the emergence of new human strains are pigs and ducks; these novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread rapidly and infect large numbers of people. Influenza A viruses can be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics.
The propagation of influenza viruses throughout the world is thought in part to be by bird migrations, though commercial shipments of live bird products might be implicated, as well as human travel patterns. The World Health Organization has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic; this starts with the virus infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere; the 13 November 2009 worldwide update by the WHO stated that "s of 8 November 2009, worldwide more than 206 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 6,250 deaths."
Influenza known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. In humans, common symptoms of influenza infection are fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache and weakness and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal in young children and the elderly. While sometimes confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. Although nausea and vomiting can be produced in children, these symptoms are more characteristic of the unrelated gastroenteritis, sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu."Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions and blood. Healthy individuals can become infected if they breathe in a virus-laden aerosol directly, or if they touch their eyes, nose or mouth after touching any of the aforementioned bodily fluids.
Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C, indefinitely at low temperatures. Most influenza strains can be inactivated by disinfectants and detergents. Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans; these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species. When it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s, a deadly avian strain of H5N1 posed a great risk for a new influenza pandemic. Vaccinations against influenza are most given to high-risk humans in industrialized countries and to farmed poultry; the most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. This vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.
A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes over time and different strains become dominant. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being effective. Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified and named according to the isolate that they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage. So a flu from a virus similar to the isolate A/Fujian/411/2002 is called Fujian flu, human flu, H3N2 flu. Variants are sometimes adapted to; some variants named using this convention are: Bird Flu Human Flu Swine Flu Horse Flu Dog FluAvian variants have sometimes been named according to their deadliness in poultry chickens: Low