Information visualization or information visualisation is the study of visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition. The abstract data include both numerical and non-numerical data, such as text and geographic information, however, information visualization differs from scientific visualization, it’s infovis when the spatial representation is chosen, and it’s scivis when the spatial representation is given. The field of visualization has emerged from research in human-computer interaction, computer science, graphics, visual design, psychology. Information visualization focused on the creation of approaches for conveying information in intuitive ways. Data analysis is an part of all applied research and problem solving in industry. The most fundamental data analysis approaches are visualization, statistics, data mining, the analyst does not have to learn any sophisticated methods to be able to interpret the visualizations of the data. Information visualization is also a hypothesis generation scheme, which can be, the modern study of visualization started with computer graphics, which has from its beginning been used to study scientific problems. However, in its early days the lack of power often limited its usefulness. The recent emphasis on visualization started in 1987 with the issue of Computer Graphics on Visualization in Scientific Computing. Since then there have been several conferences and workshops, co-sponsored by the IEEE Computer Society and they have been devoted to the general topics of data visualisation, information visualization and scientific visualisation, and more specific areas such as volume visualization. In 1786, William Playfair published the first presentation graphics, the Craft of Information Visualization, Readings and Reflections. Stuart K. Card, Jock D. Mackinlay and Ben Shneiderman, Readings in Information Visualization, Using Vision to Think, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Jeffrey Heer, Stuart K. Card, James Landay, prefuse, a toolkit for interactive information visualization. In, ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI2005, andreas Kerren, John T. Stasko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, and Chris North. Information Visualization – Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives, volume 4950 of LNCS State-of-the-Art Survey, Springer. Spence, Robert Information Visualization, Design for Interaction, Prentice Hall,2007, ISBN 0-13-206550-9
Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks
Partial map of the Internet early 2005, each line represents two IP addresses, and some delay between those two nodes.
Tree Map of Benin Exports (2009) by product category. The Product Exports Treemaps are one of the most recent applications of these kind of visualizations, developed by the Harvard-MIT Observatory of Economic Complexity