Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode
The Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode is an autonomous business school located in Calicut, Kerala. The institute, set up in 1996 by the Government of India in collaboration with the State Government of Kerala, is one of the 20 Indian Institutes of Management, it was the fifth IIM to be established. The institute conducts a full range of academic activities in the field of management education covering research and training, consulting and intellectual infrastructure development; the institute emphasises development of analytical skills and a focus on global and cross-cultural issues with a balance between business demands and social concerns. Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode was instituted in 1996 by the Government of India in collaboration with the Government of the state of Kerala and the first batch of 42 students commenced in 1997 at the temporary campus at the National Institute of Technology Calicut. In 2000, the site of the present campus at Kunnamangalam was identified.
The following year, Joseph Stein and Stein Mani Chowla Architects began the design and construction of the institute. In 2003, it into its hill-top campus; the President of India, APJ Abdul Kalam inaugurated the campus. Interactive Distance Learning, an online management education programme for working executives, was introduced in 2001-02. IIM Kozhikode was the first institute in Asia to offer a distance learning programme in management for working executives. Having started with 300 class contact hrs in 2001-02, the year-long Executive Management Education Programme is today the richest available in the country having 450 class contact hours; the Management Development Programme was introduced the same year. The institute increased the number of students in PGP to 180 in 2005. In the batch of 2013 the intake is around 361 for PGP. IIMK started its doctoral programme, Fellow Program in Management in 2007; the intake of women in the PGP course was pro-actively increased to 30% from the batch of 2010-12 to increase the number of women in management roles in India.
In 2010, IIMK signed a memorandum of understanding with Yale University to establish a Center of Excellence for Academic Leadership as part of Singh-Obama Knowledge Initiative. IIMK Kochi Campus was set up in August 2012; the main campus is located in a sub-urban area of Kozhikode, Kerala. Kozhikode is the second largest city in Kerala; the campus is spread across two hills. Besides classrooms, the campus has residential facilities for students and visitors; the campus houses 13 hostels to house around 800 students. Set up over 100 acres of land, the campus relies on rain water harvesting as its primary source of water. A couple of new Hostels - Hostel P and Hostel Q have come up and have been operational from the academic year 2018; the campus, parked on top of a hillock, is a beauty. IIM Kozhikode hosts a automated Library & Information Center, one of the Centers of Development of Digital Libraries in the world; the institute coordinated the South Asia Support Network for Greenstone Digital Library Software at the request of UNESCO and suggested the idea of IIM Library Consortium Movement.
The library provides services as an institutional archive. A balanced programme on the development of the collection of hard copy, audio/video, CD-ROM, other electronic forms of documents is being followed. IIM Kozhikode embarked on a programme to create a Museum of Indian Business History in 2010, believed to be the first of its kind; the museum will feature the contributions of India’s business leaders, the history of trade, commerce and industries in India. The first phase was completed with a budget of Rs. 1.5 crore. The museum spanning 23000 sq. ft. features a large model of the Uru, an ancient ship, used for trade and commerce between Indian and the rest of the world, pavilions by Indian companies like Tata, Reliance, State Bank of India and Infosys. The Reserve Bank of India gallery of the museum was inaugurated in 2012 by D. Subbarao, the governor of Reserve Bank of India. IIM Kozhikode opened a satellite campus in Kochi in June 2012 to enhance the institute's offerings in Executive Education full-time and part-time programmes targeted at middle and senior level executives.
The campus is based in Athulya Complex at InfoPark in Kochi. The campus offers a two-year executive management programme, accredited by Association of MBAs, in addition to short and long-term management development programmes; the first batch of the two year executive management programme commenced in April 2013. IIM Kozhikode’s Kochi campus conducted a pre-union budget panel discussion on ‘Second Generation Reforms’ at the campus in Infopark on 20th Feb 2015; the event was live. The institute's current full-time student body consists of 720 graduate students and 38 doctoral students; the admissions to PGP course is based on the Common Admission Test conducted by the IIMs for admission to graduate programs in management at 20 campuses. CAT is considered by test-takers as one of the most competitive exams in the world, with a success rate of about one in hundred. In 2015, around 2.1 lakh students enrolled for CAT to get admission to the IIMs.49.5% seats in IIM Kozhikode are caste-based reserved quotas according to affirmative action policy of Government of India.
15% of the admitted students must be of the Scheduled Castes, 7.5% of seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes. The Other Backward Classes belonging to the "non-creamy layer" have been provided with 27% reservation s
Vyttila Mobility Hub
Vyttila Mobility Hub is an integrated transit terminal in the city of Kochi. It is designed as a converging point of various forms of public transportation, such as local and long distance buses, metro rail and inland water transport, it is planned over an area of 37 acres in Vyttila, making it one of the largest bus termini in India. The foundation stone for Mobility Hub in Vytilla was laid by Chief Minister of Kerala V. S. Achuthanandan on 7 June 2010. Construction of the first phase, consisting of the terminal for long distance buses and the basic amenities, started in December 2010; when implemented, it will have facilities to integrate all modes of public transportation, as well as for shopping and hospitality. A fast-growing city like Kochi requires a comprehensive plan to meet the demands and requirements in Traffic and Transport. Travelling in the city is a Herculean task due to congested roads and traffic jams; the large number of long-distance buses contributes to the present chaos. The number of vehicles in Ernakulam District has increased an average annual growth rate of 13 percent.
The Comprehensive Study for Transport System for Greater Kochi Area by Rites Ltd, 2001, NATPAC Traffic Report, 2006, City Development Plan by Kochi Corporation, 2007, had pointed towards the shifting and integrating of main mofussil bus stands in the city and converting it to a mobility hub at a strategic location near Kochi Bypass. With the support of these studies, the Confederation of Indian Industry-Kerala and the Centre for Public Policy Research are coming up with a new plan to set up a mobility hub in Vyttila and will transform it into the Gateway of Kerala; the hub project aims to reduce traffic congestion due to the expected increase in traffic flow at Kochi in the coming years with the commissioning of the International Container Transshipment Terminal and other allied projects connected with it. The site for the mobility hub in Vyttila is well-connected with all routes, it serves as a meeting point for intra-city roads. The site is connected to Edappally, Palarivattom, Vytilla junction through Kochi Bypass and exit road links with Ettumanoor road connecting it with Tripunithura, Ambalamugal etc. providing free transition in various directions of the city.
The project will be implemented in two phases. The project will have facilities for parking 175 buses, 2,000 to 6,000 cars, 2,000 to 10,000 two-wheelers. Three boat jettys and green zone would be set up on the eastern side of the hub. An air-conditioned tube too has been planned, to connect the terminal to the western side of Vytilla junction; the hub will have a proposed Metro rail station. Passengers can get down at the bus terminal at the hub and use the Mass Transit System like the inter-city bus, ferry, taxi or metro train to enter the city, it has the potential to host a worldclass mega shopping mall, food courts, cultural centre and health club, a hotel and a 50m swimming pool in a total built-up area of 150,000 sq m. KITCO, the consultants, is entrusted with total implementation of the project.. The tenders for the construction of first phase was granted to Nagarjuna constructions from among seven companies which submitted tenders; the selection was on account of quoting the lowest amount for the execution of the project and the first phase of the project was completed on February 2011
Kochi known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala and is referred to as Ernakulam. Kochi is the most densely populated city in Kerala; as of 2011, it has a corporation limit population of 677,381 within an area of 94.88 km² and a total urban population of more than of 2.1 million within an area of 440 km², making it the largest and the most populous metropolitan area in Kerala. Kochi city is part of the Greater Cochin region and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India; the civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, constituted in the year 1967, the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority and the Goshree Islands Development Authority. Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era.
Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530; the city was occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala; the city was ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute. In July 2018, Kochi was ranked the topmost emerging future megacity in India by global professional services firm JLL. Kochi is known as the financial and industrial capital of Kerala, it has the highest GDP as well as the highest GDP per capita in the state. The city is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747.
Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi Refinery and the Kochi Marina. Kochi is home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Coconut Development Board, companies like HMT, Apollo Tyres and Synthite, petrochemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical companies like TELK, V-Guard and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City and Kinfra Hi-Tech Park. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Indian Maritime University, Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kochi is home to Kerala's National Law School, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Kochi has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.
Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym and Kochi. The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin "Kogin", seen in the seal of the synagogue owned by the community; the origin of the name "Kochi" is thought to be from the Malayalam word kochu azhi, meaning'small lagoon'. Yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci, meaning "harbour". Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti, Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea. After the arrival of the Portuguese, the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation; the city reverted to a closer transliteration of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. This change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court dismissed the plea. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, was known to the Yavanas as well as Jews, Syrians and Chinese since ancient times.
It rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris around Kodungallur was destroyed by massive flooding of Periyar in 1341. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet. There are references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi in 1440. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Kochi were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Kochi and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Kochi and enfeoff a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle Emperor himself, to Kochi; as long as Kochi remained under the protection of Ming China, the Zamorin of Calicut was unable to invade Kochi and a military conflict was averted.
The cessation of the Ming treasure voyages had negative results for Kochi, as the Zamorin of Calicut would launch
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is 31 km to Kochi and Kottayam and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha National Highway NH 47, as well as the coastal rail route; the coastal town is about 20 kilometers from the historical town of Vaikom Via Ullala -Chempakassery house and the popular tourism destination Kumarakom. In local administration, the Cherthala is a municipality while in the state administrative structure Cherthala is a taluk in the district of Alappuzha. A Famous company situated here; the Corporation of Cochin has drafted a master plan that aims to develop Cherthala as the satellite town around Kochi. According to the local legend, once Vilwamangalam Swamiyar, the well known Kerala Hindu saint, while travelling through Cherthala, found an idol of the Devi with its head immersed in a muddy pond; the swami understood the divinity of the idol, took it out of the mud, cleaned it and consecrated it in a temple near the pond.
Thus the place is believed to have gotten its name as cher meaning "mud" and thala meaning "head" in Malayalam. The deity of the temple has the name Cherthala Karthiyayani; the word put together means "head from the mud". Unlike in other Kerala temples, the idol of Cherthala Karthiyayani Devi is consecrated in the Sreekovil just below the ground level and cannot be directly viewed by the devotees. There is another story that says that the former name was Karappuram and that this piece of land was given by the erstwhile State of Cochin to the erstwhile state of Travancore for protecting it from enemies; the place got its name as chertha thala. Cherthala taluk is a part of Alappuzha Revenue Alappuzha Parliamentary constituency. All the villages of Cherthala Taluk come under the Cherthala and Aroor Constituencies of Kerala Legislative Assembly; the three-tier local governance structure is as follows: Cherthala Taluk area comes under Alappuzha district panchayat and the area is divided into three block panchayats: Pattanakad and Kanzhikuzhy.
These block panchayats are again subdivided into Grama panchayats. The Grama panchayats in Pattanakkad Block Panchayath are Aroor, Kuthiathode, Thuravoor and Vayalar; the Thycattussery Block Panchayath have five Grama Panchayaths, viz. Arookutty, Panavally and Chennam Pallippuram. Kadakkarappally, Cherthala South, Kanjikuzhi and Mararikulam North are Grama panchayaths in the Kanjikuzhi block. According to the Kerala government website, Cherthala municipality had a population of 43,326 over an area of 16.18 square kilometres. The density of the population is 2678 per square kilometre. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Cherthala has an average literacy rate of 94%, with male literacy of 98.4% and female literacy of 89.7%. Holy Family LPGS, Cherthala. St. Mary's Cherthala. Holy Family Higher Secondary School, Cherthala. St. Anns English Medium School, Cherthala. College of Engineering, Cherthala Nair Service Society College, Pallippuram. Sree Narayana College St. Michael's college Govt Polytechnic College KVM College of Engineering & Information Technology Naipunnya School of Management SNGM Institutions - Valamangalam, Thuravoor St.
Joseph's college of Pharmacy Cherthala Jubilee Theatres - run by the late Rajan P. Dev S. L. Puram Suyrasoma Theatres Perhaps inspired by its illustrious son, Irayimman Thampi, Cherthala has a community of Karnatic music connoisseurs performers, in the older generation as well in the younger generation. Well-known Karnatic singers and instrumentalists include Cherthala Gopalan Nair, Thiruvizha Jayasankar, Thiruvizha Sivanandan, Cherthala K. Narayana Iyer and Cherthala Ranganatha Sarma. Many of the senior artists have a significant number of disciples in and around Cherthala. Cherthala lies between the Kottapuram-Kollam National Waterway 3 passing through the Vembanad lake. Prior to the coming of NH 47, cargo and freight from Cochin market were transported in country boats through the Vembanad lake via the small lake diverting from Arukutty-Thycattuserry-Vayalar. Now these country boats are no more used for cargo transportation, instead converted into tourist floating houseboats. One can still find the canal running across the center of the town, once the busiest waterway.
One can reach Vaikom by the Thavanakadav-Vaikom ferry service covering approx 3.5 km across the Vembanad lake and joining the Kottayam district at Vaikom jetty. There are small inland waterways or rivers, which flow across the villages, still navigable through county boats, they transport coir, marine products, paddy, construction materials, etc. where roads are inaccessible. The majority of these inland rivers flow from Vembanad Lake on the eastern side and merge into the azhi or sea near Anthakaranazhi on the west coast, crossing the NH 47 at different places. Cherthala Town Municipality has 35 wards; the town is well known after the Karthyayani Devi temple, located in the center of the town. Two more sub-temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu are located on the northern side of the main temple. A sub-temple dedicated to Lord Ayyappa known as Kaavudayan and another dedicated to Kshethrapalakan believed to be Devi's temple caretaker are located on the southern corner of the main temple. Thousands of devotees coming from different'karas' of Cherthala participate in the Padayani, vela thullal and pooram pattu, the main rituals conducted during the temple festival.
A large pond exists in front of the Taluk office. One can see many roosters flocking around the temple
Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. EY is one of the largest professional services firms in the world. Over the recent years, as a firm, EY has shifted its historical business focus from traditional audit profile towards consulting. In particular, EY advanced its market presence in strategic consulting and entered into direct competition with what has been a traditional field of "Big Three" companies, namely Bain, McKinsey and BCG. By series of acquisitions and shift of market focus, EY expanded its market share in areas including operations services consulting, strategy services consulting, HR services consulting, financial services consulting & technology services consulting. EY operates as a network of member firms, it has 270,000 employees in over 700 offices around 150 countries in the world. It provides assurance, tax and advisory services to companies; the firm dates back to 1849 with the founding of Pullein in England. The current firm was formed by a merger of Ernst & Whinney and Arthur Young & Co. in 1989.
It was known as Ernst & Young until 2013 when it underwent a rebranding to EY. The acronym "EY" was an informal name for the firm prior to its official adoption. In 2018, Fortune magazine ranked EY 52nd on the 100 Best Companies to Work For list. In 2017, EY was the 9th largest owned organization in the United States. EY is the result of a series of mergers of ancestor organizations; the oldest originating partnership was founded in 1849 in England as Pullein. In that year the firm was joined by Frederick Whinney, he was made a partner in 1859 and with his sons in the business, it was renamed Whinney Smith & Whinney in 1894. In 1903, the firm of Ernst & Ernst was established in Cleveland, US by Alwin C. Ernst and his brother Theodore and in 1906, Arthur Young & Co. was set up by the Scotsman Arthur Young in Chicago. As early as 1924, these American firms allied with prominent British firms, Young with Broads Paterson & Co. and Ernst with Whinney Smith & Whinney. In 1979, this led to the formation of Anglo-American Ernst & Whinney, creating the fourth largest accountancy firm in the world.
In 1989, the number four firm Ernst & Whinney merged with the number five, Arthur Young, on a global basis to create Ernst & Young. In October 1997, EY announced plans to merge its global practices with KPMG to create the largest professional services organization in the world, coming on the heels of another merger plan announced in September 1997 by Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand; these plans were abandoned in February 1998 due to client opposition, antitrust issues, cost problems and difficulty of merging the two diverse firms and cultures. EY had built up its consulting arm during the 1980s and 1990s; the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission and members of the investment community began to raise concerns about potential conflicts of interest between the consulting and auditing work amongst the Big Five and in May 2000, EY was the first of the firms to formally and separate its consulting practices via a sale to the French IT services company Capgemini for $11 billion in stock, creating the new company of Capgemini Ernst & Young, renamed Capgemini.
In 2002, EY took over many of the ex-Arthur Andersen practices around the world, although not those in the United Kingdom, China, or the Netherlands. In 2006, EY became the only member of the Big Four to have two member firms in the United States, with the inclusion of Mitchell & Titus, LLP, the largest minority-owned accounting firm in the United States. In April 2009, Reuters reported that EY launched an initiative encouraging its staff in China to take 40 days of low-pay leave between July 2009 and June 2010 due to the economic turndown; those who participated got benefits of a full-time employee. The initiative applied to employees in Hong Kong and mainland China, where the firm's employees are 8,500 in total. In 2010, EY acquired the Brazilian member firm of Grant Thornton. In 2013, EY agreed to pay federal prosecutors $123 million to settle criminal tax avoidance charges stemming from $2 billion in unpaid taxes from about 200 wealthy individuals advised by four Ernst & Young senior partners between 1999 and 2004.
In 2013, EY changed its brand name from Ernst & Young to EY and tagline to "Building a better working world". In 2013, the Pope of the Roman Catholic church hired EY to help review Vatican City State's finances and help “verify and consult” the institution's administration, including the museums, post office and tax-free department store. EY expanded further and acquired all of KPMG Denmark's operations including its 150 partners, 1500 employees and 21 offices. In 2015, EY opened its first global Security Operations Centre at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala in India and will invest $20 million over 5 years to combat increasing threat of cybercrimes. In 2016 EY audited 947 public companies which are registered with the US SEC, more than any other auditing firm. In 2017 EY announced it was opening an executive support center in Tucson, creating over 125 new jobs. In 2017 the company began looking for a location for a new, $4.35 million professional services center in Louisville, creating 125 new jobs, due to open in mid-2018.
In 2017 the company opened the first Digital Security Operations Center worldwide, located it in Muscat, Oman to cover the MENA region as part of a $10 million investment. In 2018 EY announced it was opening an IT'Tech' Hub in Nashville, creating 600 new jobs for the region. In December 2018, Mark Weinberger, announced that he would step down from his role as EY Global
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle