National Register of Historic Places listings in Alfalfa County, Oklahoma
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Alfalfa County, Oklahoma. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties on the National Register of Historic Places in Alfalfa County, United States; the locations of National Register properties for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 12 properties listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Oklahoma National Register of Historic Places listings in Oklahoma
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Jet is a town in Alfalfa County, United States. The population was 213 at the 2010 census; the community of Jet was founded by six unmarried brothers: Joseph, Newt, Warner and Richard Jett, who established homesteads in the former Cherokee Outlet, shortly after its opening to settlement by non-Indians. The brothers opened a general store on Richard's land; the Jet post office was established with Warner Jett as the first postmaster. The community grew into a small town, Jet incorporated in 1900; the Frisco Townsite Company, owned by the Denver and Gulf Railroad, surveyed a plot of land about 2 miles west of the original town and relocated Jet during 1905-1906. By August, 1907, the town had Baptist, Mennonite and Presbyterian churches in addition to seven general stores, two banks, two hotels, two grain elevators, plus a small school under construction. At the time of statehood in 1907, Jet had a population of 213 people. Jet is located at 36°39′58″N 98°10′52″W, it is 12 miles east-southeast of Cherokee.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.3 square miles, all of it land. Jet is located at the intersection of U. S. Highway 64 and State Highway 38; this intersection is the southern terminus of SH-38. As of the census of 2000, there were 230 people, 115 households, 71 families residing in the town; the population density was 746.3 people per square mile. There were 149 housing units at an average density of 483.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.09% White, 1.30% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 2.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 115 households out of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.57.
In the town, the population was spread out with 16.5% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 30.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,393, the median income for a family was $31,250. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $18,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,024. About 2.7% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen and 9.0% of those sixty five or over. Jet-Nash High School served Jet up until 2013, when the school folded due to a lack of sufficient funds. Jet is a part of Timberlake Regional School District, which serves the towns of Nash, Nescatunga and Helena; the elementary school is located in Jet in the building that used to be Jet-Nash High School, the high school, Timberlake High School, is located in Helena, about 13 miles south of Jet.
Jet's economy has been based on farming since its inception. The main products are wheat and poultry. Tourism has bolstered the economy since the Great Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1930. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Jet
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Alva is a city in and the county seat of Woods County, United States, along the Salt Fork Arkansas River. The population was 4,945 at the 2010 census. Northwestern Oklahoma State University is located in Alva. Alva was established in 1893 as a General Land Office for the Cherokee Outlet land run, the largest of the land rushes that settled western and central Oklahoma; the site was chosen for its location on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway and named for a railroad attorney, Alva Adams, who had become governor of Colorado. When the Southern Kansas Railway, began extending its line from Kiowa, Kansas across the Cherokee Outlet in 1886, Alva became the first railroad station southwest of Kiowa; the line was operational in 1887, in time for the opening of the Unassigned Lands. The United States Secretary of the Interior chose Alva as the seat of County M when Oklahoma Territory was organized in 1890. A U. S. government land office opened there before a presidential proclamation on August 19, 1893, opened the Cherokee Outlet for general settlement.
The actual land run occurred September 16, 1893. By Alva's 320 acres site had been formally surveyed and platted. In 1896, three years after the land run, George Cromwell and "Coal Oil Johnny" Broughan created and managed the Alva Giants, the city's first traveling baseball team including pitcher Bill McGill, who went on to join the St. Louis Browns in 1907. Northwestern Territorial Normal School, now Northwestern Oklahoma State University, was established in 1897 in Alva by the Oklahoma Territorial Legislature. During World War II, Alva was the site of a prisoner of war camp for German POWs. On July 19, 1943, the United States Department of War ordered that Camp Alva would be the place for the internment of the most troublesome German prisoners of war – "Nazi leaders, Gestapo agents, extremists". Alva is the location of the Oklahoma Department of Corrections minimum-security Charles E. Johnson Correctional Center housing 630 male felon drug offenders. Alva is located in the northeastern quadrant of Woods County, Oklahoma, 65 miles northeast of Woodward, Oklahoma, 72 miles northwest of Enid, Oklahoma and 119 miles southwest of Wichita, Kansas.
Its geographic coordinates are 36°48′7″N 98°39′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,945 people, 2,107 households, 1,134 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,100 people per square mile. There were 2,568 housing units at an average density of 1,110 per square mile. Self-identified white residents made up 90% of the population, with the remainder composed of 2% African American, 2.1% Native American, 1.1% Asian, less than 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.6% of the population. Of the 2,107 households, a quarter included individuals under the age of 18, 40.8% were married couples, 13.1% had a householder with no spouse present, 46.2% were non-families. More than a third of households consisted of a single individual. Less than a quarter consisted of an individual age 65 or older living alone.
The average household size was 2.17. The average family size was 2.86. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,288 people, 2,205 households, 1,261 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,228.6 people per square mile. There were 2,644 housing units at an average density of 1,114.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.99% White, 1.30% African American, 1.34% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.82% of the population. There were 2,205 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.8% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city the population was spread out with 18.9% under the age of 18, 21.7% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,432, the median income for a family was $38,041. Males had a median income of $27,531 versus $17,981 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,966. About 9.1% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over. Alva is home to Northwestern Oklahoma State University, founded in 1897 as a'Northwestern Normal School'. President James E. Ament and two teachers made up the first faculty, with classes meeting in the Congregational Church; the college's main building was built in 1899 and known as the "Castle on the Hill," a huge, fanciful brick building, modeled after a Norman castle, that towered over much of the town. The Castle burned down in 1935 and was replaced by Jesse Dunn Hall, dedicated in 1937 by Eleanor Roosevelt.
By 1939, all of the normal schools, including Northwestern State College, offered bachelor's degrees and were reclassified as state colleges. In the 1950's, Northwestern added a fifth-year program culminating in a master's degree. In 1974, the name changed to its present'Northwestern Oklahoma State University'. In 1996, branch campuses in Woodward and Enid
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad
The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was known as the Rock Island Line, or, in its final years, The Rock. At the end of 1970, it operated 7,183 miles of road on 10,669 miles of track; the song "Rock Island Line", a spiritual from the late 1920s first recorded in 1934, was inspired by the railway. Its predecessor, the Rock Island and La Salle Railroad Company, was incorporated in Illinois on February 27, 1847, an amended charter was approved on February 7, 1851, as the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad. Construction began October 1, 1851, in Chicago, the first train was operated on October 10, 1852, between Chicago and Joliet. Construction continued on through La Salle, Rock Island was reached on February 22, 1854, becoming the first railroad to connect Chicago with the Mississippi River. In Iowa, the C&RI's incorporators created the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company, to run from Davenport to Council Bluffs, on November 20, 1855, the first train to operate in Iowa steamed from Davenport to Muscatine.
The Mississippi river bridge between Rock Island and Davenport was completed on April 22, 1856. In 1857, Abraham Lincoln represented the Rock Island in an important lawsuit regarding bridges over navigable rivers; the suit had been brought by the owner of a steamboat, destroyed by fire after running into the Mississippi river bridge. Lincoln argued that not only was the steamboat at fault in striking the bridge but that bridges across navigable rivers were to the advantage of the country; the M&M was acquired by the C&RI on July 9, 1866, to form the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company. The railroad expanded through construction and acquisitions in the following decades; the Rock Island stretched across Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, South Dakota and Texas. The easternmost reach of the system was Chicago, the system reached Memphis, West, it reached Denver and Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Southernmost reaches were to Galveston and Eunice, while in a northerly direction the Rock Island got as far as Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Major lines included Minneapolis to Kansas City, via Des Moines, Iowa. The heaviest traffic was on the Chicago-to-Rock Rock Island-to-Muscatine lines. In common with most American railroad companies, the Rock Island once operated an extensive passenger service; the primary routes served were: Chicago-Los Angeles, Chicago-Denver, Memphis-Little Rock-Oklahoma City-Tucumcari, Minneapolis-Dallas. The Rock Island ran both limited and local service on those routes as well as locals on many other lines on its system. In 1937, the Rock Island introduced Diesel power to its passenger service, with the purchase of six lightweight Rocket streamliners. In competition with the Santa Fe Chiefs, the Rock Island jointly operated the Golden State Limited with the Southern Pacific Railroad from 1902–1968. On this route, the Rock Island's train was marketed as a "low altitude" crossing of the Continental Divide; the Rock Island did not concede to the Santa Fe's dominance in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market and re-equipped the train with new streamlined equipment in 1948.
At the same time, the "Limited" was dropped from the train's name and the train was thereafter known as the Golden State. The local run on this line was known as the Imperial; the 1948 modernization of the Golden State occurred with some controversy. In 1947, both the Rock Island and Southern Pacific jointly advertised the coming of a new entry in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market; the Golden Rocket was scheduled to match the Santa Fe's transit time end-to-end and was to have its own dedicated trainsets, one purchased by the Rock Island, the other by Southern Pacific. As the Rock Island's set of streamlined passenger cars was being finished, the Southern Pacific abruptly withdrew its purchase; the Rock Island's cars were delivered and would find their way into the Golden State's fleet soon after delivery. The Golden State was the last first-class train on the Rock Island, retaining its dining cars and sleeping cars until its last run on February 21, 1968; the Rock Island competed with the Chicago and Quincy railroad in the Chicago to Denver market.
While the Q fielded its Zephyrs on the route, the Rock Island ran the Rocky Mountain Rocket. The RMR split at Limon, Colorado with half the train diverting to Colorado Springs, an operation known as "The Limon Shuffle"; the Rock Island conceded nothing to its rival installing ABS signaling on the route west of Lincoln in an effort to maintain transit speed. The train was re-equipped with streamlined equipment in 1948; as the Rocky Mountain Rocket was downgraded due to non-rail competition, the route traveled by the train was shortened from the western terminal at Denver, first to Omaha to Council Bluffs and the train was renamed The Cornhusker. In 1970, the train was cut to a Chicago to Rock Island run, a run within the confines of the state of Illinois and renamed the Quad Cities Rocket. Other trains operated by the Rock Island as part of its Rocket fleet included the Corn Belt Rocket, the Des Moines-Omaha Limit