SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Information processing

Information processing is the change of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens in the universe, from the falling of a rock to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers, it arose in the 1940s and 1950s, after World War II. The approach treats cognition as computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware; the information processing approach in psychology is allied to the computational theory of mind in philosophy. Information processing may be vertical or horizontal, either of which may be centralized or decentralized; the horizontal distributed processing approach of the mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism.

The connectionist network is made up of different nodes, it works by a "priming effect," and this happens when a "prime node activates a connected node". But "unlike in semantic networks, it is not a single node that has a specific meaning, but rather the knowledge is represented in a combination of differently activated nodes". There are several proposed theories that describe the way in which we process information; every individual has different information overload point with same information load, because individuals have different information-processing capacity Sternberg's theory of intelligence is made up of three different components: creative and practical abilities. Creativeness is the ability to have new original ideas, being analytical can help a person decide whether the idea is a good one or not. "Practical abilities are used to implement the ideas and persuade others of their value". In the middle of Sternberg's theory is cognition and with, information processing. In Sternberg's theory, he says that information processing is made up of three different parts, performance components, knowledge-acquisition components.

These processes move from higher-order executive functions to lower order functions. Metacomponents are used for planning and evaluating problems, while performance components follow the orders of the metacomponents, the knowledge-acquisition component learns how to solve the problems; this theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First is a decision about what to draw a plan and a sketch. During this process there is simultaneous monitoring of the process, whether it is producing the desired accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, the performance component is the art; the knowledge-acquisition portion is improving drawing skills. Information processing has been described as "the sciences concerned with gathering, storing and classifying recorded information". According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model or multi-store model, for information to be implanted in memory it must pass through three stages of mental processing: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory.

An example of this is the working memory model. This includes the central executive, phonologic loop, episodic buffer, visuospatial sketchpad, verbal information, long term memory, visual information; the central executive is like the secretary of the brain. It decides how to respond; the central executive leads to three different subsections. The first is phonological storage, subvocal rehearsal, the phonological loop; these sections work together to understand words, put the information into memory, hold the memory. The result is verbal information storage; the next subsection is the visuospatial sketchpad. The storage capacity leads to understanding of visual stimuli. There is an episodic buffer; this section is capable of putting it into long-term memory. It is able to take information from the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, combining them with long-term memory to make "a unitary episodic representation. In order for these to work, the sensory register takes in via the five senses: visual, tactile and taste.

These are able to handle simultaneous processing. In general, learning benefits occur; the sensory register has a large capacity and its behavioral response is short. Within this model, sensory store and short term memory or working memory has limited capacity. Sensory store is able to hold limited amounts of information for limited amounts of time; this phenomenon is similar to having a picture taken with a flash. For a few brief moments after the flash goes off, the flash. However, it is soon gone and there is no way to know it was there. Short term memory holds information for slightly

Old Collegians Rugby Club

Old Collegians Rugby Club known as Old Coll's, is a rugby union club in Adelaide, South Australia. The team was founded in 1937, plays at Tregenza Reserve; the club's jersey is blue. Old Collegians first played in 1937 as Prince Alfred Old Collegians Rugby Club. During World War II, the competition ceased from 1941 and the club was reformed on the renewal of the competition in the state in 1945; the club was named Old Collegians Rugby Club. OC's first home ground was in the centre of Victoria Park racecourse. In the early 1980s the club ran an U/18 team for three years and formed the Junior Collegians in 1985. OC now competes in each junior age bracket. OC is one of the two founding clubs of the women's South Australian rugby competition and the only club to compete continuously since the first games in 1995. Many OC players have captained or represented the state at senior and junior levels over the years and have taken out SARU individual player awards; the greatest achievement so far has gone to Rod Hauser, selected for the Wallabies while playing for OC.

In 2013 D'arcy Sadler was contracted to the Australian women's sevens squad while continuing to play for OC between tournaments. The Club Guernsey has changed colours from the initial maroon and blue jumper with a PAC crest, to broad maroon and navy hoops in 1955, to its current light red and blue hoops in the mid 1970s; the club's 75th year in 2012 was celebrated with a gala dinner attended by over 550 people. Despite a history of 24 years at the club and winning the state premiership in 2018, the vast majority of the women's team left the club when their complaints of bullying and misogyny were not responded to by the club; the women’s team were not permitted to raise concerns about their alleged unequal treatment at the club, 20 players transferred to Adelaide University Rugby Club to go on and win the 2019 premiership there. Among other concerns, at Old Collegians the team had not been allowed to climb the club rafters to celebrate their win, although that tradition had always been allowed for male players including in 2016 despite the club having banned the practice earlier that year for safety reasons.

A sexual harassment complaint was made to the club about the treatment of one female player by a male coach. Though the club has not fielded a women's team since they were awarded a $500,000 taxpayer-funded grant the following year, for "construction of female change rooms and facilities" as part of the 2020 "sports rorts" controversy; the club asserted that to be a proper use of funds on the basis that the club had a women’s team at the time of application. If the merit based process of application assessment conducted by Sport Australia had been followed, the cut-off score would have been 74 out of a possible 100. Old Collegians’ application had been given a score of 60.5. Brock James represented Australia as an under 16, 19 and 21, he played for both the Queensland Reds and the Western Force in Super Rugby before going on to be the top points scorer in the Top 14 in France with Clermont Auvergne, appearing in numerous grand finals and the Heineken Cup. Liam Gill played for the Queensland Reds, RC Toulonnais, Australian National Rugby Union Team,the Australia national rugby sevens team and Lyon OU in the Top 14 D'arcy Sadler played for the Australia women's national rugby sevens team.

Mackenzie Sadler was in the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics playing rugby sevens for Australia. She plays for the University of Queensland in the Aon University 7s competition and made the team of the tournament. Alex Rokobaro is a former professional rugby player who played for the Fijian national rugby team,the Stade Français Paris, the Melbourne Rebels and Rugby Calvisano. Homepage

British Rail Class 777

The Class 777 METRO is a class of electric multiple unit being constructed for operation on the Merseyrail network by Swiss rolling stock manufacturer Stadler Rail. A total of 52 articulated four-car units are to be built, with an option for a further 60 units available to Merseytravel; as part of the Stadler METRO underground train family, the units are built on the same platform as the BVG Class IK stock used on the Berlin U-Bahn and future units being developed for the Minsk Metro and Glasgow Subway. Unlike the current fleet, owned by Angel Trains, the new Class 777 units will be owned by regional public transport operator Merseytravel and leased to the franchise operator; the subject of replacing the ageing Class 507 and Class 508 fleet had been proposed by Merseytravel as early as 2011, although it wasn't until the following year that a project director for a replacement fleet was appointed. In January 2016, Merseytravel announced that five rolling stock manufacturers had been shortlisted to build the new fleet - Bombardier, Siemens, CAF, Stadler Rail and a Mitsui/Alstom/East Japan Railway Company consortium.

On 16 December 2016, Merseytravel announced it had selected Stadler Rail to manufacture a new fleet of 52 dual voltage-capable articulated four car units as part of a £460 million fleet replacement project. Delivery of the Class 777 fleet was scheduled to commence in mid-2019, entering service the following year; the first 777 to be delivered, only arrived at Kirkdale on 16 January 2020 with provisions for the trains to be in service by May 2020. Despite the criticism over the proposal of redeploying guards into other customer service roles within Merseyrail, the Class 777 units were designed to operate without guards. Despite the initial driver-only plan, it was announced in September 2018 that there would be a second member of staff on board; the bodyshells for the first unit were completed in October 2018, with the unit expected to be completed in early 2019. The first unit was transported to a test track in Germany in October 2019; the first unit was delivered to Kirkdale Depot on 16 January 2020.

The Class 777 is a variant of the Stadler METRO platform designed for the Merseyrail network. The two longer driving cars at each end will only have one set of twin doors on each side, whilst the two middle trailer carriages will have two; the trains will have sliding steps to get onto the platform, which will mean passengers using a wheelchair will not have to use a ramp when boarding the train. To allow for future network expansions to destinations such as Helsby, Skelmersdale and Wrexham, the Class 777 will have: Dual voltage capability to enable operation on the current third rail Merseyrail network and any future extensions, which may be electrified with overhead wires instead of extending the current third rail power supply. Battery electric multiple unit capability of operating on a mixture of electrified and unelectrified track, with easy adaptation for third rail/electric battery operation, of which six emu sets will be configured; the battery equipped trains have been targeted for use on the Ellesmere Port to Helsby and Ormskirk to Preston sections of unelectrified track for electric 3rd rail/battery trials.

The Class 777 will be fitted with small battery sets, allowing independent movement in workshop and maintenance facilities. Instead of having partition doors between each carriage, the units will be articulated and form one large open space, which will make the Class 777 the first class of train on the Merseyrail network to feature this design. Like the current Class 507 and 508 fleet, the Class 777s will not have toilets; as part of the bespoke design, the cab running lights are designed in the shape of a letter'M' - however, in service, the white and red segments will not be illuminated on one cab as they denote the front and rear of the train respectively. 1: ^ An option for another 60 units is available